9780310240020

Beyond Integrity : A Judeo-Christian Approach to Business Ethics

by
  • ISBN13:

    9780310240020

  • ISBN10:

    0310240026

  • Edition: 2nd
  • Format: Hardcover
  • Copyright: 9/1/2004
  • Publisher: Harpercollins Christian Pub
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Summary

Integrity is essential to Judeo-Christian business ethics. But today's business environment is complex. Those in business, and those preparing to enter the business world, need to grapple with the question of how integrity and biblical ethics can be applied in the workplace. They need to go "beyond integrity" in their thinking. Beyond Integrity is neither excessively theoretical nor simplistic and dogmatic. Rather, it offers a balanced and pragmatic approach to a number of concrete ethical issues. Readings from a wide range of sources present competing perspectives on each issue, and real-life case studies further help the reader grapple with ethical dilemmas. The authors conclude each chapter with their own distinctly Christian commentary on the topic covered. This second edition includes recent issues that have surfaced in today's constantly changing business culture. Revisions include: - Ethical implications of information technology, biotechnology, and other important new issues - Reflections on recent court cases that shape the moral discussion - Shorter text with increased accessibility to the reader With the goal of helping readers arrive at their own conclusions, this book provides a decision-making model. Beyond Integrity equips men and women to develop a biblically based approach to the ethical challenges of twenty-first century business.

Table of Contents

Acknowledgments 13(2)
Introduction 15(6)
Part I: Foundations for Christian Ethics in Business
Christian Ethics in Business: Tensions and Challenges
Introduction
21(2)
Readings
``Is Business Bluffing Ethical?''
23(9)
Albert Z. Carr
``Why Be Honest If Honesty Doesn't Pay?''
32(9)
Amar Bhide
Howard H. Stevenson
``Companies Are Discovering the Value of Ethics.''
41(5)
Norman Bowie
Cases
Case 1.1. Borland's Brave Beginning
46(1)
Case 1.2. Keeping Secrets
47(2)
Commentary
49(4)
Christian Engagement in Business
Introduction
53(2)
Readings
``Christ and Business: A Typology for Christian Business Ethics.''
55(5)
Louke van Wensveen Siker
``The Entrepreneurial Vocation.''
60(7)
Fr. Robert Sirico
``Tough Business: In Deep, Swift Waters.''
67(4)
Steve Brinn
Cases
Case 2.1. Business as a Calling
71(1)
Case 2.2. The Assignment
72(1)
Commentary
73(4)
Christian Ethics for Business: Norms and Benchmarks
Introduction
77(13)
Readings
``The Bible and Culture in Ethics.''
90(19)
Bernard T. Adeney
``Business Ethics.''
109(6)
Alexander Hill
Cases
Case 3.1. Payroll Pressures
115(1)
Case 3.2. Not So Amusing
116(1)
Commentary
117(12)
Part II: Ethics, Corporations, and the Global Economy
Corporate Social Responsibility
Introduction
129(2)
Readings
``The Social Responsibility of Business Is to Increase Its Profits.''
131(5)
Milton Friedman
``Business Ethics and Stakeholder Analysis.''
136(10)
Kenneth E. Goodpaster
``A Long Term Business Perspective in a Short Term World: A Conversation with Jim Sinegal.''
146(6)
Albert Erisman
David Gill Ethix
Cases
Case 4.1. Violent Video Games
152(1)
Case 4.2. Starbucks and Fair Trade Coffee
153(2)
Commentary
155(8)
Globalization, Economics, and Judeo-Christian Morality
Introduction
163(6)
Readings
``The Oxford Declaration on Christian Faith and Economics.''
169(11)
Herbert Schlossberg
``Economic Justice: A Biblical Paradigm.''
180(25)
Stephen Mott
Ronald J. Sider
Cases
Case 5.1. Downsizing: Efficiency or Corporate Hit Men?
205(1)
Case 5.2. Executive Compensation: Out of Control or Market Appropriate?
206(1)
Case 5.3. Selling Eggs and Embryos
207(2)
Commentary
209(14)
International Business
Introduction
223(2)
Readings
``Ethical Theory and Bribery.''
225(14)
Bernard T. Adeney
``Two Cheers for Sweatshops.''
239(3)
Nicholas Kristof
Sheryl WuDunn
Cases
Case 6.1. Sweatshops
242(1)
Case 6.2. When in Rome, Do as the Romans Do?
243(1)
Commentary
244(11)
Part III: Contemporary Ethical Issues in Business
Human Resources Management
Introduction
255(3)
Readings
``The Moral Foundation of Employee Rights.''
258(7)
John R. Rowan
``Privacy, the Workplace and the Internet.''
265(11)
Seumas Miller
John Weckert
``The Double Jeopardy of Sexual Harassment.''
276(4)
J. H. Foegen
Cases
Case 7.1. Benefits for Spousal Equivalents
280(1)
Case 7.2. Conflicts of Conscience
281(1)
Case 7.3. Family-Friendly Flex Policies
282(1)
Commentary
283(12)
Accounting and Finance
Introduction
295(5)
Reading
``Financial Ethics: An Overview.''
300(16)
John Boatright
Cases
Case 8.1. Audit Adjustments
316(1)
Case 8.2. The New Insiders
317(2)
Case 8.3. Stock Analysts and Investment Bankers
319(1)
Commentary
320(17)
Marketing and Advertising
Introduction
337(3)
Readings
``The Morality (?) of Advertising.''
340(8)
Theodore Levitt
``The Making of Self and World in Advertising.''
348(7)
John Waide
``Making Consumers.''
355(5)
Rodney Clapp
Cases
Case 9.1. Diamonds Are Forever
360(1)
Case 9.2. School-Based Marketing
360(2)
Commentary
362(5)
Environmental Stewardship
Introduction
367(2)
Readings
``Business and Environmental Ethics.''
369(10)
W. Michael Hoffman
``The Challenge of Biocentrism.''
379(13)
Thomas Sieger Derr
Cases
Case 10.1. Heap-Leach Mining in Latin America
392(1)
Case 10.2. Yew Trees and Cancer Cures
393(1)
Case 10.3. Animal Testing for Perfumes
394(1)
Commentary
395(12)
Technology in the Workplace
Introduction
407(2)
Readings
``Is Technology (ever) Evil?''
409(2)
David Gill
``Five Big Issues in Today's Technological Workplace.''
411(3)
Albert M. Erisman
``Little Brother Is Watching You.''
414(4)
Miriam Schulman
Cases
Case 11.1. Customer Service and Privacy
418(1)
Case 11.2. To Catch a Thief
418(2)
Commentary
420(3)
Moral Leadership in Business
Introduction
423(2)
Readings
``Creating and Encouraging Ethical Corporate Structures.''
425(8)
Patrick E. Murphy
``The Place of Character in Corporate Ethics.''
433(8)
Virgil Smith
```Why Should My Conscience Bother Me?' The Aircraft Brake Scandal.''
441(13)
Kermit Vandivier
Cases
Case 12.1. Billing Practices and the Bankruptcy Courts
454(1)
Case 12.2. How Much Does Character Count?
455(1)
Commentary
456(9)
Conclusion: Business, Virtue, and the Good Life 465(4)
Credits 469(4)
About the Authors 473

Excerpts

Beyond Integrity Copyright © 1996, 2004 by Scott B. Rae and Kenman L. Wong
Requests for information should be addressed to: Zondervan, Grand Rapids, Michigan 49530
Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Beyond integrity : a Judeo-Christian approach to business ethics / [edited by] Scott B. Rae and Kenman L. Wong.—2nd ed. p. cm. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 0-310-24002-6 (hardcover) 1. Business ethics. 2. Business—Religious aspects—Christianity. 3. Business—Religious aspects—Judaism. I. Rae, Scott B. II. Wong, Kenman L., 1964– HF5387.B49 2004 174'.4—dc22 2004010289
This edition printed on acid-free paper.
All Scripture quotations used by the authors, unless otherwise noted, are taken from the Holy Bible: New International Version®, NIV®. Copyright © 1973, 1978, 1984 by International Bible Society. Used by permission of Zondervan. All rights reserved.
The reprinted articles may quote other versions of the Bible and may or may not identify those versions.
Credits and permissions for reprinted articles are provided on pages 469–71, which hereby become part of this copyright page.
The website addresses recommended throughout this book are offered as a resource to you. These websites are not intended in any way to be or imply an endorsement on the part of Zondervan, nor do we vouch for their content for the life of this book.
All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means—electronic, mechanical, photocopy, recording, or any other—except for brief quotations in printed reviews, without the prior permission of the publisher.
Interior design by Nancy Wilson
Printed in the United States of America
04 05 06 07 08 09 10 /.DC/ 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
ONE Christian Ethics in Business: Tensions and Challenges
A sudden submission to Christian ethics by businessmen would bring about the greatest economic upheaval in history!
A chief executive officer, quoted in “Is Business Bluffing Ethical?” by Albert Z. Carr
INTRODUCTION
Recently, there has been exploding interest in the idea of “spirituality” in the workplace. Major business magazines such as Business Week and Fortune have run cover stories on the topic, and academic conferences, corporate programs, and executive retreats have been organized around this theme. Understandably, the concept of integrating one’s faith and values into the workplace is important and rightfully deserves such attention.
However, actual attempts to bring faith-based values into the workplace can be challenging and riddled with tension when the “darker” aspects of business and the reality of economic competition are factored into the equation. In fact, some research supports the suspicion that many business people do, in fact, live with two conflicting sets of rules: one for business, and one for their lives outside of work.
Some observers of commercial life have gone so far as to claim that virtue and success have an inverse relationship. Unless individual participants leave “private” morality at the door, financial gain will prove elusive. Business demands shrewdness and the bending, if not outright breaking, of rules, the argument typically goes. Play “softly” and you will soon be surpassed. Not that “good” behavior is nonexistent. When it occurs, however, the motivation behind it is self-interest, not ethics per se.
Organizations are trapped by similar deterministic rules.A “nice” company that engages in “restrained” competition or sacrifices profits for the benefit of employees or the local community beyond motivational or public relations value will soon find itself in decline if competitors don’t operate with similar rules and intentions.
The idea that business demands different standards for behavior is particularly problematic for those who adhere to a belief system that holds that a unified set of values should be applicable to life in its totality. The thought that the very virtues that govern their lives outside of work could be the ones that jeopardize the ability to succeed within it is deeply troubling. Moreover, if the construct is true, we are lead to the inevitable conclusion that all who have achieved success in business from a financial standpoint have somehow compromised their moral standards in the process.
In stark contrast to the belief that financial success requires ethical compromise, a popular sentiment has it that good ethics is good business. Behavioral compromises are unnecessary and are the product of short-sightedness. After all, honesty and fairness will only enhance economic well-being. Customers prefer to deal with individuals and organizations with a rock-solid reputation for honesty. Therefore, ethics and self-interest do not clash at all. Sound strategy and prudence require only the short-term sacrifice of gain.
The central focus of this chapter is to examine some of the tensions and challenges of bringing Christian ethics to bear on business. Do traditional virtues such as honesty and compassion facilitate the prospect for successful participation in business? Or, conversely, do such characteristics doom a business to fail in the “competitive jungle” of economic affairs?
In “Is Business Bluffing Ethical?” Albert Z. Carr takes the posture that two sets of morals, one for business and one for private life, is an inescapable reality. Using the game of poker as an analogy to business, Carr argues that practices such as “bluffing” should be judged by business rules and not by “the ethical principles preached in churches.” He concludes that those who try to apply their private morals at the workplace will likely fail to be successful as business people.
Based on qualitative research, authors Amar Bhide and Howard H. Stevenson in their article entitled “Why Be Honest If Honesty Doesn’t Pay?” attempted to find evidence to support the popular notion that good ethics and good business are synonymous. In a somewhat surprising and optimistic conclusion, Bhide and Stevenson find that while the idea that “honesty is the best policy” makes intuitive sense, it is an unsubstantiated claim from a rational, economic standpoint. They point to cases in which breaking one’s word is actually handsomely rewarded or, at the very least, seldom punished. Even so, they argue that the trust necessary for business relationships is alive and well, because for many business people honesty is a matter of conscience and morality rather than strategy.
In “Companies Are Discovering the Value of Ethics,” author Norman Bowie contradicts the view that ethics and profits are inversely related. While he does not make the claim that good ethics always lead to higher profit margins, Bowie provides multiple examples in which ethics have had a positive impact on the bottom line. This is the case, he argues, because attention to ethics can provide firms with a source of competitive advantage.
The case studies in this chapter provide windows through which one can see some of these tensions and challenges illustrated. “Borland’s Brave Beginning” presents a true-to-life scenario in which truth telling and financial success seem to be in conflict. “Keeping Secrets” divides a manager’s loyalty between an organization and a freindship.
READINGS
Is Business Bluffing Ethical?
Albert Z. Carr
Harvard Business Review (January–February 1968). Copyright © 1967. The ethics of business are not those of

Excerpted from Beyond Integrity: A Judeo-Christian Approach to Business Ethics by Scott B. Rae, Kenman L. Wong
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