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Behavior Modification What It Is and How To Do It

by ;
Edition:
9th
ISBN13:

9780205792726

ISBN10:
0205792723
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
6/10/2010
Publisher(s):
Pearson
List Price: $193.73

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Summary

This ninth edition of Behavior Modification: What It Is and How to Do Itassumes no specific prior knowledge about psychology or behavior modification on the part of the reader. Those who want to know how to apply behavior modification to their everyday concerns-from helping children learn life's necessary skills to solving some of their own personal behavior problems-will find the text useful.   Behavior Modification: What It Is and How to Do It, 9eis addressed to two audiences: (a) college and university students taking courses in behavior modification, applied behavior analysis, behavior therapy, the psychology of learning, and related areas; and (b) students and practitioners of various helping professions (such as clinical psychology, counseling, education, medicine, nursing, occupational therapy, physiotherapy, psychiatric nursing, psychiatry, social work, speech therapy, and sport psychology) who are concerned directly with enhancing various forms of behavioral development.   MySearchLab provides students tools for writing and research in one convenient website.  Access to MySearchLabis available at no additional charge in a package with a Pearson textbook and is also available for purchase standalone online at www.mysearchlab.comor in your campus bookstore.  

Author Biography

Garry Martin, a native Manitoban, attended Colorado College on a hockey scholarship, where he received the BA degree. He then attended Arizona State University for the MA and PhD degrees. Garry returned to Manitoba in 1966 and taught in the Department of Psychology at the University of Manitoba until his retirement at the end of 2008. He is currently a Distinguished Professor Emeritus at the U of M, and he continues to supervise graduate students, teach part-time, and write and publish. He has co-authored or co-edited 8 books and over 150 journal articles on various areas in behavioral psychology. His book, Behavior Modification: What It Is and How to Do It, with Dr. Joseph Pear, first published in 1978, is used as a primary text at many universities in 14 countries and various editions have been translated into Spanish, Italian, Portuguese, Chinese, and Korean. His research on behavioral training technologies for improving the quality of life of people with developmental disabilities and children with autism has been supported continuously by the Medical Research Council of Canada, and now the Canadian Institutes of Health Research for the past 32 years. He has been an invited speaker at numerous national and international conferences around the world. He has supervised 38 Masters theses, and 32 PhD theses at the University of Manitoba, and has received numerous honors and awards, including induction into the Royal Society of Canada. At the 2010 Annual Convention of the Canadian Psychological Association, Garry received the CPA Education and Training Award, the most prestigious education and training award the discipline confers in Canada.

 

Dr. Joseph J. Pear, Professor of Psychology at the University of Manitoba, received the B.S. degree from the University of Maryland and the M.A. and Ph.D. degrees from The Ohio State University. A fellow of Division 6 (Behavioral Neuroscience and Comparative Psychology) and Division 25 (Behavior Analysis) of the American Psychological Association, Dr. Pear has done both basic and applied research. His early applied work was with children with developmental disabilities at the St. Amant Centre, where he founded the Behaviour Modification Unit (now the Psychology Department) in the early 1970s. More recently, he developed Computer-Aided Personal System of Instruction (CAPSI), an instructional program based on the Keller Plan. CAPSI is an award winning program that is being used to teach a number of courses at University of Manitoba and at several other universities in Canada and the United States. It is also a research tool that Dr. Pear and his graduate students use to research the teaching and learning dimensions of university education. Dr. Pear has also done basic research with pigeons and fish using a tracking system that he developed. In addition to Behavior Modification: What It Is and How to Do It with Dr. Garry Martin, Dr. Pear has written two other books: The Science of Learning and A Historical and Contemporary Look at Psychological Systems. He has also written numerous research articles and two encyclopedia articles: “Psychological Systems” in The Corsini Encyclopedia of Psychology (Fourth Edition) and “Physiological Homeostasis and Learning” in Encyclopedia of the Sciences of Learning. He has received awards for Outstanding Contribution to Behaviour Analysis in Manitoba and for Innovative Excellence in Teaching, Learning, and Technology. He also received the Fred S. Keller Behavioral Education Award for Distinguished Contributions to Education.

Table of Contents

Brief Contents

 

PREFACE      

 

PART I  THE BEHAVIOR MODIFICATION APPROACH

1          Introduction     

2          Areas of Application: An Overview     

 

PART II  BASIC BEHAVIORAL PRINCIPLES AND PROCEDURES

3          Getting a Behavior to Occur More Often with Positive Reinforcement   

4          Developing and Maintaining Behavior with Conditioned Reinforcement 

5          Decreasing a Behavior with Extinction  

6          Developing Behavioral Persistence Through the Use of Intermittent

 

            Reinforcement 

7          Intermittent Reinforcement to Decrease Behavior          

8          Doing the Right Thing at the Right Time and Place: Stimulus Discrimination and

 

            Stimulus Generalization

9          Changing the Control of a Behavior with Fading           

10        Getting a New Behavior to Occur with Shaping

11        Getting a New Sequence of Behaviors to Occur with Behavioral Chaining         

12        Eliminating Inappropriate Behavior Through Punishment

13        Establishing Behavior by Escape and Avoidance Conditioning   

14        Procedures Based on Principles of Respondent Conditioning    

15        Respondent and Operant Conditioning Together           

16        Transferring Behavior to New Settings and Making It Last: Generality of

 

            Behavior Change         

 

PART III CAPITALIZING ON ANTECEDENT CONTROL PROCEDURES

17        Antecedent Control: Rules and Goals   

18        Antecedent Control: Modeling, Guidance, and Situational Inducement   

19        Antecedent Control: Motivation           

 

PART IV  DEALING WITH DATA

20        Behavioral Assessment: Initial Considerations   

21        Direct Behavioral Assessment: What to Record and How         

22        Doing Research in Behavior Modification         

 

PART V  PUTTING IT ALL TOGETHER TO DEVELOP EFFECTIVE BEHAVIORAL PROGRAMS

23        Functional Assessment of the Causes of Problem Behavior       

24        Planning, Applying, and Evaluating a Behavioral Program          

25        Token Economies        

26        Helping an Individual to Develop Self-Control  

27        Cognitive Behavior Therapy, Self-Directed Coping Methods, and ACT.        

28        Areas of Clinical Behavior Therapy      

 

PART VI  A HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE AND ETHICAL ISSUES

29        Giving It All Some Perspective: A Brief History

30        Ethical Issues   

 

GLOSSARY   

 

REFERENCES           

 

AUTHOR INDEX      

 

SUBJECT INDEX      

____________________________________________________

 

Table of Contents

 

PREFACE      

Changes in the Eighth Edition   

Instructors Resource Manual with Tests and Practica    

Acknowledgments       

To the Student 

 

PART I  THE BEHAVIOR MODIFICATION APPROACH

 

1          INTRODUCTION     

What Is Behavior?

Summary Labels for Behavior  

What Is Behavior Modification?           

What Is Behavioral Assessment?          

Behavior Modification and Applied Behavior Analysis

Behavior Modification, Behavior Therapy, & Cognitive Behavior Therapy        

Some Misconceptions About Behavior Modification     

The Approach of This Book    

Application Exercises   

Notes and Extended Discussion           

 

2          AREAS OF APPLICATION: AN OVERVIEW         

Parenting and Child Management         

Education: From Preschool to University          

Developmental Disabilities

Schizophrenia  

Behavior Therapy: Behavior Modification in Clinical Settings     

Self-Management of Personal Problems           

Medical and Health Care         

Gerontology    

Community Behavioral Analysis           

Business, Industry, and Government     

Sport Psychology        

Behavior Modification with Diverse Populations           

Conclusion      

Notes and Extended Discussion           

 

PART II  BASIC BEHAVIORAL PRINCIPLES AND PROCEDURES

 

3          GETTING A BEHAVIOR TO OCCUR MORE OFTEN WITH POSITIVE REINFORCEMENT    

“Do you want to sit here, Mommy?”

Reinforcing Darren’s Cooperative Behavior      

Positive Reinforcement 

Factors Influencing the Effectiveness of Positive Reinforcement 

Pitfalls of Positive Reinforcement          

Guidelines for the Effective Application of Positive Reinforcement         

Application Exercises   

Notes and Extended Discussion           

 

4          DEVELOPING AND MAINTAINING BEHAVIOR WITH CONDITIONED REINFORCEMENT          

“Don’t be so rude! Be nice!”

Erin’s Points Program

Unconditioned and Conditioned Reinforcers     

Factors Influencing the Effectiveness of Conditioned Reinforcement      

Pitfalls of Conditioned Reinforcement   

Guidelines for the Effective Use of Conditioned Reinforcement

Application Exercises   

Notes and Extended Discussion           

 

5          DECREASING A BEHAVIOR WITH EXTINCTION          

“Louise, let’s get rid of your migraines.”

Louise’s Case  

Extinction        

Factors Influencing the Effectiveness of Extinction         

Pitfalls of Extinction      

Guidelines for the Effective Application of Extinction     

Application Exercises   

Notes and Extended Discussion           

 

6          DEVELOPING BEHAVIORAL PERSISTENCE THROUGH THE USE OF INTERMITTENT REINFORCEMENT  

“Jan, let’s see how many arithmetic problems you can do.”

Improving Jan’s Work Rate in Math Class       

Some Definitions          

Ratio Schedules           

Simple Interval Schedules        

Interval Schedules with Limited Hold    

Duration Schedules      

Overview of Eight Basic Schedules for Increasing and Maintaining Behavior      

Concurrent Schedules of Reinforcement           

Pitfalls of Intermittent Reinforcement     

Guidelines for the Effective Use of Intermittent Reinforcement   

Application Exercises   

Notes and Extended Discussion           

 

7          INTERMITTENT REINFORCEMENT TO DECREASE BEHAVIOR          

“Tommy, a little less talking out, please!”

Decreasing Tommy’s Talking Out        

The Schedules in This Chapter 

Differential Reinforcement of Low Rates           

Differential Reinforcement of Zero Responding 

Differential Reinforcement of Incompatible Responding 

Differential Reinforcement of Alternative Behavior        

Pitfalls of Schedules for Decreasing Behavior    

Guidelines for the Effective Use of Intermittent Schedules to Decrease Behavior

Application Exercises   

Note and Extended Discussion 

 

8          DOING THE RIGHT THING AT THE RIGHT TIME AND PLACE: STIMULUS DISCRIMINATION AND STIMULUS GENERALIZATION     

“Now, children, please work at your desks.”

Learning to Follow Teacher’s Instructions        

Learning to Respond at the Right Time and Place

Types of Controlling Stimuli: SDs and SΔs

Stimulus Discrimination

Stimulus Generalization

Factors Determining the Effectiveness of Stimulus Discrimination Training          

Pitfalls of Stimulus Discrimination Training

Guidelines for Effective Stimulus Discrimination Training

Application Exercises   

Notes and Extended Discussion           

 

9          CHANGING THE CONTROL OF A BEHAVIOR WITH FADING 

“Peter, what’s your name?”

Teaching Peter His Name        

Fading 

Dimensions of Stimuli for Fading          

Factors Influencing the Effectiveness of Fading 

Pitfalls of Fading          

Guidelines for the Effective Application of Fading         

Application Exercises   

Notes and Extended Discussion           

 

10        GETTING A NEW BEHAVIOR TO OCCUR WITH SHAPING      

“Frank, did you do your jogging?”

Improving Frank’s Exercising   

Shaping           

Factors Influencing the Effectiveness of Shaping

Pitfalls of Shaping        

Guidelines for the Effective Application of Shaping        

Application Exercises   

Notes and Extended Discussion           

 

11        GETTING A NEW SEQUENCE OF BEHAVIORS TO OCCUR WITH BEHAVIORAL CHAINING        

“Steve, your preputt routine is inconsistent.”

Teaching Steve to Follow a Consistent Preputt Routine 

Behavioral Chaining     

Methods for Teaching a Behavioral Chain        

Chaining Compared with Fading and Shaping   

Factors Influencing the Effectiveness of Behavioral Chaining      

Pitfalls of Behavioral Chaining  

Guidelines for the Effective Use of Behavioral Chaining 

Application Exercises   

Note and Extended Discussion 

 

12        ELIMINATING INAPPROPRIATE BEHAVIOR THROUGH PUNISHMENT        

“Ben, don’t be so aggressive.”

Eliminating Ben’s Aggressiveness         

The Principle of Punishment     

Types of Punishers       

Factors Influencing the Effectiveness of Punishment       

Some Examples of Therapeutic Punishment

Potential Harmful Side Effects of Punishment

Should Punishment Be Deliberately Used?        

Pitfalls of Punishment   

Guidelines for the Effective Application of Punishment   

Application Exercises   

Notes and Extended Discussion           

 

13        ESTABLISHING BEHAVIOR BY ESCAPE AND AVOIDANCE CONDITIONING         

“Jason, that’s bad for your health!”

Curing Jason’s Slouching         

Escape Conditioning    

Avoidance Conditioning           

Pitfalls of Escape and Avoidance Conditioning  

Guidelines for the Effective Application of Escape and Avoidance Conditioning 

Application Exercises   

Note and Extended Discussion 

 

14        PROCEDURES BASED ON PRINCIPLES OF RESPONDENT

CONDITIONING      

“I hate that word!”

Making Words Unpleasant      

Operant Versus Respondent Behavior  

Principle of Respondent Conditioning   

Higher-Order Conditioning      

Respondent Extinction 

Counterconditioning     

Common Respondently Conditioned Responses           

Respondent and Operant Conditioning Compared        

Applications of Respondent Conditioning         

Application Exercises   

Notes and Extended Discussion           

 

15        RESPONDENT AND OPERANT CONDITIONING TOGETHER  

“I have to finish my term paper!”

Responding to Meet Deadlines 

Operant–Respondent Interactions        

Respondent and Operant Components of Emotions      

Respondent and Operant Components of Thinking       

Private Thoughts and Feelings: More Respondent–Operant Interactions

Application Exercises   

Note and Extended Discussion 

 

16        TRANSFERRING BEHAVIOR TO NEW SETTINGS AND MAKING IT LAST: GENERALITY OF BEHAVIOR CHANGE          

“Hi, there. I have a nice surprise for you in my car.”

Teaching Stan to Protect Himself          

Generality        

Factors Influencing the Effectiveness of Programming Generality of Operant Behavior   

Programming Generality of Respondent Behavior         

Pitfalls of Generality     

Guidelines for Programming Generality of Operant Behavior     

Application Exercises   

Notes and Extended Discussion           

 

PART III  CAPITALIZING ON ANTECEDENT CONTROL PROCEDURES

 

17        ANTECEDENT CONTROL: RULES AND GOALS 

“What if I don’t skate well?”

Helping Susan to Skate Well

Antecedent Control

Rules   

Goals  

Application Exercises   

Note and Extended Discussion 

 

18        ANTECEDENT CONTROL: MODELING, GUIDANCE, AND SITUATIONAL INDUCEMENT

“James, feel the soles of your feet.”

A Mindfulness-Based Intervention for Aggression

Capitalizing on Existing Stimulus Control

Modeling         

Physical Guidance        

Situational Inducement 

Study Questions          

Application Exercises   

Note and Extended Discussion 

 

19        ANTECEDENT CONTROL: MOTIVATION

“Ok, team! Here’s how you can earn an Eagle Effort Award.”

Coach Dawson’s Motivation Program

A Traditional View of Motivation         

A Behavioral View of Motivation         

Some Applications of Motivating Operations    

Motivating Operations and Behavior Modification        

Application Exercise    

Notes and Extended Discussion           

 

PART IV  DEALING WITH DATA

 

20        BEHAVIORAL ASSESSMENT: INITIAL CONSIDERATIONS     

Minimal Phases of a Program   

Sources of Information for Preprogram Assessment      

Data! Data! Data! Why Bother?          

Behavioral Assessment Compared to Traditional Assessment   

Note and Extended Discussion 

 

21        DIRECT BEHAVIORAL ASSESSMENT: WHAT TO RECORD AND HOW         

Characteristics of Behavior to Be Recorded     

Strategies for Recording Behavior        

Assessing the Accuracy of Observations                      

Application Exercises   

Notes and Extended Discussion           

 

22        DOING RESEARCH IN BEHAVIOR MODIFICATION     

The Reversal-Replication (ABAB) Research Design     

Multiple-Baseline Designs        

The Changing-Criterion Design

Alternating-Treatments (or Multielement) Design          

Data Analysis and Interpretation           

Application Exercises   

Notes and Extended Discussion           

 

PART V  PUTTING IT ALL TOGETHER TO DEVELOP EFFECTIVE BEHAVIORAL PROGRAMS

 

23        FUNCTIONAL ASSESSMENT OF THE CAUSES OF PROBLEM BEHAVIOR   

Functional Assessment Procedures

Major Causes of Problem Behaviors    

Medical Causes of Problem Behaviors 

Guidelines for Conducting a Functional Assessment                  

Application Exercises   

Note and Extended Discussion

 

24        PLANNING, APPLYING, AND EVALUATING A BEHAVIORAL PROGRAM    

A Problem Has Been Referred: Should You Design a Program?           

Selecting and Implementing an Assessment Procedure  

Strategies of Program Design and Implementation         

Program Maintenance and Evaluation               

Application Exercise    

Notes and Extended Discussion           

 

25        TOKEN ECONOMIES         

Initial Steps in Setting Up a Token Economy    

Specific Implementation Procedures     

Preparing a Manual      

Programming Generality to the Natural Environment     

Ethical Considerations  

A Summary of Considerations in Designing a Token Economy  

Application Exercises   

Notes and Extended Discussion           

 

26        HELPING AN INDIVIDUAL TO DEVELOP SELF-CONTROL     

Causes of Self-Control Problems         

A Model for Self-Control        

Steps in a Self-Control Program           

Circumventing the Therapist     

Application Exercises   

Notes and Extended Discussion           

 

27        COGNITIVE BEHAVIOR THERAPY, SELF-DIRECTED COPING METHODS, & ACT    

Cognitive Restructuring Methods          

Self-Directed Coping Methods

Mindfulness and Acceptance Strategies

A Behavioral Interpretation of Cognitive Restructuring, Self-Directed Coping Methods,

& ACT           

Concluding Comments 

Application Exercise    

Notes and Extended Discussion           

 

28        AREAS OF CLINICAL BEHAVIOR THERAPY      

Specific Phobias          

Other Anxiety Disorders          

Depression      

Alcohol Problems        

Eating Disorders

Couple Distress           

Sexual Dysfunction      

Habit Disorders           

Notes and Extended Discussion           

 

PART VI  A HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE AND ETHICAL ISSUES

 

29        GIVING IT ALL SOME PERSPECTIVE: A BRIEF HISTORY         

The Respondent-Conditioning (and Wolpean) Orientation

The Operant-Conditioning Orientation: Applied Behavior Analysis        

Mixtures and Offshoots of the Two Major Orientations

The Terms Behavior Modification, Behavior Therapy, Cognitive Behavior Modification

& Applied Behavior Analysis   

The Future of Behavior Modification    

Notes and Extended Discussion           

 

30        ETHICAL ISSUES     

A Behavioral View of Ethics    

Arguments Against Deliberately Controlling Behavior    

Ethical Guidelines         

Conclusions     

Notes and Extended Discussion           

 

GLOSSARY

 

REFERENCES           

 

AUTHOR INDEX      

 

SUBJECT INDEX

 



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