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Behavior Modification

by ;
Edition:
10th
ISBN13:

9780205992102

ISBN10:
0205992102
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
5/28/2014
Publisher(s):
Pearson
List Price: $131.00

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Summary

A balanced presentation of the principles and tactics of behavior modification


Behavior Modification: What It Is and How to Do It, 10/e assumes no specific prior knowledge about psychology or behavior modification on the part of the reader. The authors begin with basic principles and procedures of behavior modification and then provide readers with how-to-skills such as observing and recording. Next, the authors provide advanced discussion and references to acquaint readers with some of the empirical and theoretical underpinnings of the field. Readers will emerge with a thorough understanding of behavior modification in a wide variety of populations and settings.

 

Author Biography

Garry Martin, a native Manitoban, attended Colorado College on a hockey scholarship, where he received the BA degree. He then attended Arizona State University for the MA and PhD degrees. Garry returned to Manitoba in 1966 and taught in the Department of Psychology at the University of Manitoba until his retirement at the end of 2008. He is currently a Distinguished Professor Emeritus at the U of M, and he continues to supervise graduate students, teach part-time, and write and publish. He has co-authored or co-edited 8 books and over 150 journal articles on various areas in behavioral psychology. His book, Behavior Modification: What It Is and How to Do It, with Dr. Joseph Pear, first published in 1978, is used as a primary text at many universities in 14 countries and various editions have been translated into Spanish, Italian, Portuguese, Chinese, and Korean. His research on behavioral training technologies for improving the quality of life of people with developmental disabilities and children with autism has been supported continuously by the Medical Research Council of Canada, and now the Canadian Institutes of Health Research for the past 32 years. He has been an invited speaker at numerous national and international conferences around the world. He has supervised 38 Masters theses, and 32 PhD theses at the University of Manitoba, and has received numerous honors and awards, including induction into the Royal Society of Canada. At the 2010 Annual Convention of the Canadian Psychological Association, Garry received the CPA Education and Training Award, the most prestigious education and training award the discipline confers in Canada.

 

Dr. Joseph J. Pear, Professor of Psychology at the University of Manitoba, received the B.S. degree from the University of Maryland and the M.A. and Ph.D. degrees from The Ohio State University. A fellow of Division 6 (Behavioral Neuroscience and Comparative Psychology) and Division 25 (Behavior Analysis) of the American Psychological Association, Dr. Pear has done both basic and applied research. His early applied work was with children with developmental disabilities at the St. Amant Centre, where he founded the Behaviour Modification Unit (now the Psychology Department) in the early 1970s. More recently, he developed Computer-Aided Personal System of Instruction (CAPSI), an instructional program based on the Keller Plan. CAPSI is an award winning program that is being used to teach a number of courses at University of Manitoba and at several other universities in Canada and the United States. It is also a research tool that Dr. Pear and his graduate students use to research the teaching and learning dimensions of university education. Dr. Pear has also done basic research with pigeons and fish using a tracking system that he developed. In addition to Behavior Modification: What It Is and How to Do It with Dr. Garry Martin, Dr. Pear has written two other books: The Science of Learning and A Historical and Contemporary Look at Psychological Systems. He has also written numerous research articles and two encyclopedia articles: “Psychological Systems” in The Corsini Encyclopedia of Psychology (Fourth Edition) and “Physiological Homeostasis and Learning” in Encyclopedia of the Sciences of Learning. He has received awards for Outstanding Contribution to Behaviour Analysis in Manitoba and for Innovative Excellence in Teaching, Learning, and Technology. He also received the Fred S. Keller Behavioral Education Award for Distinguished Contributions to Education.

Table of Contents

In this Section:

1. Brief Table of Contents

2. Full Table of Contents


1. Brief Table of Contents:

 

Part I  : The Behavior Modification Approach

Chapter 1:      Introduction

Chapter 2:      Areas of Application: An Overview 

 

Part II : Basic Behavioral Principles and Procedures 

Chapter 3:      Respondent (Classical, Pavlovian) Conditioning of Reflexive Behavior 

Chapter 4:      Increasing a Behavior with Positive Reinforcement 

Chapter 5:      Increasing Behavior with Conditioned Reinforcement

Chapter 6:      Decreasing a Behavior with Extinction 

Chapter 7:      Getting a New Behavior to Occur with Shaping 

Chapter 8:      Developing Behavioral Persistence With Schedules of Reinforcement

Chapter 9:      Responding at the Right Time and Place: Stimulus Discrimination and Stimulus Generalization 

Chapter 10:    Changing the Control of a Behavior with Fading 

Chapter 11:    Getting a New Sequence of Behaviors to Occur with Behavior Chaining 

Chapter 12:    Differential Reinforcement Procedures to Decrease Behavior Decreasing Tommy’s Talking Out 

Chapter 13:    Decreasing Behavior With Punishment 

Chapter 14:    Establishing Behavior by Escape and Avoidance Conditioning 

Chapter 15:    Respondent and Operant Conditioning Together

Chapter 16:    Transferring Behavior to New Settings and Making It Last: Generality of Behavioral Change 

 

Part III:Capitalizing on Antecedent Control Procedures 

Chapter 17:    Antecedent Control: Rules and Goals 

Chapter 18:    Antecedent Control: Modeling, Physical Guidance, and Situational Inducement

Chapter 19:    Antecedent Control: Motivation 

Chapter 20:    Behavioral Assessment: Initial Considerations 

Chapter 21:    Direct Behavioral Assessment: What to Record and How 

Chapter 22:    Doing Behavior Modification Research 

 

Part V: Putting It All Together to Develop Effective Behavioral Programs 

Chapter 23:    Functional Assessment of Problem Behavior 

Chapter 24:    Planning, Applying, and Evaluating a Behavioral Program 

Chapter 25:    Token Economies 

Chapter 26:    Helping an Individual to Develop Self-Control 

 

Part VI: Behavior Therapy for Psychological Disorders

Chapter 27:    Approaches to Behavior Therapy: Cognitive Restructuring, Self-Directed

Chapter 28:    Psychological Disorders Treated by Behavioral and Cognitive-Behavioral Therapies

 

Part VII: A Historical Perspective and Ethical Issues

Chapter 29:    Giving It All Some Perspective: A Brief History 

Chapter 30:    Ethical Issues 

 


2. Full Table of Contents

 

Part I  : The Behavior Modification Approach

Chapter 1: Introduction

What Is Behavior? 

What Is Behavior Modification? 

Some Historical Highlights of Behavior Modification

Some Misconceptions About Behavior Modification 

The Approach of This Book 

The Structure of This Book

 

Chapter 2: Areas of Application: An Overview 

Parenting and Child Management 

Education: From Preschool to University 

Developmental Disabilities 

Schizophrenia 

Behavior Therapy in Clinical Settings 

Self-Management of Personal Problems 

Medical and Health Care 

Gerontology 

Community Behavioral Analysis 

Business, Industry, and Government 

Behavioral Sport Psychology 

Behavior Modification with Diverse Populations 

Conclusion 

 

Part II : Basic Behavioral Principles and Procedures 

Chapter 3:   Respondent (Classical, Pavlovian) Conditioning of Reflexive Behavior 

Making words “unpleasant”

Behavioral Principles and Procedures

Principle of Respondent Conditioning

Higher-Order Conditioning

Common Respondently Conditioned Responses

Procedures for Eliminating a Conditioned Reflex

Generalization and Discrimination of Respondent Behavior

Applications of Respondent Conditioning and Extinction

An Introduction to Operant Conditioning: Another Type of Learning

 

Chapter 4: Increasing a Behavior with Positive Reinforcement 

Reinforcing Darren’s Cooperative Behavior 

Positive Reinforcement 

Factors Influencing the Effectiveness of Positive Reinforcement 

Pitfalls of Positive Reinforcement 

Guidelines for the Effective Application of Positive Reinforcement 

 

Chapter 5: Increasing Behavior with Conditioned Reinforcement 

Erin’s Points Program 
Unconditioned and Conditioned Reinforcers 
Factors Influencing the Effectiveness of Conditioned Reinforcement 
Pitfalls of Conditioned Reinforcement 
Guidelines for the Effective Use of Conditioned Reinforcement 

 

Chapter 6: Decreasing a Behavior with Extinction 

Louise’s Case 

Operant Extinction 

Factors Influencing the Effectiveness of Operant Extinction 

Pitfalls of Operant Extinction 

Guidelines for the Effective Application of Operant Extinction 

 

Chapter 7: Getting a New Behavior to Occur with Shaping 

Improving Frank’s Exercising 

Shaping 

Factors Influencing the Effectiveness of Shaping 

Pitfalls of Shaping 

Guidelines for the Effective Application of Shaping 

 

Chapter 8:  Developing Behavioral Persistence With Schedules of Reinforcement

Improving Jan’s Work Rate in Math Class 

Some Definitions 

Ratio Schedules 

Simple Interval Schedules 

Schedules with a Limited Hold 

Duration Schedules 

Overview of Six Commonly Used Schedules for Increasing and Maintaining Behavior 

Concurrent Schedules of Reinforcement 

Pitfalls of Intermittent Reinforcement 

Guidelines for the Effective Use of Intermittent Reinforcement 

 

Chapter 9: Responding at the Right Time and Place: Stimulus Discrimination and Stimulus Generalization 

Learning to Follow Teacher’s Instructions 

Learning to Respond at the Right Time and Place 

Types of Controlling Stimuli: SDs and SDs 

Stimulus Discrimination 

Stimulus Generalization 

Factors Determining the Effectiveness of Stimulus Discrimination Training 

Pitfalls of Stimulus Discrimination Training 

Guidelines for Effective Stimulus Discrimination Training 

 

Chapter 10: Changing the Control of a Behavior with Fading 

Teaching Peter His Name 

Fading 

Dimensions of Stimuli for Fading 

Factors Influencing the Effectiveness of Fading 

Fading Versus Shaping

Pitfalls of Fading 

Guidelines for the Effective Application of Fading 

 

Chapter 11: Getting a New Sequence of Behaviors to Occur with Behavior Chaining 

Teaching Steve to Follow a Consistent Preputt Routine 

Behavior Chaining 

Methods for Teaching a Behavior Chain 

Chaining Compared with Fading and Shaping 

Factors Influencing the Effectiveness of Behavior Chaining 

Pitfalls of Behavior Chaining 

Guidelines for the Effective Use of Behavioral Chaining 

 

Chapter 12: Differential Reinforcement Procedures to Decrease Behavior

Decreasing Tommy’s Talking Out 

Decreasing Operant Behavior

Differential Reinforcement of Low Rates 

Differential Reinforcement of Zero Responding 

Differential Reinforcement of Incompatible Behavior 

Differential Reinforcement of Alternative Behavior 

Pitfalls of Schedules for Decreasing Behavior 

Guidelines for the Effective Use of Differential Reinforcement Procedures to Decrease Behavior 

 

Chapter 13: Decreasing Behavior With Punishment 

Eliminating Ben’s Aggressiveness 

The Principle of Punishment 

Types of Punishers 

Factors Influencing the Effectiveness of Punishment 

Some Examples of Therapeutic Punishment 

Potential Harmful Side Effects of Punishment

Should Punishment Be Used? 

Pitfalls of Punishment 

Guidelines for the Effective Application of Punishment

 

Chapter 14:Establishing Behavior by Escape and Avoidance Conditioning 

Curing Joanne’s Slouching 

Escape Conditioning (Negative Reinforcement)

Avoidance Conditioning 

Pitfalls of Escape and Avoidance Conditioning 

Guidelines for the Effective Application of Escape and Avoidance Conditioning 

 

Chapter 15: Respondent and Operant Conditioning Together

Responding to Meet Deadlines

 Respondent and Operant Conditioning Compared

Operant—Respondent Interactions 

Respondent and Operant Components of Emotions 

Respondent and Operant Components of Thinking 

Private Thoughts and Feelings: More Respondent—Operant Interactions    

 

Chapter 16: Transferring Behavior to New Settings and Making It Last: Generality of Behavioral Change 

Helping Carole Have a Successful Class Presentation

Generality 

Programming Generality of Operant Behavior 

Programming Generality of Respondent Behavior 

Pitfalls of Generality 

Guidelines for Programming Generality of Operant Behavior 

 

Part III: Capitalizing on Antecedent Control Procedures 

Chapter 17:    Antecedent Control: Rules and Goals 

Helping Susan to Skate Well 

Antecedent Control 

Rules 

Goals 

 

Chapter 18:   Antecedent Control: Modeling, Physical Guidance, and Situational Inducement  

A Mindfulness-Based Intervention for Aggression 

Capitalizing on Existing Stimulus Control 

Modeling 

Physical Guidance 

Situational Inducement 

 

Chapter 19:  Antecedent Control: Motivation 

Coach Dawson’s Motivation Program 

A Traditional View of Motivation 

A Behavioral View of Motivation 

Some Applications of Motivating Operations 

Motivating Operations and Behavior Modification 

 

Chapter 20:   Behavioral Assessment: Initial Considerations 

Minimal Phases of a Program 

Sources of Information for Preprogram Assessment 

Data! Data! Data! Why Bother? 

Behavioral Assessment Compared to Traditional Assessment 

 

Chapter 21: Direct Behavioral Assessment: What to Record and How 

Characteristics of Behavior to Be Recorded 

Strategies for Recording Behavior 

Assessment of the Accuracy of Observations 

 

Chapter 22:  Doing Behavior Modification Research 

The Reversal-Replication (ABAB) Design 

Multiple-Baseline Designs 

The Changing-Criterion Design 

Alternating-Treatments (or Multielement) Design 

Data Analysis and Interpretation 

 

Part V: Putting It All Together to Develop Effective Behavioral Programs 

Chapter 23: Functional Assessment of Problem Behavior 

Functional Assessment Procedures 

Major Causes of Problem Behaviors 

Medical Causes of Problem Behaviors 

Guidelines for Conducting a Functional Assessment 

 

Chapter 24: Planning, Applying, and Evaluating a Behavioral Program 

Deciding Whether to Design a Program Following a Referral 

Selection and Implemention of a Preprogram Assessment Procedure 

Strategies of Program Design and Implementation 

Program Maintenance and Evaluation 

 

Chapter 25: Token Economies 

Setting Up and Managing a Token Economy 

Generality Programming to the Natural Environment 

Ethical Considerations 

A Summary of Considerations Necessary in Designing a Token Economy 

 

Chapter 26:Helping an Individual to Develop Self-Control 

Causes of Self-Control Problems 

A Behavioral Model for Self-Control 

Steps in a Self-Control Program 

Circumvention of the Therapist 

 

Part VI: Behavior Therapy for Psychological Disorders

Chapter 27: Approaches to Behavior Therapy: Cognitive Restructuring, Self-Directed Coping Methods, and Mindfulness and Acceptance Procedures

Cognitive Restructuring Methods 

Self-Directed Coping Methods 

Mindfulness and Acceptance Strategies 

A Behavioral Interpretation of Aspects of the Therapies in This Chapter

Concluding Comments          

 

Chapter 28: Psychological Disorders Treated by Behavioral and Cognitive-Behavioral Therapies

Specific Phobias 

Other Anxiety Disorders 

Depression 

Alcohol and Other Substance-Use Disorders

Eating Disorders 

Couple Distress 

Sexual Dysfunction 

Habit Disorders 

 

Part VII: A Historical Perspective and Ethical Issues

Chapter 29: Giving It All Some Perspective: A Brief History 

The Pavlovian and Wolpean Orientation 

The Operant-Conditioning Orientation: Applied Behavior Analysis 

Mixtures and Offshoots of the Two Major Orientations 

The Terms Behavior Modification, Behavior Therapy, Cognitive Behavior Modification and Applied Behavior Analysis 

The Future of Behavior Modification 

Notes for Further Learning 

 

Chapter 30: Ethical Issues 

A Behavioral View of Ethics 

Arguments Against Deliberately Controlling Behavior 

Ethical Guidelines 

Conclusions   



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