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Basics of Analytical Chemistry and Chemical Equilibria,9780470592083
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Basics of Analytical Chemistry and Chemical Equilibria



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Covering the major points in analytical chemistry and chemical equilibria, Basics of Analytical Chemistry and Chemical Equilibria provides an accessible introduction to key concepts that students and professionals can use in the workplace. The text's three-part structure (quantitative analysis using reactions that go to completion; reactions that do not go to completion; and instrumental methods and analytical separations) provides a cohesive framework for the user to see the build-up in sophistication of the topics. The extensive revisiting of prerequisite general chemistry topics enhances retention of the concepts.

Author Biography

BRIAN M. TISSUE, PhD, is Associate Professor of Chemistry at Virginia Tech, where he teaches analytical chemistry at both the undergraduate and graduate levels. In addition to curriculum development, Dr. Tissue oversees a research program in nanomaterials and analytical spectroscopy, preparing and testing nanocomposites for catalytic activity. Among his honors, Dr. Tissue has received an NSF Career Award and a Cottrell Scholar Award from the Research Corporation for Science Advancement.

Table of Contents

I Quantitative analysis using reactions that go to \completion 3

1 Making Measurements 5

1.1 Introduction 5

1.2 GLP and a Few Other Important Acronyms 11

1.3 Precision and Random Error 17

1.4 Discarding a Suspected Outlier 27

1.5 Calibration 30

1.6 Maintaining Accurate Results 44

Practice Exercises 50

2 Sample Preparation, Extractions, and Chromatography 55

2.1 Sampling and Control Samples 55

2.2 Sample Preparation 59

2.3 Solvents and Solutions 65

2.4 Introduction to Solubility 69

2.5 Extraction 72

2.6 Stationary Phases 82

2.7 Solid-Phase Extraction (SPE) 88

2.8 Introduction to Chromatography 90

2.9 Immunoassays 94

Practice Exercises 96

3 Classical Methods 103

3.1 Introduction 103

3.2 Review of Chemical Reactions 105

3.3 Reactions in Aqueous Solution 112

3.4 Gravimetry 121

3.5 Titration 125

3.6 Titration Curves 132

3.7 Coulometry 133

Practice Exercises 136

4 Molecular Spectroscopy 141

4.1 Introduction 141

4.2 Properties of Electromagnetic Radiation 142

4.3 Electromagnetic Spectrum 145

4.4 Spectroscopic Transitions 147

4.5 UV/Vis Absorption Spectroscopy 151

4.6 UV/Vis Instrumentation 152

4.7 Beer-Lambert Law 154

4.8 Molecular Fluorescence 160

Practice Exercises 164

II Reactions that do not go to\completion." Equilibria in aqueous solu-tions 171

5 Acid-Base Equilibria and Activity 173

5.1 Acids and Bases 173

5.2 Weak Acids and Weak Bases 180

5.3 Water and Kw 185

5.4 Acid Strength 191

5.5 The Concept of Activity 199

5.6 Acid-Base Equilibrium Calculations 211

Practice Exercises 219

6 Buffer Solutions and Polyprotic Acids 223

6.1 Buffer Solutions 223

6.2 Alpha Fraction Plots 229

6.3 Weak Acid Titration Curve 233

6.4 Polyprotic Acids 235

Practice Exercises 245

7 Complexation and Precipitation Equilibria 249

7.1 Complex Terminology 250

7.2 Complex Equilibria 253

7.3 Competing Equilibria 261

7.4 Stepwise Complexation 267

7.5 Precipitate Equilibrium 272

7.6 Molar Solubility 281

7.7 Precipitation and Competing Equilibria 289

Practice Exercises 296

Instrumental methods and analytical separations 303

8 Electroanalytical Chemistry 305

8.1 Introduction 305

8.2 Standard Reduction Potentials 308

8.3 Using Half Reactions 313

8.4 Background on Spontaneous Reactions and Equilibrium 320

8.5 Reaction Energies, Voltages, and the Nernst Equation 322

8.6 Electrochemical Cells 326

8.7 Potentiometry 330

8.8 Ion-Selective Electrodes (ISE) 333

8.9 Voltammetry 339

Practice Exercises 346

9 Atomic Spectrometry 351

9.1 Atomization 352

9.2 Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (AAS) 356

9.3 Atomic Emission spectrometry (AES) 363

9.4 Introduction to Mass Spectrometry (MS) 365

9.5 ICP-MS Measurements 368

9.6 Summary 369

Practice Exercises 371

10 Analytical Separations 377

10.1 Thin-Layer Chromatography 378

10.2 Chromatogram Terminology 381

10.3 Column Selection 384

10.4 High Performance Liquid Chromatography 388

10.5 Gas Chromatography 395

10.6 Molecular Mass Spectrometry 398

10.7 Electrophoresis 405

Practice Exercises 409

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