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Biological Psychology With Infotrac

by
Edition:
8th
ISBN13:

9780534588168

ISBN10:
0534588166
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
7/7/2003
Publisher(s):
Wadsworth Publishing

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Summary

This #1 best-seller has successfully introduced thousands of students to the intricate relationship between biology and psychology. This Eighth Edition redefines the high standard set by previous editions. It offers the best balance of rigor and accessibility, the most current research, and the most thorough technology integration available for your course--all presented within a unique modular format that supports student mastery and provides instructors with maximum teaching flexibility. In every chapter, Kalat accurately portrays biopsychology as a dynamic and empirical field in which fascinating new discoveries are constantly being made. He captures readers' interest with the latest biological psychology findings, such as how gingko biloba claims to aid memory and coverage of the hypothesis that humans' mate choice patterns are influenced by natural selection. Throughout, the author's goal is not only to convey information, but also to convey his excitement about and dedication to the subject.

Author Biography

James W. Kalat is Professor of Psychology at North Carolina State University

Table of Contents

The Major Issues
1(28)
The Mind-Brain Relationship
2(7)
Biological Explanations of Behavior
3(2)
The Brain and Conscious Experience
5(2)
In Closing: Your Brain and Your Experience
7(1)
Summary
8(1)
Answers to Stop and Check Questions
8(1)
Thought Questions
8(1)
Author's Answer About Machine Consciousness
8(1)
The Genetics of Behavior
9(11)
Mendelian Genetics
9(1)
Chromosomes and Crossing Over
10(1)
Sex-Linked and Sex-Limited Genes
10(1)
Sources of Variation
11(1)
Heritability
11(1)
Ways of Measuring Human Heritability
11(1)
Overestimating Heritability
12(1)
Environmental Modification of Heritable Behaviors
13(1)
How Genes Affect Behavior
13(1)
The Evolution of Behavior
14(1)
Common Misunderstandings About Evolution
14(2)
Sociobiology
16(2)
In Closing: Genes and Behavior
18(1)
Summary
19(1)
Answers to Stop and Check Questions
19(1)
Thought Question
19(1)
The Use of Animals in Research
20(5)
Reasons for Animal Research
20(1)
The Ethical Debate
20(4)
In Closing: Humans and Other Animals
24(1)
Summary
24(1)
Answers to Stop and Check Questions
24(1)
Prospects for Further Study
25(4)
Chapter Ending Key Terms and Activities
26(1)
Terms
26(1)
Suggestions for Further Reading
26(1)
Web Sites to Explore
26(1)
CD-Rom: Exploring Biological Psychology
27(2)
Nerve Cells and Nerve Impulses
29(24)
The Cells of the Nervous System
30(9)
Anatomy of Neurons and Glia
30(1)
Extensions and Applications
Santiago Ramon y Cajal: A Pioneer of Neuroscience
30(1)
The Structures of an Animal Cell
31(1)
The Structure of a Neuron
32(2)
Variations Among Neurons
34(1)
Glia
35(1)
The Blood-Brain Barrier
36(1)
Why We Need a Blood-Brain Barrier
37(1)
How the Blood-Brain Barrier Works
37(1)
The Nourishment of Vertebrate Neurons
38(1)
In Closing: Neurons
38(1)
Summary
38(1)
Answers to Stop and Check Questions
38(1)
The Nerve Impulse
39(14)
The Resting Potential of the Neuron
39(1)
Forces Acting on Sodium and Potassium Ions
40(1)
Why a Resting Potential?
41(1)
The Action Potential
42(1)
The Molecular Basis of the Action Potential
43(1)
The All-or-None Law
44(1)
The Refractory Period
44(1)
Propagation of the Action Potential
45(1)
The Myelin Sheath and Saltatory Conduction
45(2)
Local Neurons
47(1)
Graded Potentials
47(1)
Extensions and Applications
Small Neurons and Big Misconceptions
47(1)
In Closing: Neural Messages
47(1)
Summary
48(1)
Answers to Stop and Check Questions
48(1)
Thought Questions
49(1)
Chapter Ending Key Terms and Activities
50(1)
Terms
50(1)
Suggestions for Further Reading
50(1)
Web Sites to Explore
51(1)
CD-Rom: Exploring Biological Psychology
51(2)
Communication at Synapses
53(20)
The Concept of the Synapse
54(6)
The Properties of Synapses
54(1)
Speed of a Reflex and Delayed Transmission at the Synapse
55(1)
Temporal Summation
55(1)
Spatial Summation
56(1)
Inhibitory Synapses
56(1)
Relationship Among EPSP, IPSP, and Action Potential
57(1)
In Closing: The Neuron as Decision Maker
58(1)
Summary
58(1)
Answers to Stop and Check Questions
59(1)
Thought Questions
59(1)
Chemical Events at the Synapse
60(13)
The Discovery That Most Synaptic Transmission Is Chemical
60(1)
The Sequence of Chemical Events at a Synapse
61(1)
Types of Neurotransmitters
62(1)
Synthesis of Transmitters
62(1)
Transport of Transmitters
63(1)
Release and Diffusion of Transmitters
63(1)
Activation of Receptors of the Postsynaptic Cell
64(2)
Inactivation and Reuptake of Neurotransmitters
66(1)
Synapses and Drug Effects
67(1)
How Drugs Affect Synapses
67(1)
Synapses and Personality
68(1)
In Closing: Neurotransmitters and Behavior
69(1)
Summary
69(1)
Answers to Stop and Check Questions
69(1)
Thought Questions
70(1)
Chapter Ending Key Terms and Activities
70(1)
Terms
70(1)
Suggestion for Further Reading
71(1)
Web Sites to Explore
71(1)
CD-Rom: Exploring Biological Psychology
71(2)
Anatomy of the Nervous System
73(34)
Research Methods
74(6)
Effects of Brain Damage
75(1)
Effects of Brain Stimulation
75(1)
Recording Brain Activity
76(1)
Correlating Brain Anatomy With Behavior
77(2)
In Closing: Methods and Their Limits
79(1)
Summary
79(1)
Answers to Stop and Check Questions
79(1)
Thought Question
79(1)
Structure of the Vertebrate Nervous System
80(14)
Nervous System Terminology
80(2)
The Spinal Cord
82(1)
The Autonomic Nervous System
83(1)
Extensions and Applications
Goose Bumps
84(1)
The Hindbrain
85(3)
The Midbrain
88(1)
The Forebrain
88(1)
Thalamus
88(2)
Hypothalamus
90(1)
Pituitary Gland
90(1)
Basal Ganglia
90(1)
Basal Forebrain
91(1)
Hippocampus
91(1)
The Ventricles
92(1)
In Closing: Learning Neuroanatomy
93(1)
Summary
93(1)
Answers to Stop and Check Questions
93(1)
Thought Question
93(1)
The Cerebral Cortex
94(13)
Organization of the Cerebral Cortex
94(1)
The Occipital Lobe
95(1)
The Parietal Lobe
96(1)
The Temporal Lobe
96(1)
The Frontal Lobe
97(1)
Extensions and Applications
The Rise and Fall of Prefrontal Lobotomies
98(1)
Modern View of Functions of the Prefrontal Cortex
99(1)
How Do the Parts Work Together?
99(3)
In Closing: Functions of the Cerebral Cortex
102(1)
Summary
102(1)
Answers to Stop and Check Questions
103(1)
Thought Question
103(1)
Chapter Ending Key Terms and Activities
104(1)
Terms
104(1)
Suggestions for Further Reading
105(1)
Web Sites to Explore
105(1)
CD-Rom: Exploring Biological Psychology
105(2)
Development and Plasticity of the Brain
107(36)
Development of the Brain
108(17)
Growth and Differentiation of the Vertebrate Brain
108(1)
Growth and Development of Neurons
109(1)
Determinants of Neuron Survival
110(2)
MRI Scans
112(1)
Pathfinding by Axons
112(1)
Chemical Pathfinding by Axons
113(2)
Competition Among Axons as a General Principle
115(1)
Fine-Tuning by Experience
115(1)
Effects of Experience on Dendritic Branching
115(1)
Generation of New Neurons
116(1)
Effects of Experience on Human Brain Structures
117(1)
Magnetoencephalography (MEG)
117(3)
Combinations of Chemical and Experiential Effects
120(1)
Proportional Growth of Brain Areas
120(2)
The Vulnerable Developing Brain
122(1)
In Closing: Brain Development
123(1)
Summary
123(1)
Answers to Stop and Check Questions
124(1)
Thought Questions
124(1)
Plasticity After Brain Damage
125(18)
Causes of Brain Damage
125(1)
Extensions and Applications
The Woodpecker as Ergonomic Expert
125(1)
Reducing the Harm From a Stroke
125(3)
Effects of Age on Recovery
128(1)
Mechanisms of Recovery After Brain Damage
128(1)
Learned Adjustments in Behavior
128(1)
Diaschisis
129(1)
Lesions
130(1)
The Regrowth of Axons
130(1)
Sprouting
131(1)
Denervation Supersensitivity
132(1)
Autoradiography
132(2)
Reorganized Sensory Representations and the Phantom Limb
134(1)
Histochemistry
135(1)
Therapies
136(1)
Behavioral Interventions
136(1)
Drugs
137(1)
Brain Grafts
138(1)
In Closing: Brain Damage and Recovery
138(1)
Summary
138(1)
Answers to Stop and Check Questions
139(1)
Thought Questions
139(1)
Chapter Ending Key Terms and Activities
140(1)
Terms
140(1)
Suggestions for Further Reading
140(1)
Web Site to Explore
141(1)
CD-Rom: Exploring Biological Psychology
141(2)
Vision
143(44)
Visual Coding and the Retinal Receptors
144(13)
General Principles of Perception
144(1)
From Neuronal Activity to Perception
144(1)
Law of Specific Nerve Energies
144(2)
The Eye and Its Connections to the Brain
146(1)
The Route Within the Retina
146(2)
Fovea and Periphery of the Retina
148(1)
Visual Receptors: Rods and Cones
149(1)
Color Vision
150(1)
The Trichromatic (Young-Helmholtz) Theory
150(2)
The Opponent-Process Theory
152(2)
The Retinex Theory
154(1)
Color Vision Deficiency
155(1)
In Closing: Visual Receptors
155(1)
Summary
155(1)
Answers to Stop and Check Questions
156(1)
Thought Question
156(1)
The Neural Basis of Visual Perception
157(20)
An Overview of the Mammalian Visual System
157(2)
Mechanisms of Processing in the Visual System
159(1)
Receptive Fields
159(1)
Lateral Inhibition
160(2)
Concurrent Pathways in the Visual System
162(1)
In the Retina and Lateral Geniculate
162(1)
In the Cerebral Cortex
162(2)
The Cerebral Cortex: The Shape Pathway
164(1)
Microelectrode Recordings
164(1)
Hubel and Wiesel's Cell Types in the Primary Visual Cortex
164(2)
The Columnar Organization of the Visual Cortex
166(1)
Are Visual Cortex Cells Feature Detectors?
167(1)
Shape Analysis Beyond Area V1
168(1)
Disorders of Object Recognition
169(1)
fMRI Scans
170(1)
The Cerebral Cortex: The Color Pathway
171(1)
The Cerebral Cortex: The Motion and Depth Pathways
171(1)
Structures Important for Motion Perception
172(1)
Extensions and Applications
Suppressed Vision During Eye Movements
173(1)
Motion Blindness
173(1)
Visual Attention
174(1)
The Binding Problem Revisited: Visual Consciousness
174(1)
In Closing: Coordinating Separate Visual Pathways
175(1)
Summary
175(1)
Answers to Stop and Check Questions
176(1)
Thought Question
176(1)
Development of the Visu System
177(10)
Infant Vision
177(1)
Effects of Experience on Visual Development
177(1)
Effects of Early Lack of Stimulation of One Eye
177(1)
Effects of Early Lack of Stimulation of Both Eyes
178(1)
Restoration of Response After Early Deprivation of Vision
179(1)
Uncorrelated Stimulation in Both Eyes
179(1)
Early Exposure to a Limited Array of Patterns
180(2)
Lack of Seeing Objects in Motion
182(1)
Effects of Blindness on the Cortex
182(1)
In Closing: The Nature and Nurture of Vision
182(1)
Summary
182(1)
Answers to Stop and Check Questions
183(1)
Thought Questions
183(1)
Chapter Ending Key Terms and Activities
184(1)
Terms
184(1)
Suggestions for Further Reading
185(1)
Web Sites to Explore
185(1)
CD-Rom: Exploring Biological Psychology
185(2)
The Other Sensory Systems and Attention
187(40)
Audition
188(9)
Sound and the Ear
188(1)
Physical and Psychological Dimensions of Sound
188(1)
Structures of the Ear
189(1)
Pitch Perception
190(1)
Frequency Theory and Place Theory
190(1)
Pitch Perception in the Cerebral Cortex
191(1)
Hearing Loss
192(2)
Localization of Sounds
194(1)
In Closing: Functions of Hearing
195(1)
Summary
195(1)
Answers to Stop and Check Questions
196(1)
Thought Questions
196(1)
The Mechanical Senses
197(11)
Vestibular Sensation
197(1)
Somatosensation
197(1)
Somatosensory Receptors
197(1)
Extensions and Applications Tickle
198(1)
Input to the Spinal Cord and the Brain
199(2)
Pain
201(1)
The Neurotransmitters of Pain
201(1)
Painful Heat
202(2)
Pain and Emotion
204(1)
Sensitization of Pain
204(1)
Pain Control
205(1)
Itch
205(1)
In Closing: Touch, Pain, and Survival
206(1)
Summary
206(1)
Answers to Stop and Check Questions
206(1)
Thought Question
207(1)
The Chemical Senses
208(11)
General Issues About Chemical Coding
208(1)
Taste
209(1)
Taste Receptors
209(1)
How Many Kinds of Taste Receptors?
209(1)
Extensions and Applications
Miracle Berries
209(2)
Mechanisms of Taste Receptors
211(1)
Taste Coding in the Brain
211(1)
Individual Differences in Taste
212(2)
Olfaction
214(1)
Olfactory Receptors
214(1)
Behavioral Methods of Identifying Olfactory Receptors
215(1)
Biochemical Identification of Receptor Types
215(1)
Implications for Coding
216(1)
Vomeronasal Sensation and Pheromones
216(1)
In Closing: Different Senses Offer Different Ways of Knowing the World
217(1)
Summary
218(1)
Answers to Stop and Check Questions
218(1)
Thought Questions
218(1)
Attention
219(8)
Conscious and Unconscious, Attended and Unattended Experience
219(1)
Neglect
220(1)
Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder
221(1)
Measurements of ADHD Behavior
221(1)
Possible Causes and Brain Differences
222(1)
Treatments
222(1)
In Closing: What Little We Know About Attention
223(1)
Summary
223(1)
Answers to Stop and Check Questions
224(1)
Thought Question
224(1)
Chapter Ending Key Terms and Activities
224(1)
Terms
224(1)
Suggestions for Further Reading
225(1)
Web Sites to Explore
225(1)
CD-Rom: Exploring Biological Psychology
225(2)
Movement
227(34)
The Control of Movement
228(8)
Muscles and Their Movements
228(2)
Fast and Slow Muscles
230(1)
Muscle Control by Proprioceptors
231(1)
Units of Movement
232(1)
Voluntary and Involuntary Movements
232(1)
Extensions and Applications
Infant Reflexes
233(1)
Movements With Different Sensitivity to Feedback
234(1)
Sequences of Behaviors
234(1)
In Closing: Categories of Movement
235(1)
Summary
235(1)
Answers to Stop and Check Questions
235(1)
Thought Question
235(1)
Brain Mechanisms of Movement
236(13)
The Role of the Cerebral Cortex
237(2)
Areas Near the Primary Motor Cortex
239(1)
Connections From the Brain to the Spinal Cord
239(3)
The Role of the Cerebellum
242(1)
Evidence of a Broad Role
243(1)
Cellular Organization
244(1)
The Role of the Basal Ganglia
245(2)
PET Scans
247(1)
In Closing: Movement Control and Cognition
247(1)
Summary
248(1)
Answers to Stop and Check Questions
248(1)
Thought Question
248(1)
Disorders of Movement
249(12)
Parkinson's Disease
249(1)
Possible Causes
249(3)
L-Dopa Treatment
252(1)
Therapies Other Than L-Dopa
252(2)
Huntington's Disease
254(1)
Heredity and Presymptomatic Testing
254(1)
In Closing: Heredity and Environment in Movement Disorders
255(1)
Summary
256(1)
Answers to Stop and Check Questions
257(1)
Thought Questions
257(1)
Chapter Ending Key Terms and Activities
258(1)
Terms
258(1)
Suggestions for Further Reading
258(1)
Web Sites to Explore
259(1)
CD-Rom: Exploring Biological Psychology
259(2)
Wakefulness and Sleep
261(32)
Rhythms of Waking and Sleeping
262(9)
Endogenous Cycles
262(1)
Duration of the Human Circadian Rhythm
263(1)
Mechanisms of the Biological Clock
263(1)
The Suprachiasmatic Nucleus (SCN)
264(1)
The Biochemistry of the Circadian Rhythm
265(1)
Melatonin
265(2)
Setting and Resetting the Biological Clock
267(1)
Jet Lag
267(1)
Shift Work
268(1)
How Light Resets the SCN
268(1)
In Closing: Sleep--Wake Cycles
269(1)
Summary
269(1)
Answers to Stop and Check Questions
269(1)
Thought Questions
270(1)
Stages of Sleep and Brain Mechanisms
271(13)
The Stages of Sleep
271(1)
Electroencephalography (EEG)
271(2)
Paradoxical or REM Sleep
273(1)
Brain Mechanisms of Wakefulness and Arousal
274(1)
Arousal
274(1)
Getting to Sleep
275(3)
Brain Function in REM Sleep
278(1)
Abnormalities of Sleep
279(1)
Insomnia
279(1)
Sleep Apnea
280(1)
Narcolepsy
280(1)
Periodic Limb Movement Disorder
281(1)
REM Behavior Disorder
281(1)
Night Terrors, Sleep Talking, and Sleepwalking
282(1)
In Closing: Stages of Sleep
282(1)
Summary
282(1)
Answers to Stop and Check Questions
283(1)
Thought Question
283(1)
Why Sleep? Why REM? Why Dreams?
284(9)
The Functions of Sleep
284(1)
The Repair and Restoration Theory
284(1)
The Evolutionary Theory
284(1)
Extensions and Applications
Hibernation
285(1)
The Functions of REM Sleep
285(1)
Individual and Species Differences
285(1)
The Effects of REM Sleep Deprivation
286(1)
Hypotheses
287(1)
Biological Perspectives on Dreaming
288(1)
The Activation-Synthesis Hypothesis
288(1)
The Clinico-Anatomical Hypothesis
288(1)
In Closing: Our Limited Self-Understanding
289(1)
Summary
289(1)
Answers to Stop and Check Questions
289(1)
Thought Question
290(1)
Chapter Ending Key Terms and Activities
290(1)
Terms
290(1)
Suggestions for Further Reading
291(1)
Web Sites to Explore
291(1)
CD-Rom: Exploring Biological Psychology
291(2)
Internal Regulation
293(30)
Temperature Regulation
294(6)
Homeostasis
294(1)
Controlling Body Temperature
295(1)
Extensions and Applications
Surviving in Extreme Cold
295(1)
The Advantages of Constant High Body Temperature
295(2)
Physiological Mechanisms
297(1)
Behavioral Mechanisms
298(1)
Fever
298(1)
In Closing: Temperature and Behavior
299(1)
Summary
299(1)
Answers to Stop and Check Questions
299(1)
Thought Question
299(1)
Thirst
300(5)
Mechanisms of Water Regulation
300(1)
Osmotic Thirst
300(2)
Hypovolemic Thirst
302(1)
Mechanisms
302(1)
In Closing: The Psychology and Biology of Thirst
303(1)
Summary
303(1)
Answers to Stop and Check Questions
304(1)
Thought Questions
304(1)
Hunger
305(18)
How the Digestive System Influences Food Selection
305(1)
Enzymes and Consumption of Dairy Products
306(1)
Other Influences on Food Selection
306(1)
How Taste and Digestion Control Hunger and Satiety
307(1)
Oral Factors
307(1)
The Stomach and Intestines
308(1)
Glucose, Insulin, and Glucagon
309(1)
The Hypothalamus and Feeding Regulation
310(1)
The Lateral Hypothalamus
310(2)
Medial Areas of the Hypothalamus
312(2)
Satiety Chemicals and Eating Disorders
314(1)
Leptin
315(1)
Neuropeptide Y
316(1)
Other Neuromodulators and Hormones
316(1)
Microdialysis
317(1)
Genetics and Human Body Weight
318(1)
Weight-Loss Techniques
318(1)
Anorexia and Bulimia
319(1)
In Closing: The Multiple Controls of Hunger
319(1)
Summary
319(1)
Answers to Stop and Check Questions
320(1)
Thought Question
320(1)
Chapter Ending Key Terms and Activities
321(1)
Terms
321(1)
Suggestions for Further Reading
321(1)
Web Sites to Explore
321(1)
CD-Rom: Exploring Biological Psychology
321(2)
Reproductive Behaviors
323(32)
The Effects of Sex Hormones
324(16)
Control of Hormone Release
327(1)
Organizing Effects of Sex Hormones
328(1)
Sex Differences in the Gonads and Hypothalamus
329(2)
Sex Differences in Nonreproductive Characteristics
331(1)
Activating Effects of Sex Hormones
331(1)
Research Using Rodents
332(1)
Sexual Behavior in Humans
332(3)
Extensions and Applications
Premenstrual Syndrome
335(1)
Nonsexual Behavior
336(1)
Parental Behavior
337(1)
In Closing: Sex-Related Behaviors and Motivations
338(1)
Summary
338(1)
Answers to Stop and Check Questions
339(1)
Thought Questions
339(1)
Variations in Sexual Behavior
340(15)
Evolutionary Interpretations of Mating Behavior
340(1)
Interest in Multiple Mates
340(1)
What Men and Women Seek in Their Mates
340(1)
Differences in Jealousy
341(1)
Evolved or Learned?
341(1)
Conclusions
341(1)
Determinants of Gender Identity
342(1)
Intersexes
342(2)
Testicular Feminization
344(1)
Discrepancies in Sexual Appearance
344(1)
Possible Biological Bases of Sexual Orientation
345(1)
Genetics
346(1)
Hormones
347(1)
Prenatal Stress
348(1)
Brain Anatomy
348(2)
In Closing: We Are Not All the Same
350(1)
Summary
350(1)
Answers to Stop and Check Questions
351(1)
Thought Questions
351(1)
Chapter Ending Key Terms and Activities
352(1)
Terms
352(1)
Suggestions for Further Reading
352(1)
Web Sites to Explore
353(1)
CD-Rom: Exploring Biological Psychology
353(2)
Emotional Behaviors
355(32)
What Is Emotion?
356(8)
Emotions and Decision Making
356(2)
Emotions, Autonomic Response, and the James-Lange Theory
358(1)
Is Physiological Arousal Necessary for Emotions?
359(1)
Is Physiological Arousal Sufficient for Emotions?
360(1)
Brain Areas Associated With Emotion
361(2)
In Closing: Research on Emotions
363(1)
Summary
363(1)
Answers to Stop and Check Questions
363(1)
Stress and Health
364(8)
Stress and the Autonomic Nervous System
364(1)
Psychosomatic Illnesses
364(2)
Voodoo Death and Related Phenomena
366(1)
Stress and the Hypothalamus-Pituitary-Adrenal Cortex Axis
366(1)
The Immune System
367(1)
Effects of Stress on the Immune System
368(1)
Posttraumatic Stress Disorder
369(1)
In Closing: Emotions and Body Reactions
370(1)
Summary
370(1)
Answers to Stop and Check Questions
371(1)
Thought Questions
371(1)
Attack and Escape Behaviors
372(15)
Attack Behaviors
372(1)
Heredity and Environment in Violence
372(2)
Hormones
374(1)
Brain Abnormalities and Violence
374(1)
Serotonin Synapses and Aggressive Behavior
375(2)
Escape, Fear, and Anxiety
377(1)
Fear, Anxiety, and the Amygdala
377(1)
Studies in Rodents
377(1)
Studies in Monkeys
378(1)
Studies in Humans
379(1)
Genetics of Anxiety Disorders
380(1)
Anxiety-Reducing Drugs
381(2)
Extensions and Applications
Alcohol as a Tranquilizer
383(1)
In Closing: Doing Something About Emotions
383(1)
Summary
384(1)
Answers to Stop and Check Questions
384(1)
Thought Question
384(1)
Chapter Ending Key Terms and Activities
385(1)
Terms
385(1)
Suggestions for Further Reading
385(1)
Web Sites to Explore
385(1)
CD-Rom: Exploring Biological Psychology
385(2)
The Biology of Learning and Memory
387(32)
Learning, Memory, Amnesia, and Brain Functioning
388(19)
Localized Representations of Memory
388(1)
Lashley's Search for the Engram
388(2)
The Modern Search for the Engram
390(1)
Types of Memory
391(1)
Short- and Long-Term Memory
391(2)
Consolidation of Long-Term Memories
393(1)
A Modified Theory: Working Memory
394(1)
The Hippocampus and Amnesia
395(1)
Memory Loss After Hippocampal Damage
395(3)
Theories of the Function of the Hippocampus
398(4)
Other Types of Brain Damage and Amnesia
402(1)
Korsakoff's Syndrome and Other Prefrontal Damage
403(1)
Alzheimer's Disease
403(2)
What Amnesic Patients Teach Us
405(1)
In Closing: Different Types of Memory
405(1)
Summary
405(1)
Answers to Stop and Check Questions
406(1)
Thought Questions
406(1)
Storing Information in the Nervous System
407(12)
Extensions and Applications
Blind Alleys and Abandoned Mines
407(1)
Learning and the Hebbian Synapse
408(1)
Single-Cell Mechanisms of Invertebrate Behavior Change
409(1)
Aplysia as an Experimental Animal
409(1)
Habituation in Aplysia
409(1)
Sensitization in Aplysia
409(2)
Long-Term Potentiation in Mammals
411(1)
Biochemical Mechanisms
411(3)
LTP and Behavior
414(1)
In Closing: The Physiology of Memory
415(1)
Summary
415(1)
Answers to Stop and Check Questions
415(1)
Thought Question
416(1)
Chapter Ending Key Terms and Activities
416(1)
Terms
416(1)
Suggestions for Further Reading
417(1)
Web Sites to Explore
417(1)
CD-Rom: Exploring Biological Psychology
417(2)
Lateralization and Language
419(32)
Lateralization of Function
420(13)
Visual and Auditory Connections to the Hemispheres
421(1)
Cutting the Corpus Callosum
422(2)
Testing Hemispheric Dominance for Speech
424(1)
Split Hemispheres: Competition and Cooperation
424(2)
The Right Hemisphere
426(1)
Hemispheric Specialization in Intact Brains
427(1)
Development of Lateralization and Handedness
428(1)
Anatomical Differences Between the Hemispheres
428(1)
Maturation of the Corpus Callosum
428(1)
Development Without a Corpus Callosum
429(1)
Handedness and Language Dominance
429(1)
Recovery of Speech After Brain Damage
430(1)
Avoiding Overstatements
430(1)
In Closing: One Brain, Two Hemispheres
431(1)
Summary
431(1)
Answers to Stop and Check Questions
432(1)
Thought Question
432(1)
Evolution and Physiology of Language
433(18)
Nonhuman Precursors of Language
433(1)
Common Chimpanzees
433(1)
Bonobos
434(1)
Nonprimates
435(1)
How Did Humans Evolve Language?
436(1)
Language as a Product of Overall Intelligence
436(3)
Language as a Special Module
439(1)
Is There a Critical Period for Language Learning?
440(1)
Brain Damage and Language
440(1)
Broca's Aphasia (Nonfluent Aphasia)
440(3)
Wernicke's Aphasia (Fluent Aphasia)
443(1)
Structure and Function: Difficult Inferences
444(1)
Dyslexia
445(2)
In Closing: Language and the Brain
447(1)
Summary
447(1)
Answers to Stop and Check Questions
447(1)
Thought Question
448(1)
Chapter Ending Key Terms and Activities
448(1)
Terms
448(1)
Suggestions for Further Reading
449(1)
Web Sites to Explore
449(1)
CD-Rom: Exploring Biological Psychology
449(2)
Psychological Disorders
451(42)
Substance Abuse
452(12)
Synapses, Reinforcement, and Drug Use
452(1)
Electrical Self-Stimulation of the Brain
452(1)
Drugs and Reinforcement
453(1)
Common Drugs and Their Synaptic Effects
454(1)
Stimulant Drugs
454(1)
Nicotine
455(1)
Opiates
456(1)
Marijuana
457(1)
Hallucinogenic Drugs
458(1)
Alcohol and Alcoholism
459(1)
Genetics
459(1)
Alcohol Metabolism and Antabuse
460(1)
Risk Factors for Alcohol Abuse
461(1)
In Closing: Drugs and Behavior
462(1)
Summary
462(1)
Answers to Stop and Check Questions
463(1)
Thought Questions
463(1)
Mood Disorders
464(12)
Major Depressive Disorder
464(1)
Genetics
464(1)
Life Events
464(1)
Hormones
465(1)
Abnormalities of Hemispheric Dominance
465(1)
Viruses
465(1)
Antidepressant Drugs
466(1)
Extensions and Applications
Accidental Discoveries of Psychiatric Drugs
466(3)
Other Therapies
469(2)
Bipolar Disorder
471(1)
Genetics
471(1)
Treatments
472(1)
Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD)
473(1)
In Closing: The Biology of Mood Swings
474(1)
Summary
474(1)
Answers to Stop and Check Questions
475(1)
Thought Question
475(1)
Schizophrenia
476(17)
Characteristics
476(1)
Behavioral Symptoms
476(1)
Extensions and Applications
Differential Diagnosis of Schizophrenia
477(1)
Demographic Data
478(1)
Genetics
479(1)
Twin Studies
479(1)
Adopted Children Who Develop Schizophrenia
480(1)
Efforts to Locate a Gene
480(1)
The Neurodevelopmental Hypothesis
481(1)
Prenatal and Neonatal Environment
481(1)
Mild Brain Abnormalities
481(2)
The Wisconsin Card Sorting Task
483(1)
Early Development and Later Psychopathology
484(1)
Neurotransmitters and Drugs
484(1)
The Dopamine Hypothesis
484(2)
The Glutamate Hypotheses
486(2)
The Search for Improved Drugs
488(1)
In Closing: The Fascination of Schizophrenia
488(1)
Summary
489(1)
Answers to Stop and Check Questions
489(1)
Thought Questions
490(1)
Chapter Ending Key Terms and Activities
491(1)
Terms
491(1)
Suggestions for Further Reading
491(1)
Web Sites to Explore
492(1)
CD-Rom: Exploring Biological Psychology
492(1)
Brief, Basic Chemistry 493(6)
Society for Neuroscience Policies on the Use of Animals and Human Subjects in Neuroscience Research 499(3)
References 502(69)
Credits 571(4)
Name Index 575(14)
Subject Glossary/Index 589


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