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Basic Statistical Analysis

by
Edition:
9th
ISBN13:

9780205495979

ISBN10:
0205495974
Format:
Hardcover
Pub. Date:
1/1/2011
Publisher(s):
Prentice Hall
List Price: $157.40
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Summary

This user-friendly text demystifies statistics by helping students understand the rules of evidence and the logic behind those rules. The book is divided into three major units: Descriptive Statistics, Inferential Statistics, and Advanced Topics in Inferential Statistics. Studentsrs" academic success is reinforced with an extensive glossary, problems and test questions throughout the text, and a summary at the end of each chapter. Herers"s whatrs"s new in the Eighth Edition: Incorporation of SPSS throughout the text New "Spotlight on SPSS" boxes, detailing how to use SPSS to do each example shown New section on reading SPSSrs"s scientific notation New section on SPSSrs"s use of bootstrapping, jack-knifing, and the Monte Carlo method More emphasis on research strategies involved in forensic psychology and criminal justice New section on how the general linear model can be interpreted in the context of ANOVA New section on how to treat tie scores when doing the Spearman correlation New section on reading percentages and calculating per-capita rates INSTRUCTORS: DONrs"T MISS THIS GREAT VALUEPACK OPTION! SPSS for Windows Student Version CD-ROM can be packaged with this text.

Table of Contents

Preface vii
UNIT I DESCRIPTIVE STATISTICS
1(140)
Introduction to Statistics
1(23)
Stumbling Blocks to Statistics
2(13)
A Brief Look at the History of Statistics
15(1)
Gertrude Cox (1900--1978)
16(2)
Benefits of a Course in Statistics
18(1)
General Field of Statistics
19(2)
Summary
21(1)
Key Terms and Names
21(1)
Problems
21(3)
Percentages, Graphs and Measures of Central Tendency
24(29)
Percentages
24(2)
Comparing Increases with Decreases
26(1)
Scientific Notation
27(1)
Graphs
28(7)
Measures of Central Tendency
35(8)
Appropriate Use of the Mean, the Median, and the Mode
43(4)
Spotlight on SPSS
47(1)
Summary
48(1)
Key Terms
49(1)
Problems
49(2)
Computer Problems
51(2)
Variability
53(20)
Measures of Variability
54(7)
Grouped Data
61(2)
Graphs and Variability
63(3)
Kurtosis: Some Examples
66(1)
Spotlight on SPSS
67(1)
Summary
68(1)
Key Terms
69(1)
Problems
69(3)
Computer Problems
72(1)
The Normal Curve and z Scores
73(24)
The Normal Curve
73(3)
z Scores
76(1)
Carl Friedrich Gauss (1777--1855)
77(7)
Translating Raw Scores into z Scores
84(1)
The Equation for the Normal Curve
85(1)
Spotlight on SPSS
86(3)
z Score Translations in Practice
89(5)
Summary
94(1)
Key Terms and Names
94(1)
Problems
95(2)
z Scores Revisited: T Scores and Other Normal Curve Transformations
97(22)
Other Applications of the z Score
97(1)
The Percentile Table
98(8)
T Scores
106(4)
Normal Curve Equivalents
110(1)
Stanines
111(2)
Grade-Equivalent Scores: A Note of Caution
113(1)
The Importance of the z Score
114(1)
Summary
114(1)
Key Terms
115(1)
Problems
116(3)
Probability
119(22)
The Definition of Probability
119(3)
Blaise Pascal (1623--1662)
122(5)
Probability and Percentage Areas of the Normal Curve
127(1)
Combinations, Permutations, and Statistical Inference
128(5)
Combining Probabilities for Independent Events
133(3)
A Reminder about Logic
136(1)
Summary
137(1)
Key Terms
137(1)
Problems
137(4)
UNIT II INFERENTIAL STATISTICS
141(258)
Statistics and Parameters
141(26)
Generalizing from the Few to the Many
141(1)
Key Concepts of Inferential Statistics
142(2)
Techniques of Sampling
144(8)
Sampling Distributions
152(2)
Infinite versus Finite Sampling
154(3)
Galton and the Concept of Error
157(2)
Back to z
159(4)
Some Words of Encouragement
163(1)
Summary
163(1)
Key Terms
164(1)
Problems
164(3)
Parameter Estimates and Hypothesis Testing
167(29)
Estimating the Population Standard Deviation
167(3)
Estimating the Standard Error of the Mean
170(3)
Estimating the Population Mean: Interval Estimates and Hypothesis Testing
173(1)
The t Ratio
174(4)
The Type 1 Error
178(1)
The Alpha Levels
179(3)
Spotlight on SPSS
182(2)
Effect Size
184(1)
Interval Estimates: No Hypothesis Test Needed
185(4)
Summary
189(1)
Key Terms
190(1)
Problems
190(3)
Computer Problems
193(3)
The Fundamentals of Research Methodology
196(41)
Research Strategies
196(2)
Independent and Dependent Variables
198(2)
The Cause-and-Effect Trap
200(1)
Theory of Measurement
201(5)
Research: Experimental versus Post Facto
206(1)
The Experimental Method: The Case of Cause and Effect
207(1)
Creating Equivalent Groups: The True Experiment
208(2)
Designing the True Experiment
210(3)
The Hawthorne Effect
213(2)
Repeated-Measures Designs with Separate Control Groups
215(2)
Requirements for the True Experiment
217(2)
Post-Facto Research
219(3)
Combination Research
222(1)
Research Errors
223(2)
Experimental Error: Failure to Use an Adequate Control Group
225(1)
Post-Facto Errors
226(1)
Meta-Analysis
227(3)
Methodology as a Basis for More Sophisticated Techniques
230(1)
Summary
230(2)
Key Terms
232(1)
Problems
233(4)
The Hypothesis of Difference
237(42)
Sampling Distribution of Differences
237(4)
Estimated Standard Error of Difference
241(2)
Two-Sample t Test for Independent Samples
243(3)
Spotlight on SPSS
246(2)
Significance
248(1)
William Sealy Gossett (1876--1937)
249(3)
Two-Tail t Table
252(2)
Alpha Levels and Confidence Levels
254(3)
The Minimum Difference
257(1)
Outliers
257(1)
One-Tail t Test
257(4)
Importance of Having at Least Two Samples
261(1)
Power
262(1)
Effect Size
263(6)
Summary
269(1)
Key Terms
270(1)
Problems
270(5)
Computer Problems
275(4)
The Hypothesis of Association: Correlation
279(44)
Cause and Effect
279(3)
The Pearson r
282(1)
Interclass versus Intraclass
282(2)
Karl Pearson (1857--1936)
284(7)
Spotlight on SPSS
291(9)
Missing Data
300(1)
Correlation Matrix
300(3)
The Spearman rs
303(1)
Spotlight on SPSS
304(5)
Spotlight on SPSS
309(2)
An Important Difference Between the Correlation Coefficient and the t Test
311(1)
Summary
311(1)
Key Terms and Names
312(1)
Problems
312(6)
Computer Problems
318(5)
Analysis of Variance
323(43)
Advantages of ANOVA
323(1)
Bonferroni Test
324(1)
Ronald Aylmer Fisher (1890--1962)
325(1)
Analyzing the Variance
326(13)
Spotlight on SPSS
339(2)
Applications of ANOVA
341(1)
The Factorial ANOVA
342(7)
Eta Square and d
349(1)
Graphing the Interaction
350(1)
Spotlight on SPSS
351(5)
Spotlight on SPSS
356(1)
Summary
357(1)
Key Terms and Names
358(1)
Problems
358(4)
Computer Problems
362(4)
Nominal Data and the Chi Square
366(33)
Chi Square and Independent Samples
366(3)
Spotlight on SPSS
369(4)
Spotlight on SPSS
373(4)
Locating the Difference
377(3)
Chi Square and Percentages
380(1)
Chi Square and z Scores
381(1)
Chi Square and Dependent Samples
381(6)
Requirements for Using the Chi Square
387(1)
Summary
387(1)
Key Terms
388(1)
Problems
388(7)
Computer Problems
395(4)
UNIT III ADVANCED TOPICS IN INFERENTIAL STATISTICS
399(184)
Regression Analysis
399(44)
Regression of Y on X
399(9)
Sir Francis Galton (1822--1911)
408(3)
Standard Error of Estimate
411(3)
Multiple R (Linear Regression with More Than Two Variables)
414(6)
Spotlight on SPSS
420(3)
Path Analysis, The Multiple R, and Causation
423(1)
Partial Correlation
424(4)
Spotlight on SPSS
428(3)
Spotlight on SPSS
431(2)
Standard Error
433(1)
Summary
434(1)
Key Terms and Names
435(1)
Problems
435(5)
Computer Problems
440(3)
Repeated-Measures and Matched-Subjects Designs With Interval Data
443(31)
Problem of Correlated or Dependent Samples
443(1)
Repeated Measures
444(1)
Paired t Ratio
445(4)
Spotlight on SPSS
449(1)
Confidence Interval for Paired Differences
450(7)
Within-Subjects F Ratio
457(2)
Spotlight on SPSS
459(1)
Within-Subjects Effect Size
460(2)
Testing Correlated Experimental Data
462(1)
Summary
463(1)
Key Terms
464(1)
Problems
464(5)
Computer Problems
469(5)
Nonparametrics Revisited: The Ordinal Case
474(22)
Mann-Whitney U Test for Two Ordinal Distributions with Independent Selection
475(2)
Spotlight on SPSS
477(2)
Kruskal-Wallis H Test for Three or More Ordinal Distributions with Independent Selection
479(2)
Spotlight on SPSS
481(1)
Wilcoxon T Test for Two Ordinal Distributions with Correlated Selection
482(2)
Spotlight on SPSS
484(1)
Friedman ANOVA By Ranks for Three or More Ordinal Distributions with Correlated Selection
485(3)
Spotlight on SPSS
488(1)
Advantages and Disadvantages of Nonparametric Tests
489(1)
Summary
489(1)
Key Terms
490(1)
Problems
490(4)
Computer Problems
494(2)
Tests and Measurements
496(44)
Norm and Criterion Referencing: Relative Versus Absolute Performance Measures
497(2)
The Problem of Bias
499(2)
Test Reliability, Validity, and Measurement Theory
501(2)
Spotlight on SPSS
503(4)
Spotlight on SPSS
507(5)
Spotlight on SPSS
512(2)
Test Validity
514(5)
Spotlight on SPSS
519(3)
Item Analysis
522(9)
Summary
531(2)
Key Terms
533(1)
Problems
533(5)
Computer Problems
538(2)
Computers and Statistical Analysis
540(16)
Computer Literacy
542(1)
The Statistical Programs
543(2)
Ada Lovelace (nee Byron, 1815--1852)
545(6)
Logic Checkpoints
551(1)
Problems
551(3)
Answers
554(1)
Recommended Reading
555(1)
Research Simulations: Choosing the Correct Statistical Test
556(27)
Methodology: Research's Bottom Line
556(1)
Checklist Questions
557(2)
Critical Decision Points
559(1)
Research Simulations: From A to Z
559(22)
The Research Enterprise
581(1)
A Final Thought: The Burden of Proof
582(1)
Special Unit: The Binomial Case 583(14)
Appendix A 597(14)
Appendix B 611(7)
Glossary 618(14)
References 632(10)
Answers to Odd-Numbered Items (and Within-Chapter Exercises) 642(10)
Index 652


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