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Attacking Faulty Reasoning Practical Guide to Fallacy-Free Arguments



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Cengage Learning
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Improve your skills in rational, argumentative discussion with ATTACKING FAULTY REASONING: PRACTICAL GUIDE TO FALLACY-FREE ARGUMENTS! Addressing over 60 fallacies and featuring a wealth of examples and exercises, this philosophy text will help you identify fallacies and craft well-formed arguments.

Table of Contents

Introductionp. 1
Reasons for Using Good Argumentsp. 1
Goals of the Textp. 2
A Code of Intellectual Conductp. 4
An Effective Procedural Standardp. 4
An Important Ethical Standardp. 4
A Code of Conduct for Effective Discussionp. 5
The Fallibility Principlep. 5
The Truth-Seeking Principlep. 5
The Clarity Principlep. 5
The Burden of Proof Principlep. 5
The Principle of Charityp. 5
The Structural Principlep. 6
The Relevance Principlep. 6
The Acceptability Principlep. 6
The Sufficiency Principlep. 6
The Rebuttal Principlep. 6
The Resolution Principlep. 6
The Suspension of Judgment Principlep. 6
The Reconsideration Principlep. 7
The Fallibility Principlep. 7
The Truth-Seeking Principlep. 8
The Clarity Principlep. 9
Assignmentsp. 10
What is an Argument?p. 11
An Argument Is a Claim Supported by Other Claimsp. 11
Distinguishing Argument from Opinionp. 12
The Burden of Proof Principlep. 12
The Standard Form of an Argumentp. 14
The Principle of Charityp. 16
Deductive Versus Inductive Strength of Argumentsp. 17
Moral Arguments Have a Moral Premisep. 19
Making the Moral Premise Explicitp. 21
Assignmentsp. 22
What is a Good Argument?p. 23
A Good Argument Must Meet Five Criteriap. 23
The Structural Principlep. 23
The Relevance Principlep. 25
The Acceptability Principlep. 26
Criteria of Acceptabilityp. 27
Conditions of Unacceptabilityp. 28
The Sufficiency Principlep. 29
The Rebuttal Principlep. 30
Making Arguments Strongerp. 32
Applying the Criteria to Argumentsp. 33
The Resolution Principlep. 39
The Suspension of Judgment Principlep. 40
The Reconsideration Principlep. 41
Assignmentsp. 41
What is a Fallacy?p. 43
A Fallacy Is a Violation of a Criterion of a Good Argumentp. 43
Named Versus Unnamed Fallaciesp. 44
Organization of the Fallaciesp. 45
Attacking the Fallacyp. 47
Rules of the Gamep. 50
Assignmentsp. 51
Fallacies That Violate the Structural Criterionp. 52
Begging-the-Question Fallaciesp. 53
Arguing in a Circlep. 53
Question-Begging Languagep. 55
Complex Questionp. 57
Question-Begging Definitionp. 59
Assignmentsp. 61
Fallacies of Inconsistencyp. 61
Incompatible Premisesp. 62
Contradiction Between Premise and Conclusionp. 64
Assignmentsp. 65
Fallacies of Deductive Inferencep. 66
Denying the Antecedentp. 66
Affirming the Consequentp. 68
False Conversionp. 69
Undistributed Middle Termp. 71
Illicit Distribution of an End Termp. 73
Assignmentsp. 75
Fallacies that Violate the Relevance Criterionp. 78
Fallacies of Irrelevancep. 78
Irrelevant Authorityp. 79
Appeal to Common Opinionp. 81
Genetic Fallacyp. 83
Rationalizationp. 84
Drawing the Wrong Conclusionp. 86
Using the Wrong Reasonsp. 88
Assignmentsp. 91
Irrelevant Emotional Appealsp. 92
Appeal to Force or Threatp. 92
Appeal to Traditionp. 93
Appeal to Self-Interestp. 95
Playing to the Galleryp. 97
Assignmentsp. 101
Fallacies that Violate the Acceptability Criterionp. 104
Fallacies of Linguistic Confusionp. 104
Equivocationp. 105
Ambiguityp. 107
Misleading Accentp. 109
Illicit Contrastp. 111
Argument by Innuendop. 113
Misuse of a Vague Expressionp. 115
Distinction Without a Differencep. 117
Assignmentsp. 118
Unwarranted Assumption Fallaciesp. 119
Fallacy of the Continuump. 120
Fallacy of Compositionp. 123
Fallacy of Divisionp. 124
False Alternativesp. 126
Is-Ought Fallacyp. 127
Wishful Thinkingp. 129
Misuse of a Principlep. 130
Fallacy of the Meanp. 132
Faulty Analogyp. 134
Assignmentsp. 136
Fallacies that Violate the Sufficiency Criterionp. 141
Fallacies of Missing Evidencep. 141
Insufficient Samplep. 142
Unrepresentative Datap. 144
Arguing from Ignorancep. 146
Contrary-to-Fact Hypothesisp. 148
Fallacy of Popular Wisdomp. 150
Special Pleadingp. 152
Omission of Key Evidencep. 154
Assignmentsp. 155
Causal Fallaciesp. 156
Confusion of a Necessary with a Sufficient Conditionp. 156
Causal Oversimplificationp. 158
Post Hoc Fallacyp. 160
Confusion of Cause and Effectp. 161
Neglect of a Common Causep. 163
Domino Fallacyp. 164
Gambler's Fallacyp. 166
Assignmentsp. 168
Fallacies that Violate the Rebuttal Criterionp. 171
Fallacies of Counterevidencep. 171
Denying the Counterevidencep. 172
Ignoring the Counterevidencep. 173
Assignmentsp. 176
Ad Hominem Fallaciesp. 176
Abusive Ad Hominemp. 176
Poisoning the Wellp. 178
Two-Wrongs Fallacyp. 180
Assignmentsp. 182
Fallacies of Diversionp. 182
Attacking a Straw Manp. 183
Trivial Objectionsp. 185
Red Herringp. 186
Resort to Humor or Ridiculep. 188
Assignmentsp. 190
Writing the Argumentative Essayp. 194
Researching the Questionp. 194
Stating Your Positionp. 195
Arguing for Your Positionp. 196
Rebutting Objections to Your Positionp. 197
Resolving the Questionp. 197
Sample Argumentative Essayp. 198
Assignmentsp. 205
Letter to Jimp. 206
Glossary of Fallaciesp. 210
Answers to Selected Assignmentsp. 215
Indexp. 223
Table of Contents provided by Rittenhouse. All Rights Reserved.

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