|About This Book|
|How to Use This Book|
|Format of the Test|
|Studying for the Test|
|The Day of the Test|
|Components of Language|
|English Sentence Structures|
|Major Phonetic Features of the Language|
|The English Vowel System|
|Supra Segmental Elements of English|
|Theories of Second Language Acquisition|
|Teaching Methods And Techniques|
|Approaches, Methods, and Strategies|
|Methods for Teaching ESL|
|Modern Adaptations of the Direct Method|
|Humanistic Psychology: Client Centered|
|Differentiating Instruction and Second-Language Proficiency|
|Language Proficiency and Educational Implications|
|Activities to Promote Oral Communication|
|Stages of Reading|
|Home Environment and Early Literacy|
|Classroom Activities to Promote Early Literacy Skills|
|Assessment Techniques And Cultural Issues|
|Framework for Assessing English-Language Learners|
|Cultural Considerations When Assessing ELLs|
|Testing and Classifying Students|
|English as a Second Language and Bilingual Education|
|Events that Shaped the Development of Programs for ELLs|
|Practice Test 1|
|Progress and Competency Chart|
|Detailed Explanations of Answers|
|Practice Test 2|
|Progress and Competency Chart|
|Detailed Explanations of Answers|
|Table of Contents provided by Publisher. All Rights Reserved.|
ABOUT THIS BOOK
If you’re looking to secure certification as an ESL/ESOL teacher, you’ll find that nineteen
states require the Praxis II English to Speakers of Other Languages (0360) test. Think
of this book as your toolkit to pass the test. It will help take the mystery and anxiety out of
the testing process by equipping you not only with the nuts and bolts, but also, ultimately,
with the confidence to succeed alongside your peers across the United States.
We at REA have put a lot of thought into this, and the result is a book that pulls together all
the critical information you need to know to pass the Praxis II English to Speakers of Other Languages (0360) test. Let us help you fill in the blanksâliterally and figuratively! We will provide
you with the touchstones that will allow you to do your very best come test day and beyond.
In this guide, REA offers our customarily in-depth, up-to-date, objective coverage, with
test-specific modules devoted to targeted review and realistic practice exams complete with
the kind of detail that makes a difference when you’re coming down the homestretch in
your preparation. We also include a quick-view answer key and competency-categorized
progress chart to enable you to pinpoint your strengths and weaknesses.
Praxis II embraces Subject Assessment/Specialty Area Tests, of which the Praxis II
English to Speakers of Other Languages (0360) is a part. The Praxis II examinations
cover the subject matter that students typically study in teacher education courses such
as language acquisition, school curriculum, methods of teaching, and other professional
development courses. In most teacher-training programs, students take these tests after
having completed their classroom training, the course work, and practicum.
The Praxis II English to Speakers of Other Languages (0360) covers the content
areas of analysis of student language production, linguistic theory, teaching methods and
techniques, assessment techniques and cultural issues and professional issues. This study
guide will deal with each of these broader content areas and with the subareas as they
relate to teaching English to speakers of other languages.
Who Takes the Test?
Most people who take the Praxis II English to Speakers of Other Languages (0360)
are seeking certification in the area of ESL. You should check with your state’s education
agency to determine which Praxis examination(s) you are required to take; the ETS Praxis
website (www.ets.org/praxis/) and registration bulletin may also help you determine the
test(s) you need to take for certification. You should also consult your education program
for its own test requirements. Remember that colleges and universities often require Praxis
examinations for entry into programs, for graduation, and for the completion of a teacher
certification program. These requirements may differ from the baseline requirements the
state has for teacher certification. You will need to meet both sets of requirements.
When Should I Take the Test?
The Praxis II English to Speakers of Other Languages (0360) is a test for those who have
completed or almost completed their teacher education programs. Again, each state establishes
its own requirements for certification; some states specify the passing of other tests.
Some states may require the test for initial certification; other states may require the test for
beginning teachers during their first months on the job. Generally, each college and university
establishes its own requirements for program admission and for graduation. Some colleges
and universities require certain tests for graduation and/or for completion of a teacher education
program. Check with your college and the state teacher certification agency for details.
When and Where Can I Take the Test?
ETS offers the Praxis II English to Speakers of Other languages test seven times a year at
a number of locations across the nation. The usual testing day is Saturday, but examinees may
request an administration on an alternate day if a conflict, such as a religious obligation, exists.
How Do I Get More Information on the ETS Praxis Exams?
To receive information on upcoming administrations of any of the Praxis II Subject
Assessments or any other Praxis test, consult the ETS registration bulletin or website, or
contact ETS at:
ETS-The Praxis Seriesâ¢
P.O. Box 6051
Princeton, NJ 08541-6051
Phone: (609) 771-7395
Special accommodations are available for candidates who are visually impaired, hearing
impaired, physically disabled, or specific learning disabled. For questions concerning
disability services, contact:
ETS Disability Services
PO Box 6054
Princeton, NJ 08541â6054
Phone: (609) 771-7780 or (866) 387-8602 (toll free for test takers in the United
States, U.S. Territories, and Canada)
TTY only: (609) 771-7714
Provisions are also available for examinees whose primary language is not English.
The ETS registration bulletin and website include directions for those requesting such
accommodations. You can also consult ETS with regard to available test sites; reporting
test scores; requesting changes in tests, centers, and dates of test; purchasing additional
score reports; retaking tests; and other basic facts.
Is There a Registration Fee?
To take a Praxis examination, you must pay a registration fee, which is payable by
check, money order, or with American Express, Discover, MasterCard, or Visa credit
cards. In certain cases, ETS offers fee waivers. The registration bulletin and website give
qualifications for receiving this benefit and describe the application process. Cash is not
accepted for payment.
Can I Retake the Test?
Some states, institutions, and associations limit the number of times you can retest.
Contact your state or licensing authority to confirm their retest policies.
HOW TO USE THIS BOOK
What Do I Study First?
Read over REA’s subject review and suggestions for test taking. Studying the reviews
thoroughly will reinforce the basic skills you will need to do well on the exam. Make sure
to do the practice questions in this book so that you will be familiar with the format and
procedures involved with taking the actual test.
When Should I Start Studying?
It is never too early to start studying; the earlier you begin, the more time you will
have to sharpen your skills. Do not procrastinate! Cramming is not an effective way to
study because it does not allow you the time needed to learn the test material.
FORMAT OF THE TEST
The Praxis II English to Speakers of Other Languages (0360) comprises 120 multiple choice
questions. Twenty of the 120 questions are part of two timed listening sections
in Section I, Parts A and B. Part A is composed of ten questions designed to test your
ability to recognize oral grammar and vocabulary errors, and the ten questions in Part B
will test your ability to recognize pronunciation errors of non-native speakers. You are
given two-hours to complete the test, 30 minutes of which is spent on the 20 questions in
the recorded portion of the test. The reviews in this book will help you sharpen the basic skills needed to approach the
exams and offer you strategies for attacking the questions. By using the reviews in conjunction
with the practice tests, you will better prepare yourself for the actual tests. You have learned
through your coursework and your practical experience in schools most of what you need to
know to answer the questions on the test. In your education classes, you gained the expertise to
make important decisions about situations you will face as a teacher; in your content courses,
you should have acquired the knowledge you will need to teach specific content. The reviews
in this book will help you fit the information you have acquired into its specific testable category.
Reviewing your class notes and textbooks along with systematic use of this book will
give you an excellent springboard for passing the Praxis test.
The numbers of raw points awarded on the Praxis II English to Speakers of Other
Languages (0360) test is based on the number of correct answers given. Most Praxis
examinations vary by edition, which means that each test has several variations that contain
different questions. The different questions are intended to measure the same general
types of knowledge or skills. However, there is no way to guarantee that the questions
on all editions of the test will have the same degree of difficulty. To avoid penalizing test
takers who answer questions that are more difficult, scores are adjusted for difficulty by
using a statistical process known as equating. To avoid confusion between the adjusted and
unadjusted scores, ETS reports the adjusted scores on a score scale that makes them clearly
different from the unadjusted scores. Unadjusted scores, or “raw scores,” are simply the
number of questions answered correctly. Adjusted scores, which are equated to the scale
ETS uses for reporting the scores, are called “scaled scores.” For each edition of a Praxis
test, a “raw-to-scale conversion table” is used to translate raw to scaled scores.
The easier the questions are on a test edition, the more questions must be answered
correctly to earn a given scaled score. The college or university in which you are enrolled
may set passing scores for the completion of your teacher education program and for
graduation. Be sure to check the requirements in the catalogues or bulletins. You will also
want to talk with your advisor. The passing scores for the Praxis II tests vary from state to
state. To find out which of the Praxis II tests your state requires and what your state’s set
passing score is, contact your state’s education department directly.Score Reporting
When Will I Receive My Examinee Score Report and in What Form Will It Be?
ETS mails test-score reports six weeks after the test date. There is an exception for
computer-based tests and for the Praxis I examinations. Score reports will list your current
score and the highest score you have earned on each test you have taken over the last 10 years.
Along with your score report, ETS will provide you with a booklet that offers details on your
scores. For each test date, you may request that ETS send a copy of your scores to as many as
three score recipients, provided that each institution or agency is eligible to receive the scores.