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Biological Science Vol. 2 : Evolution, Diversity, and Ecology,9780131502956
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Biological Science Vol. 2 : Evolution, Diversity, and Ecology

by
Edition:
3rd
ISBN13:

9780131502956

ISBN10:
0131502956
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
1/1/2008
Publisher(s):
Benjamin Cummings

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Summary

For courses in general biology for majors. Biological Science is a dynamic reference that involves students in the process of scientific discovery. Infused with the spirit of inquiry, Biological Science teaches students to think like biologists and prepares them for success in their upper division courses.

Table of Contents

Biology and the Tree of Life
1(18)
The Cell Theory
2(2)
Are All Organisms Made of Cells?
2(1)
Where Do Cells Come From?
2(2)
The Theory of Evolution by Natural Selection
4(1)
What Is Evolution?
4(1)
What Is Natural Selection?
4(1)
The Tree of Life
5(5)
Linnaean Taxonomy
6(1)
Scientific Names and Terms
6(2)
Using Molecules to Understand the Tree of Life
8(2)
Doing Biology
10(9)
Why Do Giraffes Have Long Necks? An Introduction to Hypothesis Testing
10(2)
Why Are Chili Peppers Hot? An Introduction to Experimental Design
12(3)
Where Do Humans Fit on the Tree of Life?
15(1)
Chapter Review
16(3)
UNIT 1 The Origin and Early Evolution of Life
19(108)
The Atoms and Molecules of Ancient Earth
20(26)
The Ancient Earth
20(4)
Studying the Formation of Planets
21(1)
When Did Chemical Evolution Take Place?
21(3)
The Building Blocks of Chemical Evolution
24(5)
What Atoms Are Found in Organisms?
24(1)
How Does Covalent Bonding Hold Molecules Together?
24(2)
How Does Ionic Bonding Hold Molecules Together?
26(1)
Some Simple Molecules Formed from H, C, N, and O
27(2)
Chemical Reactions, Chemical Evolution, and Chemical Energy
29(6)
How Do Chemical Reactions Happen?
30(1)
What Is Energy?
30(2)
Chemical Evolution: A Model System
32(2)
How Did Chemical Energy Change during Chemical Evolution?
34(1)
The Composition of the Early Atmosphere: Redox Reactions and the Importance of Carbon
35(4)
What Is a Redox Reaction?
35(1)
Some Other Approaches to Understanding Redox Reactions
36(1)
What Happens When Carbon Is Reduced?
36(3)
The Early Oceans and the Properties of Water
39(7)
Why Is Water Such an Efficient Solvent?
39(1)
How Does Water's Structure Correlate with Its Properties?
40(1)
Acid-Base Reactions and pH
41(1)
What Was Water's Role in Chemical Evolution?
42(1)
Essay The Search for Extraterrestrial Life
43(1)
Chapter Review
44(2)
Protein Structure and Function
46(28)
Early Origin-of-Life Experiments
47(1)
Was Miller Correct about Conditions on Ancient Earth?
48(1)
Amino Acids and Polymerization
48(8)
The Structure of Amino Acids
49(4)
How Do Amino Acids Link to Form Proteins?
53(3)
What Do Proteins Look Like?
56(6)
Primary Structure
57(1)
Secondary Structure
57(1)
Tertiary Structure
58(1)
Quaternary Structure
59(1)
Folding and Function
60(2)
Prions
62(1)
What Do Proteins Do?
62(12)
Proteins Have Diverse Functions in Cells
62(1)
An Introduction to Catalysis
63(1)
How Do Enzymes Work?
64(6)
Was the First Living Entity a Protein?
70(1)
Molecular Handedness and the Thalidomide Tragedy
70(1)
Chapter Review
71(3)
Nucleic Acids and the RNA World
74(16)
What Is a Nucleic Acid?
75(4)
Could Chemical Evolution Result in the Production of Nucleotides?
76(1)
How Do Nucleotides Polymerize to Form Nucleic Acids?
76(2)
Gel Electrophoresis and Autoradiography
78(1)
DNA Structure and Function
79(4)
An Introduction to X-Ray Crystallography
80(2)
DNA Is an Information-Containing Molecule
82(1)
Is DNA a Catalytic Molecule?
82(1)
RNA Structure and Function
83(2)
RNA as an Information-Containing Molecule
84(1)
Is RNA a Catalytic Molecule?
85(1)
The First Life-Form
85(5)
The Human Side of Research
87(1)
Chapter Review
88(2)
An Introduction to Carbohydrates
90(13)
Sugars as Monomers
91(1)
The Structure of Polysaccharides
92(5)
Lactose Intolerance and Galactosemia
93(1)
Starch: A Storage Polysaccharide in Plants
94(1)
Glycogen: A Highly Branched Storage Polysaccharide in Animals
95(1)
Cellulose: A Structural Polysaccharide in Plants
95(1)
Chitin: A Structural Polysaccharide in Animals
96(1)
Peptidoglycan: A Structural Polysaccharide in Bacteria
96(1)
Polysaccharides and Chemical Evolution
96(1)
How Do the Penicillins and Cephalosporins Kill Bacteria?
96(1)
What Do Carbohydrates Do?
97(6)
The Role of Carbohydrates in Cell Identity
97(1)
The Role of Carbohydrates in Energy Production and Storage
98(1)
Carbohydrates as Structural Molecules
99(2)
Why Do We Have a Sweet Tooth?
101(1)
Chapter Review
101(2)
Lipids, Membranes, and the First Cells
103(24)
Lipids
104(5)
Electron Microscopy
104(2)
What Is a Lipid?
106(1)
A Look at Three Types of Lipids Found in Cells
106(2)
The Structures of Membrane Lipids
108(1)
Phospholipid Bilayers
109(4)
Artificial Membranes as an Experimental System
109(1)
Selective Permeability of Lipid Bilayers
110(1)
Does the Type of Lipid in a Membrane Affect Its Permeability?
111(1)
Why Does Temperature Affect the Fluidity and Permeability of Membranes?
112(1)
Why Molecules Move across Lipid Bilayers: Diffusion and Osmosis
113(3)
Membrane Proteins
116(11)
Systems for Studying Membrane Proteins
118(1)
How Do Membrane Proteins Affect Ions and Molecules?
118(5)
The Molecular Basis of Cystic Fibrosis
123(2)
Chapter Review
125(2)
UNIT 2 Cell Structure and Function
127(120)
Inside the Cell
128(31)
What's Inside the Cell?
129(13)
Prokaryotic Cells
129(2)
Eukaryotic Cells
131(7)
How Does Cell Structure Correlate with Function?
138(1)
The Dynamic Cell
139(1)
How Does a Centrifuge Work?
140(1)
Techniques for Studying the Dynamic Cell
141(1)
The Nuclear Envelope: Transport Into and Out of the Nucleus
142(3)
How Are Molecules Imported into the Nucleus?
143(1)
How Are Molecules Exported from the Nucleus?
144(1)
The Endomembrane System: Manufacturing and Shipping Proteins
145(4)
Entering the Endomembrane System: The Signal Hypothesis
146(1)
Getting from the ER to the Golgi
147(1)
What Happens Inside the Golgi Apparatus?
147(1)
How Are Products Shipped from the Golgi?
148(1)
The Dynamic Cytoskeleton
149(10)
Action Filaments
150(1)
Intermediate Filaments
151(1)
Microtubules
152(2)
Cilia and Flagella: Moving the Entire Cell
154(2)
Organelles and Human Disease
156(1)
Chapter Review
156(3)
Cell-Cell Interactions
159(18)
The Cell Surface
160(3)
The Structure and Function of an Extracellular Layer
160(1)
The Plant Cell Wall
160(2)
The Extracellular Matrix in Animals
162(1)
What Happens When the Extracellular Matrix Is Defective?
163(1)
How Do Adjacent Cells Connect and Communicate?
163(7)
Cell-Cell Attachments
165(4)
Cell-Cell Gaps
169(1)
How Do Distant Cells Communicate?
170(7)
Signal Reception
170(1)
Signal Processing
171(1)
Signal Response
172(2)
Signal Deactivation
174(1)
How Do Viagra®, Levitra®, and Cialis® Work?
175
Chapter Review
174(3)
Cellular Respiration and Fermentation
177(25)
An Overview of Cellular Respiration
178(5)
The Nature of Chemical Energy and Redox Reactions
179(1)
Using Redox Reactions to Produce ATP
180(1)
Processing Glucose: Glycolysis
180(1)
The Krebs Cycle
180(2)
Electron Transport
182(1)
Methods of Producing ATP
182(1)
Glycolysis
183(3)
A Closer Look at the Glycolytic Reactions
183(1)
How Is Glycolysis Regulated?
184(2)
The Krebs Cycle
186(4)
Converting Pyruvate to Acetyl CoA
187(1)
How Is the Krebs Cycle Regulated?
188(2)
What Happens to the NADH and FADH2?
190(1)
Electron Transport and Chemiosmosis
190(6)
Components of the Electron Transport Chain
191(1)
The Chemiosmotic Hypothesis
192(1)
How Is the Electron Transport Chain Organized?
193(1)
The Discovery of ATP Synthase
194(1)
Oxidative Phosphorylation
194(2)
Fermentation
196(1)
How Does Cellular Respiration Interact with Other Metabolic Pathways?
197(5)
Processing Proteins and Fats as Fuel
197(1)
Anabolic Pathways Synthesize Key Molecules
198(1)
ATP Production during Exercise
199(1)
Chapter Review
199(3)
Photosynthesis
202(25)
An Overview of Photosynthesis
203(3)
Photosynthesis: Two Distinct Sets of Reactions
203(1)
The Structure of the Chloroplast
204(1)
Types of Plastids
205(1)
How Does Chlorophyll Capture Light Energy?
206(5)
Photosynthetic Pigments Absorb Light
206(1)
How Do Researchers Measure Absorption Spectra?
207(2)
When Light Is Absorbed, Electrons Enter an Excited State
209(2)
The Discovery of Photosystems I and II
211(6)
How Does Photosystem II Work?
212(2)
How Does Photosystem I Work?
214(1)
The Z Scheme: Photosystems I and II Work Together
215(2)
How Is Carbon Dioxide Reduced to Produce Glucose?
217(10)
The Calvin Cycle
217(2)
The Discovery of Rubisco
219(1)
How Is Carbon Dioxide Delivered to Rubisco?
220(2)
What Happens to the Sugar That Is Produced by Photosynthesis?
222(2)
Are Rising CO2 Levels in the Atmosphere Affecting the Rate of Photosynthesis?
224(1)
Chapter Review
225(2)
The Cell Cycle
227(20)
Mitosis and the Cell Cycle
228(4)
The Cell Cycle
229(1)
When Does Chromosome Replication Occur?
229(1)
Discovery of the Gap Phases
230(1)
Cell-Culture Methods
231(1)
How Do Bacteria Divide?
232(1)
How Does Mitosis Take Place?
232(6)
Events in Mitosis
232(3)
Cytokinesis
235(2)
How Do Chromosomes Move during Mitosis?
237(1)
Control of the Cell Cycle
238(3)
The Discovery of Cell-Cycle Regulatory Molecules
238(2)
Cell-Cycle Checkpoints
240(1)
Cancer: Out-of-Control Cell Division
241(6)
Properties of Cancer Cells
242(1)
Cancer Involves Loss of Cell-Cycle Control
242(2)
Cancer Chemotherapy
244(1)
Chapter Review
245(2)
UNIT 3 Gene Structure and Expression
247(198)
Meiosis
248(21)
How Does Meiosis Occur?
249(9)
Karyotyping Techniques
250(2)
An Overview of Meiosis
252(1)
The Phases of Meiosis I
253(2)
The Phases of Meiosis II
255(2)
A Closer Look at Key Events in Prophase of Meiosis I
257(1)
The Consequences of Meiosis
258(2)
Chromosomes and Heredity
258(1)
How Does the Separation and Distribution of Homologous Chromosomes Produce Genetic Variation?
258(1)
The Role of Crossing Over
259(1)
How Does Fertilization Affect Genetic Variation?
259(1)
Why Does Meiosis Exist? Why Sex?
260(4)
The Paradox of Sex
261(2)
When Do Meiosis and Fertilization Occur during the Life of an Organism?
263(1)
Mistakes in Meiosis
264(5)
How Do Mistakes Occur?
264(1)
Why Do Mistakes Occur?
265(1)
Seedless Fruits
266(1)
Chapter Review
267(2)
Mendel and the Gene
269(34)
Mendel's Experiments with a Single Trait
270(6)
What Questions Was Mendel Trying to Answer?
270(1)
Garden Peas Serve as the First Model Organism in Genetics
270(2)
Inheritance of a Single Trait
272(1)
The Nature and Behavior of the Hereditary Determinants
273(2)
Why Do Punnett Squares Work?
275(1)
Testing the Model
275(1)
Mendel's Experiments with Two Traits
276(3)
Sample Size and Chance Fluctuations
278(1)
Using a Testcross to Confirm Predictions
278(1)
Mendel's Contributions to the Study of Heredity
279(1)
The Chromosome Theory of Inheritance
279(2)
Testing and Extending the Chromosome Theory
281(6)
The Discovery of Sex-Linked Traits
281(1)
The Discovery of Sex Chromosomes
281(1)
X-Linked Inheritance and the Chromosome Theory
282(1)
What Happens When Genes Are Located on the Same Chromosome?
283(4)
Extending Mendel's Rules
287(7)
Incomplete Dominance and Codominance
288(1)
Multiple Alleles and Polymorphic Traits
289(1)
Pleiotropy
289(1)
Genes Are Affected by the Physical Environment and Genetic Environment
290(1)
Organelle Genomes
291(1)
Quantitative Traits
291(3)
Applying Mendel's Rules to Humans
294(9)
Are Alleles Recessive or Dominant?
294(1)
Is the Trait Autosomal or Sex-Linked?
295(2)
Does ``Genetic Determinism'' Exist?
297(1)
Chapter Review
298(5)
DNA Synthesis
303(22)
DNA as the Hereditary Material
304(3)
Is DNA the Genetic Material?
305(2)
Testing Early Hypotheses about DNA Replication
307(4)
The Meselson-Stahl Experiment
308(2)
The Discovery of DNA Polymerase
310(1)
A Comprehensive Model for DNA Synthesis
311(5)
Opening the Helix
312(1)
Synthesis of the Leading Strand
313(1)
Synthesis of the Lagging Strand
313(3)
Replicating the Ends of Linear Chromosomes
316(2)
Repairing Mistakes in DNA Synthesis
318(2)
How Is DNA Polymerase Proofread?
318(1)
Mismatch Repair
319(1)
Repairing Damaged DNA
320(5)
DNA Nucleotide Excision Repair: An Overview
320(1)
Xeroderma Pigmentosum: A Case Study
321(1)
Essay DNA Mismatch Repair and Cancer
322(1)
Chapter Review
323(2)
How Genes Work
325(13)
What Do Genes Do?
326(2)
The Molecular Basis of Hereditary Diseases
326(1)
Genes and Enzymes
326(2)
The Genetic Code
328(6)
RNA as the Intermediary between Genes and Proteins
329(1)
How Long Is a Word in the Genetic Code?
330(2)
How Did Researchers Crack the Code?
332(1)
The Evolution of the Genetic Code
333(1)
The Central Dogma of Molecular Biology
334(4)
Exceptions to the Central Dogma
335(1)
Chapter Review
336(2)
Transcription and Translation
338(24)
Transcription in Bacteria
339(3)
RNA Polymerase Structure and Function
340(1)
Initiation: How Does Transcription Begin in Bacteria?
340(1)
Elongation and Termination
341(1)
Transcription in Eukaryotes
342(3)
The Startling Discovery of Eukaryotic Genes in Pieces
342(1)
Toxins and Transcription
343(1)
Exons, Introns, and RNA Splicing
344(1)
Other Aspects of Transcript Processing: Caps and Tails
345(1)
An Introduction to Translation
345(2)
Ribosomes Are the Site of Protein Synthesis
346(1)
How Does an mRNA Triplet Specify an Amino Acid?
347(1)
The Role of Transfer RNA
347(3)
Connecting Structure with Function
348(1)
How Many tRNAs Are There?
349(1)
Ribosomes and the Mechanism of Translation
350(5)
Initiation
351(1)
Elongation
352(1)
Termination
353(2)
The Molecular Basis of Mutation
355(7)
Antibiotics That Poison the Ribosome
358(1)
Chapter Review
359(3)
Control of Gene Expression in Bacteria
362(20)
Gene Regulation and Information Flow
363(2)
Mechanisms of Regulation---an Overview
363(1)
Metabolizing Lactose---A Model System
364(1)
Identifying the Genes Involved in Lactose Metabolism
365(3)
Screening Mutants---Replica Plating and Indicator Plates
365(1)
Different Classes of Lactose Metabolism Mutants
366(1)
Several Genes Are Involved in Metabolizing Lactose
367(1)
The Discovery of the Repressor
368(3)
The lac Operon
369(1)
Testing the lac Operon Model
369(1)
Almost Parallel Worlds: Similarities and Contrasts in Control of the trp and lac Operons
370(1)
The Impact of the lac Operon Model
370(1)
Catabolite Repression and Positive Control
371(3)
How Does Glucose Influence Formation of the CAP-cAMP Complex?
372(2)
The Operator and the Repressor---an Introduction to DNA-Binding Proteins
374(8)
Finding the Operator
374(1)
DNA Footprinting
374(2)
DNA Binding via the Helix-Turn-Helix Motif
376(2)
How Does the Inducer Change the Repressor's Affinity for DNA?
378(1)
Future Directions
378(1)
Control of Gene Expression in Bacterial Pathogens
378(2)
Chapter Review
380(2)
Control of Gene Expression in Eukaryotes
382(19)
Mechanisms of Gene Regulation---an Overview
383(1)
Eukaryotic DNA and the Regulation of Gene Expression
383(3)
Chromatin Structure
384(1)
Evidence that Chromatin Structure Is Altered in Active Genes
384(1)
How Is Chromatin Altered?
385(1)
Regulatory Sequences and Regulatory Proteins
386(4)
Promoter-Proximal Elements
386(1)
Enhancers
386(2)
How Do Enhancers Work?
388(2)
Transcription Initiation
390(2)
Post-Transcriptional Control
392(3)
Alternative Splicing of mRNAs
392(1)
Translational Control
393(1)
Post-Translational Control
393(1)
A 50-Year Retrospective: How Does Gene Expression in Bacteria and in Eukaryotes Compare?
394(1)
Linking Cancer with Defects in Gene Regulation
395(6)
p53---Guardian of the Genome
395(2)
STAT Mutations in Cancer
397(1)
Fly Eyes and Other Strange Tales of Gene Regulation
398(1)
Chapter Review
399(2)
Analyzing and Engineering Genes
401(25)
Using Recombinant DNA Techniques to Manufacture Proteins: The Effort to Cure Pituitary Dwarfism
402(5)
Why Did Early Efforts to Treat the Disease Fail?
402(1)
Using Recombinant DNA Technology to Produce a Safe Supply of Growth Hormone
402(2)
How Do Plasmids Move between Cells Naturally?
404(3)
Ethical Concerns over Recombinant Growth Hormone
407(1)
Analyzing DNA: Did Our Ancestors Mate with Neanderthals?
407(4)
The Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR)
408(1)
Dideoxy Sequencing
409(2)
Gene Hunting Based on Pedigree Analysis: The Huntington's Disease Story
411(6)
How Was the Huntington's Disease Gene Found?
411(1)
Southern Blotting
412(4)
Genetic Testing
416(1)
Ethical Concerns over Genetic Testing
417(1)
Can Gene Therapy Cure Inherited Diseases in Humans? Research on Severe Immune Disorders
417(3)
How Can Novel Alleles Be Introduced into Human Cells?
417(1)
Using Gene Therapy to Treat X-Linked Immune Deficiency
418(2)
Ethical Concerns over Gene Therapy
420(1)
Biotechnology in Agriculture: The Development of Golden Rice
420(6)
Rice as a Target Crop
421(1)
Synthesizing β-Carotene in Rice
421(1)
The Agrobacterium Transformation System
421(1)
Golden Rice
422(1)
Controversies over Genetically Modified Foods
423(1)
Chapter Review
424(2)
Genomics
426(19)
Whole-Genome Sequencing
426(5)
Recent Technological Advances
427(1)
Which Sequences Are Genes?
428(1)
Shotgun Sequencing and Bioinformatics
428(3)
Bacterial and Archaeal Genomes
431(2)
The Natural History of Prokaryotic Genomes
431(1)
Evidence for Lateral Gene Transfer
432(1)
Eukaryotic Genomes
433(4)
Natural History: Types of Sequences
433(3)
What Is a Gene Family?
436(1)
Comparative Genomics
437(2)
Understanding Virulence
437(1)
Studying Adaptation
437(1)
Gene Number and Alternative Splicing
438(1)
Sequence Similarity and the Importance of Regulatory Sequences
439(1)
Future Prospects
439(6)
Functional Genomics and Proteomics
439(2)
Medical Implications
441(1)
Genomics and Genetic Discrimination
442(1)
Chapter Review
443(2)
UNIT 4 Developmental Biology
445(48)
Early Development
446(23)
Gametogenesis
447(2)
Sperm Structure and Function
447(1)
Egg Structure and Function
448(1)
Fertilization
449(4)
Fertilization in Sea Urchins
449(3)
Fertilization in Mammals
452(1)
Fertilization in Flowering Plants
452(1)
Cleavage and Gastrulation
453(8)
Controlling Cleavage Patterns
454(2)
Activating the Zygotic Genome
456(1)
Visualizing mRNAs by in Situ Hybridization
457(1)
Gastrulation
458(1)
Organizing the Major Body Axes
458(1)
The Spemann-Mangold Experiments
459(2)
Patterns of Development
461(8)
Embryonic Development in Arabidopsis thaliana
462(1)
An Invertebrate Model: Drosophila melanogaster
463(1)
A Vertebrate Model: The Frog
464(1)
Early Development in Humans
464(1)
Making Sense of Developmental Variation and Similarity
465(1)
Treating Human Infertility
466(1)
Chapter Review
467(2)
Pattern Formation and Cell Differentiation
469(24)
Pattern Formation in Drosophila
470(8)
The Discovery of bicoid
470(1)
Maternal Effect Inheritance
471(2)
The Discovery of Segmentation Genes
473(3)
The Discovery of Homeotic Genes
476(1)
Drosophila as a Model Organism
477(1)
Pattern Formation in Arabidopsis
478(3)
The Root-to-Shoot Axis of Embryos
478(1)
Flower Development in Adults
479(2)
Does the Genetic Makeup of Cells Change as Development Proceeds?
481(3)
Are Differentiated Animal Cells Genetically Equivalent?
481(1)
Regulatory Evolution
482(2)
Human Cloning?
484(1)
Differentiation: Becoming a Specialized Cell
484(9)
Organizing Mesoderm into Somites
485(1)
Apoptosis: Programmed Cell Death
486(2)
Determination of Muscle Cells
488(1)
Human Stem Cells
489(1)
Chapter Review
490(3)
UNIT 5 Evolutionary Processes and Patterns
493(88)
Evolution by Natural Selection
494(22)
Why Darwin Gets Most of the Credit
495(1)
The Pattern of Evolution: Have Species Changed through Time?
496(7)
Evidence for Change through Time
496(2)
Evidence That Species Are Related
498(3)
How Do Biologists Distinguish Homology from Analogy?
501(1)
Darwinism and the Pattern Component of Evolution
502(1)
The Process of Evolution: How Does Natural Selection Work?
503(1)
Evolutionary Theory before Darwin
503(1)
Evolution in Action: Recent Research on Natural Selection
504(6)
How Did Mycobacterium tuberculosis Become Resistant to Antibiotics?
504(2)
Why Are Beak Size, Beak Shape, and Body Size Changing in Galapagos Finches?
506(2)
Can Natural Selection Be Studied Experimentally?
508(2)
The Nature of Natural Selection and Adaptation
510(6)
Selection Acts on Individuals, but Evolutionary Change Occurs in Populations
510(1)
Evolution Is Not Progressive
510(1)
Not All Traits Are Adaptive
511(1)
The Debate over ``Scientific Creationism''
512(1)
Chapter Review
513(3)
Evolutionary Processes
516(22)
Analyzing Change in Allele Frequencies: The Hardy-Weinberg Principle
517(3)
The Hardy-Weinberg Model Makes Important Assumptions
518(1)
How Does the Hardy-Weinberg Principle Serve as a Null Hypothesis?
518(2)
Natural Selection and Sexual Selection
520(7)
Directional Selection
521(1)
Stabilizing Selection
522(1)
Disruptive Selection
522(1)
Sexual Selection
523(4)
Genetic Drift
527(3)
Experimental Studies of Genetic Drift
528(1)
Genetic Drift in Natural Populations
529(1)
Gene Flow
530(1)
Mutation
531(2)
Mutation as an Evolutionary Mechanism
531(1)
What Role Does Mutation Play in Evolutionary Change?
532(1)
Inbreeding
533(5)
Evolutionary Theory and Human Health
535(1)
Chapter Review
536(2)
Speciation
538(18)
Defining and Identifying Species
539(4)
The Biological Species Concept
539(1)
The Morphospecies Concept
539(1)
The Phylogenetic Species Concept
540(1)
Species Definitions in Action: The Case of the Dusky Seaside Sparrow
541(2)
Isolation and Divergence in Allopatry
543(2)
Dispersal and Colonization Isolate Populations
543(1)
Vicariance Isolates Populations
544(1)
Isolation and Divergence in Sympatry
545(4)
Can Natural Selection Cause Speciation Even When Gene Flow Is Possible?
546(1)
How Can Polyploidy Lead to Speciation?
547(2)
What Happens When Isolated Populations Come into Contact?
549(7)
Reinforcement
549(1)
Hybrid Zones
550(1)
New Species through Hybridization
550(3)
Human Races
553(1)
Chapter Review
554(2)
Phylogenies and the History of Life
556(25)
Tools for Studying History: Phylogenies and the Fossil Record
556(10)
Using Phylogenies
557(4)
Using the Fossil Record
561(5)
The Molecular Clock
566(1)
The Cambrian Explosion
566(3)
Cambrian Fossils: An Overview
567(1)
The Doushantuo Microfossils
568(1)
The Ediacaran Faunas
569(1)
The Burgess Shale Faunas
569(1)
The Genetic Mechanisms of Change
569(4)
Gene Duplications and the Cambrian Explosion
569(2)
Changes in Gene Expression: The Origin of the Foot
571(2)
Adaptive Radiations
573(2)
Colonization Events as a Trigger
574(1)
The Role of Morphological Innovation
575(1)
Mass Extinctions
575(6)
How Do Background and Mass Extinctions Differ?
576(1)
What Killed the Dinosaurs?
576(2)
Is a Mass Extinction Event Under Way Now?
578(1)
Chapter Review
579(2)
UNIT 6 The Diversification of Life
581(222)
Bacteria and Archaea
582(25)
Why Do Biologists Study Bacteria and Archaea?
583(5)
Bacterial Diseases
583(1)
Bioremediation
584(1)
Extremophiles
585(1)
Global Change
586(2)
How Do Biologists Study Bacteria and Archaea?
588(4)
A Model Organism: Escherichia coli
588(1)
Using Enrichment Cultures
589(1)
Using Direct Sequencing
590(1)
Evaluating Molecular Phylogenies
590(2)
What Themes Occur in the Diversification of Bacteria and Archaea?
592(6)
Morphological Diversity
592(2)
Metabolic Diversity
594(4)
Key Lineages of Bacteria and Archaea
598(9)
Bacteria
599(1)
Spirochaeles (Spirochetes)
599(1)
Chlamydiales
599(1)
High-GC Gram Positives
600(1)
Cyanobacteria
600(1)
Low-GC Gram Positives
601(1)
Proteobacteria
601(1)
Lateral Gene Transfer and Metabolic Diversity in Bacteria
602(1)
Archaea
602(1)
Crenarchaeota
603(1)
Euryarchaeota
603(1)
Antibiotics and the Evolution of Drug Resistance
604(1)
Chapter Review
605(2)
Protists
607(30)
Why Do Biologists Study Protists?
608(4)
Impacts on Human Health and Welfare
608(2)
Ecological Importance of Protists
610(2)
How Do Biologists Study Protists?
612(5)
Microscopy: Studying Cell Structure
612(1)
Evaluating Molecular Phylogenies
612(2)
How Should We Name the Major Branches on the Tree of Life?
614(1)
Combining Data from Microscopy and Phylogenies: Understanding the Origin of Mitochondria and Chloroplasts
615(2)
Discovering New Lineages via Direct Sequencing
617(1)
What Themes Occur in the Diversification of Protists?
617(10)
A Model Organism: Dictyostelium discoideum
618(1)
Morphological Diversity
619(2)
How Do Protists Find Food?
621(2)
How Do Protists Move?
623(1)
How Do Protists Reproduce?
624(3)
Key Lineages of Protists
627(10)
Excavata
627(1)
Excavata Diplomonadida
627(1)
Excavata Parabasalida
628(1)
Discristata
628(1)
Discristata Euglenida
628(1)
Alveolata
629(1)
Alveolata Ciliata
629(1)
Alveolata Dinoflagellata
629(1)
Alveolata Apicomplexa
630(1)
Stramenopila (Heterokonta)
630(1)
Stramenopila Oomycota
630(1)
Stramenopila Diatoms
631(1)
Stramenopila Phaeophyta (Brown Algae)
631(1)
Cercozoa
632(1)
Cercozoa Foraminifera
632(1)
Plantae
632(1)
Rhodophyta (Red Algae)
633(1)
Amoebozoa
633(1)
Myxogastrida (Plasmodial Slime Molds)
633(1)
Revolutions in Science
634(1)
Chapter Review
634(3)
Green Plants
637(37)
Why Do Biologists Study the Green Plants?
638(5)
Plants Provide Ecosystem Services
638(1)
Agricultural Research: Domestication and Selective Breeding
639(1)
Plant-Based Fuels and Fibers
640(2)
Bioprospecting
642(1)
How Do Biologists Study Green Plants?
643(5)
A Model Organism: Arabidopsis thaliana
643(2)
Using the Fossil Record
645(2)
Evaluating Molecular Phylogenies
647(1)
What Themes Occur in the Diversification of Green Plants?
648(13)
The Transition to Land, I: How Did Plants Adapt to Dry Conditions?
648(3)
The Transition to Land, II: How Do Plants Reproduce in Dry Conditions?
651(7)
The Angiosperm Radiation
658(3)
Key Lineages of Green Plants
661(13)
Green Algae
661(1)
Ulvobionta
662(1)
Coleochaetales
662(1)
Charales (Stoneworts)
663(1)
Nonvascular Plants (Bryophytes)
663(1)
Hepaticophyta (Liverworts)
663(1)
Anthocerophyta (Hornworts)
664(1)
Bryophyta (Mosses)
664(1)
Seedless Vascular Plants
665(1)
Lycophyta (Lycophytes, or Club Mosses)
665(1)
Psilotophyta (Whisk Ferns)
666(1)
Sphenophyta (or Equisetophyta) (Horsetails)
666(1)
Pteridophyta (Ferns)
667(1)
Seed Plants
667(1)
Gnetophyta (Gnetophytes)
668(1)
Cycadophyta (Cycads)
668(1)
Ginkgophyta (Ginkgoes)
669(1)
Coniferophyta (Conifers)
669(1)
Anthophyta (Angiosperms)
670(1)
Genetic Diversity in Crop Plants
671(1)
Chapter Review
672(2)
Fungi
674(24)
Why Do Biologists Study Fungi?
675(2)
Fungi Feed Land Plants
675(1)
Fungi Speed the Carbon Cycle on Land
675(1)
Fungi Have Important Economic Impacts
676(1)
How Do Biologists Study Fungi?
677(7)
Analyzing Morphological Traits
678(1)
A Model Organism: Saccharomyces cerevisiae
679(1)
Evaluating Molecular Phylogenies
680(2)
Experimental Studies of Mutualism
682(2)
What Themes Occur in the Diversification of Fungi?
684(6)
Fungi Participate in Several Types of Mutualisms
684(2)
Adaptations That Make Fungi Effective Decomposers
686(1)
Variation in Life Cycles
687(3)
Key Lineages of Fungi
690(8)
Chytridiomycota (Chytrids)
691(1)
Zygomycota Mucorales and Other Basal Lineages
691(1)
Glomeromycota (AMF)
692(1)
Basidiomycota (Club Fungi)
693(1)
Ascomycota (Sac Fungi)
693(1)
Ascomycota Lichen-Formers
693(1)
Ascomycota Non-Lichen-Formers
694(1)
Why Are Frogs Dying?
695(1)
Chapter Review
695(3)
An Introduction to Animals
698(26)
Why Do Biologists Study Animals?
699(1)
How Do Biologists Study Animals?
700(10)
Analyzing Comparative Morphology
700(2)
A Model Organism: Hydra
702(6)
Using the Fossil Record
708(1)
Evaluating Molecular Phylogenies
708(2)
What Themes Occur in the Diversification of Animals?
710(8)
Feeding
710(3)
Movement
713(2)
Reproduction and Life Cycles
715(3)
Key Lineages of Animals
718(6)
Choanoflagellates (Collar Flagellates)
718(1)
Porifera (Sponges)
719(1)
Cnidaria (Jellyfish, Corals, Anemones, Hydroids, Sea Fans)
719(1)
Ctenophora (Comb Jellies)
720(1)
Acoelomorpha
721(1)
Coral Bleaching
721(1)
Chapter Review
722(2)
Protostome Animals
724(25)
Why Do Biologists Study Protostomes?
725(3)
Model Organisms: Caenorhabditis and Drosophila
725(1)
Crustaceans and Mollusks Are Important Animals in Marine Ecosystems
726(1)
Insects, Spiders, and Mites Are Important Animals in Terrestrial Ecosystems
726(2)
How Do Biologists Study Protostomes?
728(3)
Analyzing Morphological Traits
728(2)
Using the Fossil Record
730(1)
Evaluating Molecular Phylogenies
730(1)
What Themes Occur in the Diversification of Protostomes?
731(3)
Feeding
732(1)
Movement
733(1)
Reproduction and Life Cycles
734(1)
Key Lineages: Lophotrochozoans
734(6)
Rotifera (Rotifers)
735(1)
Platyhelminthes (Flatworms)
736(1)
Annelida (Segmented Worms)
737(1)
Mollusca (Mollusks)
738(1)
Mollusca Bivalvia (Clams, Mussels, Scallops, Oysters)
738(1)
Mollusca Gastropoda (Snails, Slugs, Nudibranchs)
739(1)
Mollusca Polyplacophora (Chitons)
739(1)
Mollusca Cephalopoda (Squid, Nautilus, Octopuses)
740(1)
Key Lineages: Ecdysozoans
740(9)
Nematoda (Roundworms)
741(1)
Arthropoda (Arthropods)
742(1)
Arthropoda Myriapods (Millipedes, Centipedes)
742(1)
Arthropoda Chelicerata (Spiders, Ticks, Mites, Horseshoe Crabs, Daddy Longlegs, Scorpions)
743(1)
Arthropoda Insecta (Insects)
744(1)
Arthropoda Crustaceans (Shrimp, Lobster, Crabs, Barnacles, Isopods, Copepods)
744(1)
The Role of Natural History in Biological Science
745(1)
Chapter Review
746(3)
Deuterostome Animals
749(31)
Why Do Biologists Study Deuterostome Animals?
750(1)
How Do Biologists Study Deuterostomes?
751(5)
Analyzing Morphological Traits
751(2)
Using the Fossil Record
753(2)
Evaluating Molecular Phylogenies
755(1)
What Themes Occur in the Diversification of Deuterostomes?
756(7)
Feeding
756(1)
Model Organisms: Sea Urchins, Zebrafish, and Mice
757(1)
Movement
758(2)
The Evolution of Flight in Birds
760(1)
Reproduction
761(2)
Key Lineages: Echinodermata
763(2)
Echinodermata Asteroidea (Sea Stars)
764(1)
Echinodermata Echinoidea (Sea Urchins and Sand Dollars)
764(1)
Key Lineages: Chordata
765(8)
Chordata Myxinoidea (Hagfish) and Petromyzontoidea (Lampreys)
765(1)
Chordata Chondrichthyes (Sharks, Rays, Skates)
766(1)
Chordata Actinopterygii (Ray-Finned Fishes)
766(1)
Chordata Actinistia (Coelacanths) and Dipnoi (Lungfish)
767(1)
Chordata Amphibia (Frogs, Salamanders, Caecilians)
768(1)
Chordata: Mammalia (Mammals)
768(1)
Chordata Mammalia Monotremata (Platypuses, Echidnas)
769(1)
Chordata Mammalia Marsupiala (Marsupials)
769(1)
Chordata Mammalia Eutheria (Placental Mammals)
770(1)
Chordata: Reptilia (Turtles, Snakes and Lizards, Crocodiles, Birds)
770(1)
Chordata Reptilia Testudinia (Turtles, Tortoises)
771(1)
Chordata Reptilia Lepidosauria (Lizards, Snakes)
771(1)
Chordata Reptilia Crocodilia (Crocodiles, Alligators)
772(1)
Chordata Reptilia Aves (Birds)
772(1)
Key Lineages: The Hominin Radiation
773(7)
The Primates
773(1)
Fossil Humans
774(2)
The Out-of-Africa Hypothesis
776(1)
So Human an Animal
777(1)
Chapter Review
778(2)
Viruses
780(23)
Why Do Biologists Study Viruses?
781(2)
Recent Viral Epidemics in Humans
781(1)
Current Viral Epidemics in Humans: HIV
782(1)
How Do Biologists Study Viruses?
783(10)
Analyzing Morphological Traits
784(1)
How Are Vaccines Developed?
785(3)
Analyzing the Phases of the Lytic Cycle
788(4)
HIV Drug Cocktails and the Evolution of Drug Resistance
792(1)
What Themes Occur in the Diversification of Viruses?
793(3)
The Nature of the Viral Genetic Material
793(1)
Where Did Viruses Come From?
794(1)
Emerging Viruses, Emerging Diseases
794(1)
Where Did HIV Originate?
795(1)
Key Lineages of Viruses
796(7)
Double-Stranded DNA (dsDNA) Viruses
797(1)
RNA Reverse-Transcribing Viruses (Retroviruses)
797(1)
Double-Stranded RNA (dsRNA) Viruses
798(1)
Negative-Sense Single-Stranded RNA ([--]ssRNA) Viruses
798(1)
Positive-Sense Single-Stranded RNA ([+]ssRNA) Viruses
799(1)
The SARS Outbreak
799(1)
Chapter Review
800(3)
UNIT 7 How Plants Work
803(130)
Plant Form and Function
804(24)
The Diversity of Plant Form
805(6)
The Diversity of Roots: North American Prairie Plants
806(1)
The Diversity of Shoots: Hawaiian Silverswords
807(4)
Plant Cells and Tissues
811(7)
The Diversity of Plant Cells
812(1)
Plant Poisons and the Cost of Defense
813(2)
The Diversity of Plant Tissues
815(3)
The Anatomy of Plant Growth
818(10)
Primary Growth: The Root System
819(1)
Primary Growth: The Shoot System
820(1)
Secondary Growth
821(3)
Tree-Ring Studies
824(1)
Wood as a Structural Material
825(1)
Chapter Review
825(3)
Water and Sugar Transport in Plants
828(24)
Water Potential and Cell-to-Cell Movement
829(5)
What Factors Affect Water Potential?
829(1)
Calculating Water Potential
830(1)
Water Potentials in Soils, Plants, and the Atmosphere
830(2)
How Do Plants Adapt to Dry Soils?
832(1)
How Do Plants Adapt to Salty Soils?
833(1)
Root Pressure and Short-Distance Transport
834(1)
Transpiration and Long-Distance Water Transport
835(7)
The Cohesion-Tension Theory
836(5)
Water Absorption and Water Loss
841(1)
Translocation
842(10)
The Anatomy of Phloem
843(1)
The Pressure-Flow Hypothesis
844(1)
Phloem Loading
845(1)
How Are Solutes Transported across Membranes?
845(3)
Phloem Unloading
848(1)
Irrigated Agriculture
849(1)
Chapter Review
849(3)
Plant Nutrition
852(19)
Nutritional Requirements
853(3)
Essential Nutrients
853(2)
Nutrient Deficiencies
855(1)
Soil
856(3)
Soil Conservation
856(2)
Nutrient Availability
858(1)
Nutrient Uptake
859(4)
Mechanisms of Nutrient Uptake
859(2)
Mechanisms of Ion Exclusion
861(1)
Can Phytoremediation Help Clean Up Contaminated Soils?
862(1)
Nitrogen Fixation
863(1)
How Do Nitrogen-Fixing Bacteria Colonize Plant Roots?
863(1)
How Do Host Plants Respond to Contact from a Symbiotic Bacterium?
863(1)
Nutritional Adaptations of Plants
864(7)
Epiphytic Plants
865(1)
Parasitic Plants
865(2)
Carnivorous Plants
867(1)
Why Are Bogs So Nutrient Poor?
867(1)
Tropical Soils
868(1)
Chapter Review
869(2)
Sensory Systems in Plants
871(17)
Sensing Light
872(6)
What Do Plants See?
872(3)
How Do Plants See?
875(2)
From Perception to Response: Signal Transduction
877(1)
Gravity Perception
878(1)
The Statolith Hypothesis
878(1)
Is the Gravity Sensor a Transmembrane Protein?
879(1)
How Do Plants Respond to Wind and Touch?
879(3)
An Introduction to Electrical Signaling
880(1)
Action Potentials
881(1)
How Does the Venus Flytrap Close?
881(1)
How Do Plants Sense Attacks by Parasites?
882(6)
The Gene-for-Gene Hypothesis
882(1)
Why Do So Many Resistance Genes and Alleles Exist?
883(2)
Can Plants Tell Time?
885(1)
Chapter Review
886(2)
Communication: Chemical Signals
888(22)
Plant Hormones---An Overview
888(3)
Auxin and Phototropism
891(3)
The Cholodny-Went Hypothesis
891(1)
Isolating and Characterizing Auxin
892(1)
How Does Auxin Produce the Phototropic Response?
893(1)
Auxin and Apical Dominance
894(2)
Polar Transport of Auxin
895(1)
An Overview of Auxin Action
896(1)
Cytokinins and Cell Division
896(2)
The Use of Hormones to Grow Plant Cells in Culture
897(1)
Gibberellins and ABA: Growth and Dormancy
898(4)
Gibberellins Stimulate Shoot Elongation
898(1)
Gibberellins and ABA Interact during Seed Dormancy and Germination
899(2)
ABA Closes Guard Cells in Stomata
901(1)
Ethylene and Senescence
902(2)
Salicylic Acid, Systemin, and Pheromones: Defense Signals
904(6)
Salicylic Acid Extends the Hypersensitive Response to Pathogens
904(1)
Systemin Leads to the Production of Insecticides
905(1)
Pheromones Released from Wounds Recruit Help from Wasps
906(1)
Hormones as Herbicides
907(1)
Chapter Review
907(3)
Plant Reproduction
910(23)
An Introduction to Plant Reproduction
911(3)
Sexual Reproduction
911(1)
Plant Life Cycles
912(1)
Asexual Reproduction
912(2)
Reproductive Structures
914(5)
When Does Flowering Occur?
915(1)
Is There a Flowering Hormone?
915(1)
The General Structure of the Flower
916(1)
Producing the Female Gametophyte
917(1)
Producing the Male Gametophyte
918(1)
Pollination and Fertilization
919(4)
Pollination
919(1)
Selfing, Outcrossing, and Self-Incompatibility
920(2)
Fertilization
922(1)
The Seed
923(10)
Embryogenesis
923(1)
The Role of Drying in Seed Maturation
924(1)
Pure and Applied Science
924(1)
Fruit Development and Seed Dispersal
925(1)
Seed Dormancy
925(2)
Seed Germination
927(2)
Why Do Wasps Try to Mate with Hammer Orchids?
929(1)
Chapter Review
930(3)
UNIT 8 How Animals Work
933(210)
Animal Form and Function
934(21)
Form, Function, and Adaptation
935(2)
Trade-Offs
935(2)
Adaptation and Acclimatization
937(1)
Tissues, Organs, and Systems: How Does Structure Correlate with Function?
937(4)
Tissues
937(2)
Organs and Systems
939(2)
How Does Body Size Affect Animal Physiology?
941(4)
Surface Area/Volume Relationships
941(3)
Do All Aspects of an Animal's Body Increase in Size Proportionately?
944(1)
Homeostasis
945(1)
Regulation and Feedback
946(1)
How Do Animals Regulate Body Temperature?
946(9)
Gaining and Losing Heat
947(2)
A Closer Look at Torpor and Hibernation
949(2)
Ectothermy Versus Endothermy
951(1)
Is Fever Adaptive?
952(1)
Chapter Review
952(3)
Water and Electrolyte Balance in Animals
955(22)
Osmoregulation and Osmotic Stress
956(2)
Water and Electrolyte Balance in Aquatic Environments
958(4)
How Do Sharks Osmoregulate?
958(2)
Passive and Active Transport: A Quick Review
960(1)
How Do Salmon Osmoregulate?
960(2)
Water and Electrolyte Balance in Terrestrial Insects
962(3)
How Do Insects Minimize Water Loss from the Body Surface?
962(1)
Types of Nitrogenous Wastes: Impact on Water Balance
963(1)
Maintaining Homeostasis: The Excretory System
963(2)
Water and Electrolyte Balance in Terrestrial Vertebrates
965(12)
The Structure of the Kidney
966(1)
Filtration: The Renal Corpuscle
966(2)
Reabsorption: The Proximal Tubule
968(1)
Creating an Osmotic Gradient: The Loop of Henle
969(3)
Regulating Water and Electrolyte Balance: The Distal Tubule and the Collecting Duct
972(1)
Life in the Desert
973(2)
Chapter Review
975(2)
Animal Nutrition
977(22)
Nutritional Requirements
978(3)
Meeting Basic Needs
978(1)
Nutrition and Athletic Performance
979(2)
Obtaining Food: The Structure and Function of Mouthparts
981(3)
How Are Nutrients Digested and Absorbed?
984(9)
The Mouth and Esophagus
986(1)
The Stomach
986(3)
The Small Intestine
989(4)
The Large Intestine
993(1)
Nutritional Homeostasis---Glucose as a Case Study
993(6)
Insulin's Role in Homeostasis
994(1)
The Type II Diabetes Mellitus Epidemic
995(1)
Cholesterol, Diet, and Disease
996(1)
Chapter Review
997(2)
Gas Exchange and Circulation
999(27)
Air and Water as Respiratory Media
999(3)
How Do Oxygen and Carbon Dioxide Behave in Air?
1000(1)
How Do Oxygen and Carbon Dioxide Behave in Water?
1001(1)
Organs of Gas Exchange
1002(7)
Design Parameters: The Law of Diffusion
1002(1)
How Do Gills Work?
1003(1)
How Do Tracheae Work?
1004(1)
How Do Lungs Work?
1005(3)
Respiratory Distress Syndrome in Premature Infants
1008(1)
Homeostatic Control of Ventilation
1009(1)
Blood
1009(4)
Oxygen Delivery: The Bohr Effect
1010(1)
CO2 Transport and the Buffering of Blood pH
1011(1)
Homeostatic Control of Oxygen-Carrying Capacity
1012(1)
Blood Doping and Erythropoeitin Abuse by Athletes
1013(1)
The Circulatory System
1013(13)
Open Circulatory Systems
1014(1)
Closed Circulatory Systems
1014(2)
The Heart
1016(4)
Hypertension and the Measurement of Blood Pressure
1020(1)
Regulation of Blood Pressure and Blood Flow
1021(2)
Smoking and Lung Function
1023(1)
Chapter Review
1024(2)
Electrical Signals in Animals
1026(26)
Principles of Electrical Signaling
1027(6)
The Anatomy of a Neuron
1027(1)
An Introduction to Membrane Potentials
1028(1)
The Resting Potential
1029(1)
Using the Nernst and Goldman Equations
1030(1)
Using Microelectrodes to Measure Membrane Potentials
1031(1)
What Is an Action Potential?
1032(1)
Dissecting the Action Potential
1033(5)
Distinct Ion Currents Are Responsible for Depolarization and Repolarization
1033(1)
Voltage-Gated Channels
1033(3)
The Role of the Sodium-Potassium Pump
1036(1)
How Is the Action Potential Propagated?
1036(2)
The Synapse
1038(6)
What Do Neurotransmitters Do?
1040(1)
Postsynaptic Potentials and Summation
1041(1)
What Happens When Ligand-Gated Channels Are Defective?
1042(2)
The Vertebrate Nervous System
1044(8)
A Closer Look at the Peripheral Nervous System
1044(1)
Functional Anatomy of the CNS
1044(2)
How Does Memory Work?
1046(3)
Can Brain Tissue Transplants Help People with Parkinson's Disease?
1049(1)
Chapter Review
1050(2)
Animal Sensory Systems and Movement
1052(24)
How Do Sensory Organs Convey Information to the Brain?
1053(2)
Senses That Humans Don't Have
1054(1)
Sensory Transduction
1054(1)
Transmitting Information to the Brain
1055(1)
Hearing
1055(4)
How Do Sensory Cells Respond to Sound Waves and Other Forms of Pressure?
1055(2)
The Mammalian Ear
1057(1)
Sensory Worlds: What Do Other Animals Hear?
1058(1)
Vision
1059(5)
The Vertebrate Eye
1060(1)
Vertebrate versus Cephalopod Eyes
1061(2)
Sensory Worlds: Do Other Animals See Color?
1063(1)
Taste and Smell
1064(2)
Taste: Detecting Molecules in the Mouth
1064(1)
Olfaction: Detecting Molecules in the Air
1065(1)
Movement
1066(10)
Skeletons
1067(1)
How Do Muscles Contract?
1068(5)
Sprinters and Marathoners---Born or Made?
1073(1)
Chapter Review
1074(2)
Chemical Signals in Animals
1076(23)
Cataloging Hormone Structure and Function
1077(4)
How Do Researchers Identify a Hormone?
1078(1)
Chemical Characteristics of Hormones
1079(1)
The Human Endocrine System---An Overview
1080(1)
What Do Hormones Do?
1081(7)
A Closer Look at Thyroxine and the Thyroid Gland
1082(1)
How Do Hormones Coordinate Responses to Environmental Change?
1082(2)
How Do Hormones Direct Developmental Processes?
1084(1)
How Are Hormones Involved in Homeostasis?
1084(3)
Is Human Obesity Caused by Leptin Deficiency?
1087(1)
How Is the Production of Hormones Regulated?
1088(3)
The Hypothalamus and Pituitary Gland
1088(3)
Control of Epinephrine by Sympathetic Nerves
1091(1)
How Do Hormones Act on Target Cells?
1091(8)
Steroid Hormones and Intracellular Receptors
1091(2)
Hormones That Bind to Cell-Surface Receptors
1093(3)
Do Humans Produce Pheromones?
1096(1)
Chapter Review
1097(2)
Animal Reproduction
1099(21)
Asexual and Sexual Reproduction
1100(2)
Mechanisms of Asexual Reproduction
1100(1)
Switching Reproductive Modes: A Case History
1100(1)
Mechanisms of Sexual Reproduction: Gametogenesis
1101(1)
Fertilization and Egg Development
1102(4)
External Fertilization
1102(1)
Internal Fertilization and Sperm Competition
1103(1)
Unusual Aspects of Fertilization
1103(2)
Oviparity and Viviparity
1105(1)
Reproductive Structures and Their Functions
1106(3)
The Male Reproductive System
1106(2)
The Female Reproductive System
1108(1)
The Role of Sex Hormones in Mammalian Reproduction
1109(4)
Puberty
1109(1)
Abuse of Synthetic Steroids
1110(1)
Female Sex Hormones and the Menstrual Cycle
1111(2)
Human Pregnancy and Birth
1113(7)
Major Events during Pregnancy
1114(1)
How Does the Mother Nourish the Fetus?
1115(1)
Birth
1116(1)
Contraception
1117(1)
Chapter Review
1118(2)
The Immune System in Animals
1120(23)
Innate Immunity
1121(3)
Barriers to Entry
1121(1)
The Innate Immune Response
1122(2)
The Acquired Immune Response: Recognition
1124(8)
An Introduction to Lymphocytes and the Immune System
1124(1)
The Discovery of B Cells and T Cells
1125(1)
Antigen Recognition and Clonal Selection
1125(3)
How Are Monoclonal Antibodies Produced?
1128(4)
How Does the Immune System Distinguish Self from Nonself?
1132(1)
The Acquired Immune Response: Activation
1132(3)
Antigen Presentation by MHC Proteins: Activating T Cells
1133(1)
B-Cell Activation and Antibody Secretion
1134(1)
Antigen Presentation by Infected Cells: A Signal for Action by CD8+T Cells
1135(1)
The Acquired Immune Response: Culmination
1135(8)
Killing Bacteria
1135(1)
Destroying Viruses
1135(1)
Why Does the Immune System Reject Foreign Tissues and Organs?
1136(1)
Responding to Future Infections: Immunological Memory
1137(1)
The ELISA Test
1138(1)
Allergies
1139(1)
Chapter Review
1140(3)
UNIT 9 Ecology
1143
An Introduction to Ecology
1144(22)
Areas of Ecological Study
1145(1)
Organismal Ecology
1145(1)
Population Ecology
1145(1)
Community Ecology
1146(1)
Ecosystem Ecology
1146(1)
How Do Ecology and Conservation Efforts Interact?
1146(1)
The Nature of the Environment
1146(3)
Climate
1147(2)
Types of Terrestrial and Aquatic Ecosystems
1149(11)
Terrestrial Biomes
1150(5)
Aquatic Environments
1155(2)
Thermoclines and Lake Turnover
1157(3)
Deep-Sea Life
1160(1)
Biogeography
1160(6)
The Role of History
1161(1)
Biotic Factors
1161(1)
Abiotic Factors
1162(2)
Battling Invasive Species
1164(1)
Chapter Review
1164(2)
Behavior
1166(26)
Types of Behavior---An Overview
1167(5)
Fixed Action Patterns
1168(1)
A Closer Look at Behavior Genetics
1169(2)
Conditional Strategies
1171(1)
Learning
1172(5)
Simple Types of Learning: Classical Conditioning and Imprinting
1172(1)
More Complex Types of Learning: Birdsong
1173(1)
Can Animals Think?
1174(1)
What Is the Adaptive Significance of Learning?
1175(2)
How Animals Act: Hormonal Control
1177(1)
Communication
1178(5)
Modes of Communication
1179(1)
A Case History: The Honeybee Dance
1180(1)
Honesty and Deceit in Communication
1181(2)
Orientation, Navigation, and Migration
1183(2)
Migration: Why Do Animals Move with a Change of Seasons?
1184(1)
Navigation: How Do Animals Find Their Way?
1184(1)
The Evolution of Self-Sacrificing Behavior
1185(7)
Do Organisms Act for the Good of the Species?
1186(1)
Kin Selection
1186(1)
Calculating the Coefficient of Relatedness
1187(1)
Reciprocal Altruism
1188(1)
Children at Risk
1189(1)
Chapter Review
1190(2)
Population Ecology
1192(22)
Demography
1193(3)
Life Tables
1193(2)
The Role of Life History
1195(1)
Using Life Tables to Calculate Population Growth Rates
1196(1)
Population Growth
1196(5)
Exponential Growth
1196(1)
Logistic Growth
1197(1)
Developing and Applying Population Growth Equations: A Closer Look
1197(3)
What Limits Growth Rates and Population Sizes?
1200(1)
Population Dynamics
1201(5)
Population Cycles: The Case of the Red Grouse
1201(2)
Age Structure
1203(2)
Analyzing Change in the Growth Rate of Human Populations
1205(1)
How Can Population Ecology Help Endangered Species?
1206(8)
Preserving Metapopulations
1206(1)
Using Life-Table Data to Make Population Projections
1207(1)
Mark-Recapture Studies
1208(2)
Population Viability Analysis
1210(1)
What Limits Human Population Growth?
1211(1)
Chapter Review
1211(3)
Community Ecology
1214(29)
Species Interactions
1214(15)
Competition
1215(5)
Consumption
1220(7)
Mutualism
1227(2)
Community Structure
1229(7)
Clements and Gleason: Two Views of Community Dynamics
1229(2)
Disturbance and Change in Ecological Communities
1231(1)
What Disturbances Occur, and How Frequent and Severe Are They?
1232(1)
Succession: The Development of Communities after Disturbance
1232(4)
Species Diversity in Ecological Communities
1236(7)
Global Patterns in Species Diversity
1236(1)
Measuring Species Diversity
1237(1)
The Role of Diversity in Ecological Communities
1238(1)
Let-It-Burn Policies
1239(2)
Chapter Review
1241(2)
Ecosystems
1243(22)
Energy Flow and Trophic Structure
1244(8)
Global Patterns in Productivity
1244(3)
How Does Energy Flow through an Ecosystem?
1247(4)
Analyzing Energy Flow: A Case History
1251(1)
Biogeochemical Cycles
1252(7)
Biogeochemical Cycles in Ecosystems
1253(1)
Global Biogeochemical Cycles
1254(5)
Human Impacts on Ecosystems
1259(6)
Global Warming
1259(2)
Phosphate Pollution, Acid Rain, and the Ozone Hole: Hope for Ecosystem Recovery?
1261(2)
Chapter Review
1263(2)
Biodiversity and Conservation
1265
What Is Biodiversity?
1266(2)
Biodiversity Can Be Measured and Analyzed at Several Levels
1266(1)
Why Is Biodiversity Important?
1267(1)
How Do Biologists Study Biodiversity?
1268(4)
Quantifying Genetic Diversity
1268(1)
Estimating the Total Number of Species Living Today
1269(1)
Steps in Understanding Biodiversity
1269(1)
Biodiversity and Ecosystem Function
1270(2)
Threats to Biodiversity
1272(5)
Humans Have Affected Biodiversity throughout History
1272(1)
Current Threats to Biodiversity
1273(2)
How Can Biologists Predict Future Extinction Rates?
1275(2)
Conserving Biodiversity: Biology, Sociology, Economics, and Politics
1277
The Role of Governmental and Private Agencies
1278(1)
Conservation Strategies
1279(1)
Looking to the Future
1279(1)
Models for the Future: The Malpai Borderlands and Guanacaste
1280(1)
Chapter Review
1281
Appendix 1(1)
Glossary 1(1)
Image Credits 1(1)
Index 1


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