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What Is Statistics? | p. 1 |
Introduction | p. 2 |
Why Study Statistics? | p. 2 |
What Is Meant by Statistics? | p. 4 |
Types of Statistics | p. 6 |
Descriptive Statistics | p. 6 |
Inferential Statistics | p. 7 |
Types of Variables | p. 9 |
Levels of Measurement | p. 9 |
Nominal-Level Data | p. 10 |
Ordinal-Level Data | p. 11 |
Interval-Level Data | p. 12 |
Ratio-Level Data | p. 12 |
Exercises | p. 14 |
Statistics, Graphics, and Ethics | p. 15 |
Misleading Statistics | p. 15 |
Association Does Not Necessarily Imply Causation | p. 15 |
Graphs Can Be Misleading | p. 16 |
Become a Better Consumer and a Better Producer of Information | p. 17 |
Ethics | p. 17 |
Software Applications | p. 18 |
Chapter Outline | p. 19 |
Chapter Exercises | p. 19 |
exercises.com | p. 20 |
Dataset Exercises | p. 21 |
Answers to Self-Review | p. 22 |
Describing Data: Frequency Distributions and Graphic Presentation | p. 23 |
Introduction | p. 24 |
Constructing a Frequency Distribution | p. 25 |
Class Intervals and Class Midpoints | p. 29 |
A Software Example | p. 29 |
Relative Frequency Distribution | p. 30 |
Exercises | p. 31 |
Graphic Presentation of a Frequency Distribution | p. 32 |
Histogram | p. 32 |
Frequency Polygon | p. 34 |
Exercises | p. 37 |
Cumulative Frequency Distributions | p. 38 |
Exercises | p. 41 |
Other Graphic Presentations of Data | p. 42 |
Line Graphs | p. 42 |
Bar Charts | p. 43 |
Pie Charts | p. 44 |
Exercises | p. 46 |
Chapter Outline | p. 47 |
Chapter Exercises | p. 48 |
exercises.com | p. 53 |
Dataset Exercises | p. 53 |
Software Commands | p. 54 |
Answers to Self-Review | p. 56 |
Describing Data: Numerical Measures | p. 57 |
Introduction | p. 58 |
The Population Mean | p. 59 |
The Sample Mean | p. 60 |
Properties of the Arithmetic Mean | p. 61 |
Exercises | p. 62 |
The Weighted Mean | p. 63 |
Exercises | p. 64 |
The Median | p. 64 |
The Mode | p. 65 |
Exercises | p. 67 |
Software Solution | p. 68 |
The Relative Positions of the Mean, Median, and Mode | p. 68 |
Exercises | p. 70 |
The Geometric Mean | p. 71 |
Exercises | p. 72 |
Why Study Dispersion? | p. 73 |
Measures of Dispersion | p. 74 |
Range | p. 74 |
Mean Deviation | p. 75 |
Exercises | p. 76 |
Variance and Standard Deviation | p. 77 |
Exercises | p. 79 |
Software Solution | p. 80 |
Exercises | p. 81 |
Interpretation and Uses of the Standard Deviation | p. 82 |
Chebyshev's Theorem | p. 82 |
The Empirical Rule | p. 83 |
Exercises | p. 84 |
Chapter Outline | p. 84 |
Pronunciation Key | p. 86 |
Chapter Exercises | p. 86 |
exercises.com | p. 89 |
Dataset Exercises | p. 90 |
Software Commands | p. 90 |
Answers to Self-Review | p. 92 |
Describing Data: Displaying and Exploring Data | p. 93 |
Introduction | p. 94 |
Dot Plots | p. 94 |
Exercises | p. 96 |
Quartiles, Deciles, and Percentiles | p. 97 |
Exercises | p. 100 |
Box Plots | p. 100 |
Exercises | p. 102 |
Skewness | p. 103 |
Exercises | p. 107 |
Describing the Relationship between Two Variables | p. 107 |
Exercises | p. 110 |
Chapter Outline | p. 112 |
Pronunciation Key | p. 112 |
Chapter Exercises | p. 112 |
exercises.com | p. 116 |
Dataset Exercises | p. 116 |
Software Commands | p. 117 |
Answers to Self-Review | p. 119 |
A Survey of Probability Concepts | p. 120 |
Introduction | p. 121 |
What Is a Probability? | p. 122 |
Approaches to Assigning Probabilities | p. 124 |
Classical Probability | p. 124 |
Empirical Probability | p. 125 |
Subjective Probability | p. 126 |
Exercises | p. 127 |
Some Rules for Computing Probabilities | p. 128 |
Rules of Addition | p. 128 |
Exercises | p. 133 |
Rules of Multiplication | p. 134 |
Contingency Tables | p. 137 |
Tree Diagrams | p. 139 |
Exercises | p. 141 |
Principles of Counting | p. 142 |
The Multiplication Formula | p. 142 |
The Permutation Formula | p. 143 |
The Combination Formula | p. 145 |
Exercises | p. 146 |
Chapter Outline | p. 147 |
Pronunciation Key | p. 148 |
Chapter Exercises | p. 148 |
exercises.com | p. 152 |
Dataset Exercises | p. 152 |
Software Commands | p. 153 |
Answers to Self-Review | p. 154 |
Discrete Probability Distributions | p. 156 |
Introduction | p. 157 |
What Is a Probability Distribution? | p. 157 |
Random Variables | p. 159 |
Discrete Random Variable | p. 159 |
Continuous Random Variable | p. 160 |
The Mean, Variance, and Standard Deviation of a Probability Distribution | p. 160 |
Mean | p. 160 |
Variance and Standard Distribution | p. 161 |
Exercises | p. 163 |
Binomial Probability Distribution | p. 164 |
How Is a Binomial Probability Distribution Computed | p. 165 |
Binomial Probability Tables | p. 167 |
Exercises | p. 170 |
Cumulative Binomial Probability Distributions | p. 172 |
Exercises | p. 173 |
Poisson Probability Distribution | p. 174 |
Exercises | p. 177 |
Chapter Outline | p. 177 |
Chapter Exercises | p. 178 |
Dataset Exercises | p. 182 |
Software Commands | p. 182 |
Answers to Self-Review | p. 184 |
Continuous Probability Distributions | p. 185 |
Introduction | p. 186 |
The Family of Uniform Distributions | p. 186 |
Exercises | p. 189 |
The Family of Normal Probability Distributions | p. 190 |
The Standard Normal Distribution | p. 193 |
The Empirical Rule | p. 195 |
Exercises | p. 196 |
Finding Areas under the Normal Curve | p. 197 |
Exercises | p. 199 |
Exercises | p. 202 |
Exercises | p. 204 |
Chapter Outline | p. 204 |
Chapter Exercises | p. 205 |
Dataset Exercises | p. 208 |
Software Commands | p. 209 |
Answers to Self-Review | p. 210 |
Sampling Methods and the Central Limit Theorem | p. 211 |
Introduction | p. 212 |
Sampling Methods | p. 212 |
Reasons to Sample | p. 212 |
Simple Random Sampling | p. 213 |
Systematic Random Sampling | p. 216 |
Stratified Random Sampling | p. 216 |
Cluster Sampling | p. 217 |
Exercises | p. 218 |
Sampling "Error" | p. 220 |
Sampling Distribution of the Sample Mean | p. 222 |
Exercises | p. 225 |
The Central Limit Theorem | p. 226 |
Exercises | p. 232 |
Using the Sampling Distribution of the Sample Mean | p. 233 |
Exercises | p. 237 |
Chapter Outline | p. 237 |
Pronunciation Key | p. 238 |
Chapter Exercises | p. 238 |
exercises.com | p. 242 |
Dataset Exercises | p. 243 |
Software Commands | p. 243 |
Answers to Self-Review | p. 244 |
Estimation and Confidence Intervals | p. 245 |
Introduction | p. 246 |
Point Estimates and Confidence Intervals | p. 246 |
Known [sigma] or a Large Sample | p. 246 |
A Computer Simulation | p. 251 |
Exercises | p. 253 |
Unknown Population Standard Deviation and a Small Sample | p. 254 |
Exercises | p. 260 |
A Confidence Interval for a Proportion | p. 260 |
Exercises | p. 263 |
Finite-Population Correction Factor | p. 263 |
Exercises | p. 264 |
Choosing an Appropriate Sample Size | p. 265 |
Exercises | p. 267 |
Chapter Outline | p. 268 |
Pronunciation Key | p. 269 |
Chapter Exercises | p. 269 |
exercises.com | p. 272 |
Dataset Exercises | p. 273 |
Software Commands | p. 273 |
Answers to Self-Review | p. 275 |
One-Sample Tests of Hypothesis | p. 276 |
Introduction | p. 277 |
What Is a Hypothesis? | p. 277 |
What Is Hypothesis Testing? | p. 278 |
Five-Step Procedure for Testing a Hypothesis | p. 278 |
State the Null Hypothesis (H[subscript 0]) and the Alternate Hypothesis (H[subscript 1]) | p. 278 |
Select a Level of Significance | p. 279 |
Select the Test Statistic | p. 279 |
Formulate the Decision Rule | p. 281 |
Make a Decision | p. 282 |
One-Tailed and Two-Tailed Tests of Significance | p. 283 |
Testing for a Population Mean with a Known Population Standard Deviation | p. 284 |
A Two-Tailed Test | p. 284 |
A One-Tailed Test | p. 288 |
p-Value in Hypothesis Testing | p. 288 |
Testing for a Population Mean: Large Sample, Population Standard Deviation Unknown | p. 290 |
Exercises | p. 291 |
Tests Concerning Proportions | p. 292 |
Exercises | p. 295 |
Testing for a Population Mean: Small Sample, Population Standard Deviation Unknown | p. 295 |
Exercises | p. 300 |
A Software Solution | p. 301 |
Exercises | p. 303 |
Chapter Outline | p. 304 |
Pronunciation Key | p. 305 |
Chapter Exercises | p. 305 |
exercises.com | p. 309 |
Dataset Exercises | p. 309 |
Software Commands | p. 310 |
Answers to Self-Review | p. 311 |
Two-Sample Tests of Hypothesis | p. 312 |
Introduction | p. 313 |
Two-Sample Tests of Hypothesis: Independent Samples | p. 313 |
Exercises | p. 318 |
Two-Sample Tests about Proportions | p. 319 |
Exercises | p. 321 |
Comparing Population Means with Small Samples | p. 323 |
Exercises | p. 326 |
Two-Sample Tests of Hypothesis: Dependent Samples | p. 327 |
Comparing Dependent and Independent Samples | p. 331 |
Exercises | p. 333 |
Chapter Outline | p. 334 |
Pronunciation Key | p. 335 |
Chapter Exercises | p. 335 |
exercises.com | p. 340 |
Dataset Exercises | p. 341 |
Software Commands | p. 341 |
Answers to Self-Review | p. 342 |
Analysis of Variance | p. 344 |
Introduction | p. 345 |
The F Distribution | p. 345 |
Comparing Two Population Variances | p. 346 |
Exercises | p. 349 |
ANOVA Assumptions | p. 350 |
The ANOVA Test | p. 352 |
Exercises | p. 359 |
Inferences about Pairs of Treatment Means | p. 360 |
Exercises | p. 362 |
Chapter Outline | p. 364 |
Pronunciation Key | p. 365 |
Chapter Exercises | p. 365 |
exercises.com | p. 370 |
Dataset Exercises | p. 370 |
Software Commands | p. 371 |
Answers to Self-Review | p. 373 |
Linear Regression and Correlation | p. 374 |
Introduction | p. 375 |
What Is Correlation Analysis? | p. 375 |
The Coefficient of Correlation | p. 377 |
The Coefficient of Determination | p. 381 |
Correlation and Cause | p. 382 |
Exercises | p. 382 |
Testing the Significance of the Correlation Coefficient | p. 384 |
Exercises | p. 386 |
Regression Analysis | p. 386 |
Least Squares Principle | p. 386 |
Drawing the Line of Regression | p. 389 |
Exercises | p. 390 |
The Standard Error of Estimate | p. 392 |
Assumptions Underlying Linear Regression | p. 395 |
Exercises | p. 396 |
Confidence and Prediction Intervals | p. 396 |
Exercises | p. 400 |
More on the Coefficient of Determination | p. 400 |
Exercises | p. 403 |
The Relationships among the Coefficient of Correlation, the Coefficient of Determination, and the Standard Error of Estimate | p. 403 |
Transforming Data | p. 405 |
Exercises | p. 407 |
Chapter Outline | p. 408 |
Pronunciation Key | p. 410 |
Chapter Exercises | p. 410 |
exercises.com | p. 417 |
Dataset Exercises | p. 417 |
Software Commands | p. 418 |
Answers to Self-Review | p. 420 |
Multiple Regression and Correlation Analysis | p. 421 |
Introduction | p. 422 |
Multiple Regression Analysis | p. 422 |
Inferences in Multiple Linear Regression | p. 423 |
Exercises | p. 426 |
Multiple Standard Error of Estimate | p. 428 |
Assumptions about Multiple Regression and Correlation | p. 429 |
The ANOVA Table | p. 430 |
Exercises | p. 432 |
Evaluating the Regression Equation | p. 432 |
Using a Scatter Diagram | p. 432 |
Correlation Matrix | p. 433 |
Global Test: Testing the Multiple Regression Model | p. 434 |
Evaluating Individual Regression Coefficients | p. 436 |
Qualitative Independent Variables | p. 439 |
Exercises | p. 441 |
Analysis of Residuals | p. 442 |
Chapter Outline | p. 447 |
Pronunciation Key | p. 448 |
Chapter Exercises | p. 448 |
exercises.com | p. 459 |
Dataset Exercises | p. 460 |
Software Commands | p. 461 |
Answers to Self-Review | p. 463 |
Chi-Square Applications | p. 464 |
Introduction | p. 464 |
Goodness-of-Fit Test: Equal Expected Frequencies | p. 465 |
Exercises | p. 470 |
Goodness-of-Fit Test: Unequal Expected Frequencies | p. 471 |
Limitations of Chi-Square | p. 473 |
Exercises | p. 475 |
Contingency Table Analysis | p. 746 |
Exercises | p. 450 |
Chapter Outline | p. 481 |
Pronunciation Key | p. 481 |
Chapter Exercises | p. 482 |
exercises.com | p. 484 |
Dataset Exercises | p. 485 |
Software Commands | p. 486 |
Answers to Self-Review | p. 487 |
CD Chapters | |
Statistical Quality Control | |
Time Series and Forecasting | |
Appendixes | |
Tables | |
Binomial Probability Distribution | p. 489 |
Critical Values of Chi-Square | p. 494 |
Poisson Distribution | p. 495 |
Areas under the Normal Curve | p. 496 |
Table of Random Numbers | p. 497 |
Student's t Distribution | p. 498 |
Critical Values of the F Distribution | p. 499 |
Wilcoxon T Values | p. 501 |
Factors for Control Charts | p. 502 |
Datasets | |
Real Estate | p. 503 |
Major League Baseball | p. 506 |
Wages and Wage Earners | p. 508 |
CIA International Economic and Demographic Data | p. 512 |
Whitner Autoplex | p. 515 |
Getting Started with Megastat | p. 516 |
Visual Statistics | p. 520 |
Answers to Odd-Numbered Exercises | p. 525 |
Photo Credits | p. 552 |
Index | p. 553 |
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