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Behavior Modification : What It Is and How to Do It,9780130995841
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Behavior Modification : What It Is and How to Do It

by ;
Edition:
7th
ISBN13:

9780130995841

ISBN10:
0130995843
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
1/1/2003
Publisher(s):
Prentice Hall
List Price: $99.00
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  • Behavior Modification : What It Is and How to Do It
    Behavior Modification : What It Is and How to Do It
  • Behavior Modification : What It Is and How to Do It
    Behavior Modification : What It Is and How to Do It




Summary

This easy-to-use handbook is ideal for practitioners concerned with overcoming behavioral deficits and excesses in a wide variety of populations and settings. Written in a reader-friendly style that assumes no prior knowledge of behavior modification or psychology, it provides a comprehensive, practical presentation of both the elementary principles of behavior modification and step-by-step "how-to" guidelines for their application. Includes real-life cases and examples throughout.Getting A Behavior To Occur More Often With Positive Reinforcement. Developing And Maintaining Behavior With Conditioned Reinforcement. Decreasing A Behavior With Extinction. Developing Behavioral Persistence Through The Use Of Intermittent Reinforcement. Types Of Intermittent Reinforcement To Decrease Behavior. Doing The Right Thing At The Right Time And Place: Stimulus Discrimination And Stimulus Generalization. Developing Appropriate Behavior With Fading. Getting A New Behavior To Occur: An Application Of Shaping. Getting A New Behavior To Occur With Behavioral Chaining. Eliminating Inappropriate Behavior Through Punishment. Establishing A Desirable Behavior By Using Escape And Avoidance Conditioning. Procedures Based On Principles Of Respondent Conditioning. Respondent And Operant Conditioning Together. Transferring Behavior To New Settings And Making It Last: Generality Of Behavior Change. Capitalizing On Existing Stimulus Control: Rules And Goals, Modeling, Guidance, And Situational Inducement. Behavioral Assessment: Initial Considerations. Direct Behavioral Assessment: What To Record And How. Functional Assessment Of The Causes Of Problem Behavior. Planning, Applying, And Evaluating A Treatment Program. Token Economies. Helping An Individual To Develop Self-Control. Systematic Self-Desensitization. Cognitive Behavior Modification. Areas Of Clinical Behavior Therapy. Ethical Issues.For practitioners of various helping professions who are concerned directly with enhancing various forms of behavioral development (e.g., education, counseling, clinical psychology, medicine, nursing, psychiatry, psychiatric nursing, social work, speech therapy, sport psychology, physiotherapy, and occupational therapy).

Table of Contents

Preface xv
Changes in the Seventh Edition xvii
Instructor's Resource Manual with Tests and Practica xviii
Acknowledgments xviii
To the Student xix
PART I THE BEHAVIOR MODIFICATION APPROACH
Introduction
1(13)
What is Behavior?
3(3)
What is Behavior Modification?
6(1)
What is Behavioral Assessment?
7(1)
Some Misconceptions about Behavior Modification
8(1)
The Approach of This Book
8(3)
Study Questions
11(1)
Application Exercises
12(1)
Notes and Extended Discussion
12(2)
Areas of Application: An Overview
14(14)
Parenting and Child Management
14(1)
Education: From Preschool to University
15(2)
Severe Problems: Developmental Disabilities, Childhood Autism, and Schizophrenia
17(2)
Clinical Behavior Therapy
19(1)
Self-Management of Personal Problems
19(1)
Medical and Health Care
20(2)
Gerontology
22(1)
Behavioral Community Psychology
22(1)
Business, Industry, and Government
23(1)
Sport Psychology
24(1)
Behavior Modification with Culturally Diverse Individuals
25(1)
Conclusion
25(1)
Study Questions
26(1)
Notes and Extended Discussion
26(2)
PART II BASIC BEHAVIORAL PRINCIPLES AND PROCEDURES
Getting a Behavior to Occur More Often With Positive Reinforcement
28(21)
``Do you want to sit here, Mommy?''
Reinforcing Darren's Cooperative Behavior
28(1)
Positive Reinforcement
29(2)
Factors Influencing the Effectiveness of Positive Reinforcement
31(12)
Pitfalls of Positive Reinforcement
43(1)
Guidelines for the Effective Application of Positive Reinforcement
43(2)
Study Questions
45(2)
Application Exercises
47(1)
Notes and Extended Discussion
47(2)
Developing and Maintaining Behavior With Conditioned Reinforcement
49(24)
``OK, team! Here's how you can earn an Eagle Effort Award.''
Coach Dawson's Point Program
49(1)
Unconditioned and Conditioned Reinforcers
50(1)
Factors Influencing the Effectiveness of Conditioned Reinforcement
51(2)
Pitfalls of Conditioned Reinforcement
53(1)
Guidelines for the Effectiveness Use of Conditioned Reinforcement
54(1)
Study Questions
54(1)
Application Exercises
55(1)
Notes and Extended Discussion
55(3)
Decreasing a Behavior with Extinction
``Louise, let's get rid of your migraines.''
58(1)
Louise's Case
58(1)
Extinction
59(2)
Factors Influencing the Effectiveness of Extinction
61(5)
Pitfalls of Extinction
66(2)
Guidelines for the Effective Application of Extinction
68(1)
Study Questions
69(1)
Application Exercises
70(1)
Notes and Extended Discussion
70(3)
Developing Behavioral Persistence Through the use of Intermittent Reinforcement
73(16)
``Tom, let's see how many arithmetic problems you can do.''
Improving Toni s Work Rate in Math Class
73(1)
Some Definitions
74(1)
Ratio Schedules
75(1)
Simple Interval Schedules
76(2)
Interval Schedules with Limited Hold
78(2)
Duration Schedules
80(2)
Overview of Eight Basic Schedules for Increasing and Maintaining Behavior
82(1)
Concurrent Schedules of Reinforcement
82(2)
Pitfalls of Intermittent Reinforcement
84(1)
Guidelines for the Effective Use of Intermittent Reinforcement
84(1)
Study Questions
85(1)
Application Exercises
86(1)
Notes and Extended Discussion
87(2)
Types of Intermittent Reinforcement to Decrease Behavior
89(8)
``Tommy, a little less talking out, please!''
Decreasing Tommy's Talking Out
89(1)
Differential Reinforcement of Low Rates
90(1)
Differential Reinforcement of Zero Responding
91(1)
Differential Reinforcement of Incompatible Responding
92(1)
Pitfalls of Schedules for Decreasing Behavior
93(1)
Guidelines for the Effective Use of Intermittent Schedules to Decrease Behavior
94(1)
Study Questions
95(1)
Application Exercises
95(1)
Note and Extended Discussion
96(1)
Doing the Right Thing at the Right Time and Place: Stimulus Discrimination and Stimulus Generalization
97(16)
``Now, children, please work at your desks.''
Learning to Follow Teacher's Instructions
97(1)
Stimulus Discrimination Learning and Stimulus Control
98(2)
Types of Controlling Stimuli: SDs and Ss
100(2)
Stimulus Generalization
102(3)
Factors Determining the Effectiveness of Stimulus Discrimination Training
105(2)
Pitfalls of Stimulus Discrimination Training
107(1)
Guidelines for Effective Stimulus Discrimination Training
108(1)
Study Questions
109(1)
Application Exercises
110(1)
Notes and Extended Discussion
110(3)
Developing Appropriate Behavior with Fading
113(9)
``Peter, what's your name?''
Teaching Peter His Name
113(1)
Fading
114(2)
Factors Influencing the Effectiveness of Fading
116(2)
Pitfalls of Fading
118(1)
Guidelines for the Effective Application of Fading
119(1)
Study Questions
119(1)
Application Exercises
120(1)
Notes and Extended Discussion
121(1)
Getting a New Behavior to Occur: An Application of Shaping
122(12)
``Frank, did you do your jogging?''
Improving Frank's Exercising
122(1)
Shaping
123(3)
Factors Influencing the Effectiveness of Shaping
126(2)
Pitfalls of Shaping
128(2)
Guidelines for the Effective Application of Shaping
130(1)
Study Questions
131(1)
Application Exercises
132(1)
Notes and Extended Discussion
132(2)
Getting a New Sequence of Behaviors to Occur With Behavioral Chaining
134(13)
``Steve, your preputt routine is inconsistent.''
Teaching Steve to Follow a Consistent Preputt Routine
134(1)
Stimulus-Response Chaining
135(1)
Methods for Teaching a Behavior Chain
136(3)
Chaining Compared with Fading and Shaping
139(1)
Factors Influencing the Effectiveness of Chaining
139(4)
Pitfalls of Chaining
143(1)
Guidelines for the Effective Use of Chaining
144(1)
Study Questions
144(1)
Application Exercises
145(1)
Note and Extended Discussion
145(2)
Eliminating Inappropriate Behavior Through Punishment
147(15)
``Ben, don't be so aggressive.''
Eliminating Ben's Aggressiveness
147(1)
The Principle of Punishment
148(1)
Types of Punishers
149(2)
Factors Influencing the Effectiveness of Punishment
151(3)
Should Punishment Be Used?
154(3)
Pitfalls of Punishment
157(1)
Guidelines for the Effective Application of Punishment Procedures
158(1)
Study Questions
159(1)
Application Exercises
160(1)
Notes and Extended Discussion
160(2)
Establishing a Desirable Behavior by Using Escape and Avoidance Conditioning
162(9)
``Jason, that's bad for your health!''
Curing Jason's Slouching
162(1)
Escape Conditioning
163(2)
Avoidance Conditioning
165(2)
Pitfalls of Escape and Avoidance
167(1)
Guidelines for the Effective Application of Escape and Avoidance
168(1)
Study Questions
169(1)
Application Exercises
170(1)
Note and Extended Discussion
170(1)
Procedures Based on Principles of Respondent Conditioning
171(14)
``I hate that word!''
Making Words ``Unpleasant''
171(1)
Operant Versus Respondent Behavior
172(1)
Principle of Respondent Conditioning
172(3)
Higher Order Conditioning
175(1)
Respondent Extinction
176(1)
Counterconditioning
177(1)
Common Respondently Conditioned Responses
177(2)
Respondent and Operant Conditioning Compared
179(1)
Applications of Respondent Conditioning Principles
179(3)
Study Questions
182(1)
Application Exercises
183(1)
Notes and Extended Discussion
183(2)
Respondent and Operant Conditioning Together
185(12)
``I have to finish my term paper!''
Responding to Meet Deadlines
185(1)
Operant-Respondent Interactions
185(2)
Respondent and Operant Components of Emotions
187(5)
Respondent and Operant Components of Thinking
192(1)
Private Thoughts and Feelings; More Respondent-Operant Interactions
193(1)
Study Questions
194(1)
Application Exercises
195(1)
Note and Extended Discussion
195(2)
Transferring Behavior to New Settings and Making it Last: Generality of Behaviorial Change
197(13)
``Hi, there. I have a nice surprise for you in my car.''
Teaching Stan to Protect Himself
197(1)
Generality
198(2)
Factors Influencing the Effectiveness of Programming Generality of Operant Behavior
200(4)
Programming Generality of Respondent Behavior
204(1)
Pitfalls of Generality
205(2)
Guidelines for Programming Generality of Operant Behavior
207(1)
Study Questions
207(1)
Application Exercises
208(1)
Notes and Extended Discussion
209(1)
PART III SOME PRELIMINARY CONSIDERATIONS TO EFFECTIVE PROGRAMMING STRATEGIES
Capitalizing on Existing Stimulus Control: Rules and Goals
210(14)
Rules
211(6)
Goals
217(4)
Study Questions
221(1)
Application Exercises
222(1)
Note and Extended Discussion
223(1)
Capitalizing on Existing Stimulus Control: Modeling, Guidance, and Situational Inducement
224(27)
Modeling
224(3)
Physical Guidance
227(2)
Situational Inducement
229(5)
Study Questions
234(1)
Application Exercises
235(1)
Note and Extended Discussion
236(1)
PART IV DEALING WITH DATA
Behavioral Assessment: Initial Considerations
Minimal Phases of a Program
237(3)
Sources of Information for Baseline Assessment
240(4)
Data! Data! Data! Why Bother?
244(3)
Behavioral Assessment Compared to Traditional Assessment
247(2)
Study Questions
249(1)
Note and Extended Discussion
249(2)
Direct Behavioral Assessment: What to Record and How
251(17)
Characteristics of Behavior to Be Recorded
251(10)
Continuous Recording, Interval Recording, and Time-Sampling Recording
261(2)
Assessing the Accuracy of Observations
263(2)
Study Questions
265(1)
Application Exercises
266(1)
Notes and Extended Discussion
266(2)
Functional Assessment of the Causes of Problem Behavior
268(13)
Approaches to Functional Assessment
268(3)
Major Causes of Problem Behaviors
271(6)
Medical Causes of Problem Behaviors
277(1)
Guidelines for Conducting a Functional Assessment
278(1)
Study Questions
279(1)
Application Exercises
280(1)
Note and Extended Discussion
280(1)
Doing Research in Behavior Modification
281(14)
The Reversal-Replication (ABAB) Research Design
282(3)
Multiple-Baseline Designs
285(3)
The Changing-Criterion Design
288(1)
Alternating-Treatments (or Multi-Element) Design
288(2)
Data Analysis and Interpretation
290(2)
Study Questions
292(1)
Application Exercises
293(1)
Notes and Extended Discussion
294(1)
PART V PUTTING IT ALL TOGETHER
Planning, Applying, and Evaluating A Treatment Program
295(11)
A Problem Has Been Referred: Should You Design a Program?
295(2)
Selecting and Implementing an Assessment Procedure
297(2)
Strategies of Program Design and Implementation
299(3)
Program Maintenance and Evaluation
302(1)
Study Questions
303(1)
Application Exercise
304(1)
Notes and Extended Discussion
304(2)
Token Economies
306(12)
Initial Steps in Setting Up a Token Economy
307(4)
Specific Implementation Procedures
311(1)
Preparing a Manual
312(1)
Programming Generality to the Natural Environment
313(1)
Ethical Considerations
314(1)
A Summary of Considerations in Designing a Token Economy
314(1)
Study Questions
315(1)
Application Exercises
316(1)
Notes and Extended Discussion
316(2)
Helping an Individual to Develop Self-Control
318(21)
Causes of Self-Control Problems
319(2)
A Model for Self-Control
321(1)
Steps in a Self-Control Program
322(13)
Circumventing the Therapist
335(1)
Study Questions
336(1)
Application Exercises
337(1)
Notes and Extended Discussion
337(2)
Systematic Self-Desensitization
339(15)
Behavioral Treatments of Simple Phobias
340(2)
Systematic Self-Desensitization
342(10)
When to Seek Professional Assistance
352(1)
Study Questions
352(1)
Application Exercise
353(1)
Notes and Extended Discussion
353(1)
Cognitive Behavior Modification
354(18)
``Thinking,'' ``Feeling,'' and Private Behavior
354(1)
Carol's Case
355(2)
Some Cognitive Behavioral Procedures
357(6)
Evaluation of ``Cognitive'' Techniques
363(3)
A Behavioral Interpretation of Cognitive Behavior Techniques
366(2)
Concluding Comments
368(1)
Study Questions
369(1)
Application Exercise
370(1)
Note and Extended Discussion
370(2)
Areas of Clinical Behavior Therapy
372(12)
Anxiety Disorders: Focus on Agoraphobia
372(1)
Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder
373(1)
Failure to Cope with Stress
374(1)
Depression
375(2)
Alcohol Problems
377(1)
Obesity
378(1)
Marital Distress
379(1)
Sexual Dysfunction: Focus on Low Sexual Desire
380(1)
Habit Disorders: Nervous Habits, Muscle Tics, and Stuttering
381(1)
Study Questions
382(1)
Note and Extended Discussion
382(2)
PART VI A HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE AND ETHICAL ISSUES
Giving all Some Perspective: A Brief History
384(12)
The Operant-Conditioning Orientation: Applied Behavior Analysis
384(4)
The Respondent-Conditioning (and Hullian and Wolpean) Orientation
388(2)
Mixtures and Offshoots of the Two Major Orientations
390(1)
The Terms Behavior Therapy, Behavior Modification, and Applied Behavior Analysis
391(2)
The Future of Behavior Modification
393(1)
Study Questions
393(1)
Notes and Extended Discussion
394(2)
Ethical Issues
396(13)
A Behavioral View of Ethics
397(1)
Arguments Against Deliberately Controlling Behavior
398(2)
Ethical Guidelines
400(6)
Conclusions
406(1)
Study Questions
406(1)
Notes and Extended Discussion
407(2)
Glossary 409(10)
References 419(34)
Author Index 453(9)
Subject Index 462


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