Bistatic radar consists of a radar system which comprises a transmitter and receiver which are separated by a distance comparable to the expected target distance.
This book provides a general theoretical description of such bistatic technology in the context of synthetic aperture, inverse synthetic aperture and forward scattering radars from the point of view of analytical geometrical and signal formation as well as processing theory. Signal formation and image reconstruction algorithms are developed with the application of high informative linear frequency and phase code modulating techniques, and numerical experiments that confirm theoretical models are carried out. The authors suggest the program implementation of developed algorithms.
A theoretical summary of the latest results in the field of bistatic radars is provided, before applying an analytical geometrical description of scenarios of bistatic synthetic aperture, inverse synthetic aperture and forward scattering radars with cooperative and non-cooperative transmitters. Signal models with linear frequency and phase code modulation are developed, and special phase modulations with C/A (coarse acquisition) and P (precision) of GPS satellite transmitters are considered. The authors suggest Matlab implementations of all geometrical models and signal formation and processing algorithms.
1. Bistatic Synthetic Aperture Radar (BSAR) Survey.
2. BSAR Geometry.
3. BSAR Waveforms and Signal Models.
4. BSAR Image Reconstruction Algorithms.
5. Analytical Geometrical Determination of BSAR Resolution.
6. BSAR Experimental Results.
7. BSAR Matlab Implementation.
About the Authors
Andon Dimitrov Lazarov is Full Professor at Burgas Free University in Bulgaria. His field of interest includes theory, methods and algorithms in the scope of SAR-ISAR-BSAR-InSAR theory, modeling, and signal and image processing. He has authored over 200 research journal and conference papers. He is a member of IEEE, AES Society-USA, TBSR of Applied Electromagnetism-Greece, and guest-editor of a special issue on ISAR signal processing for the IET Journal, Canada.
Todor Pavlov Kostadinov is Assistant Professor at Burgas Technical University “Asen Zlatarov” in Bulgaria. His field of interests includes communications, networks and embedded systems, computer science, signal and image processing, image recognition, programming, SAR, ISAR, BSAR and InSAR techniques, methods and algorithms. He is the author of more than 10 journal and conference papers in the field of SAR, ISAR and BSAR technologies.
A general theoretical description of bistatic technology within the scope of synthetic aperture, inverse synthetic aperture and forward scattering radars from the point of view of analytical geometrical and signal formation and processing theory.
Signal formation and image reconstruction algorithms are developed in this title, with application of high informative linear frequency and phase code modulating techniques. Numerical experiments that confirm theoretical models are carried out and the authors suggest program implementation for the algorithms developed.
CHAPTER 1. BISTATIC SYNTHETIC APERTURE RADAR (BSAR) SURVEY 1
1.1. Introduction and main definitions 1
1.2. Passive space-surface bistatic and multistatic SAR 4
1.3. Forward scattering radars 6
1.4. A moving target problem as an inversion problem in multistatic SAR 8
1.5. BSAR models, imaging, methods and algorithms 9
1.5.1. Range migration algorithm for invariant and variant flying geometry 9
1.5.2. Bistatic point target reference spectrum based on Loffeld’s bistatic formula 10
1.5.3. Target parameters extraction 12
CHAPTER 2. BSAR GEOMETRY 17
2.1. BGISAR geometry and kinematics 17
2.2. Multistatic BSAR geometry and kinematics 21
2.3. BFISAR geometry and kinematics 24
2.3.1. Kinematic parameter estimation 26
CHAPTER 3. BSAR WAVEFORMS AND SIGNAL MODELS 29
3.1. Short pulse waveform and the BSAR signal model 29
3.1.1. Short pulse waveform 29
3.1.2. Short pulse BSAR signal model 30
3.1.3. Target’s parameters estimation in short range BFISAR scenario 31
3.2. LFM pulse waveform 32
3.2.1. LFM BSAR signal model 33
3.3. CW LFM waveform and modeling of deterministic components of BSAR signal 35
3.4. Phase code modulated pulse waveforms 37
3.4.1. Barker phase code 38
3.4.2. Complementary code synthesis 39
3.4.3. BSAR-transmitted complementary phase code modulated waveforms 39
3.4.4. GPS C/A phase code 41
3.4.5. GPS P phase code 43
3.4.6. DVB-T waveform 47
CHAPTER 4. BSAR IMAGE RECONSTRUCTION ALGORITHMS 49
4.1. Image reconstruction from a short pulse BSAR signal 49
4.2. LFM BSAR image reconstruction algorithm 53
4.3. PCM BSAR image reconstruction algorithm 55
4.4. Autofocus algorithm with entropy minimization 58
4.5. Experiment with the multistatic SAR LFM image reconstruction algorithm 59
CHAPTER 5. ANALYTICAL GEOMETRICAL DETERMINATION OF BSAR RESOLUTION 65
5.1. Generalized BSAR range and Doppler resolution 65
5.1.1. BSAR range resolution 65
5.1.2. BSAR Doppler resolution 69
5.2. Along-track range resolution 69
5.3. Range resolution along a target–receiver line of sight 72
CHAPTER 6. BSAR EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS 77
6.1. Example 1: BFISAR with short-pulse waveform 77
6.1.1. BFISAR parameters estimation 78
6.1.2. BFISAR signal formation algorithm 78
6.2. Example 2: BFISAR with pulse LFM waveform 83
6.2.1. BFISAR geometry and isorange ellipse parameter estimation 85
6.2.2. BFISAR LFM signal formation algorithm 86
6.2.3. Image reconstruction algorithm and experimental results 86
6.3. Example 3: asymmetric geometry of BFISAR with pulse LFM waveform 95
6.3.1. BFISAR LFM signal formation algorithm 96
6.3.2. BFISAR image reconstruction algorithm and experimental results 97
6.4. Example 4: BGISAR with Barker PCM waveform 101
6.4.1. BGISAR Barker PCM signal formation algorithm 102
6.4.2. BGISAR image reconstruction algorithm and experimental results 104
6.5. Example 5: BGISAR with GPS C/A PCM waveform 109
6.5.1. BGISAR GPS C/A PCM signal formation algorithm 110
6.5.2. BGISAR image reconstruction algorithm and experimental results 112
6.6. Example 6: BGISAR with GPS P PCM waveform 115
6.6.1. BGISAR GPS P PCM signal formation algorithm 116
6.6.2. BGISAR image extraction algorithm and experimental results 118
CHAPTER 7. BSAR MATLAB IMPLEMENTATION 123
7.1. Construction of a helicopter image 123
7.2. BGISAR imaging 124
7.3. BFISAR imaging by short pulses 134
7.4. Continuous linear frequency modulated waveform generation 137
7.5. Pulse LFM waveform generation 138
7.6. BFISAR imaging by pulse LFM waveform 139
7.7. GPS coarse acquisition phase code modulated waveform generation 145
7.8. BGSAR imaging by GPS C/A PCM waveform 146
7.9. GPS precision phase code modulated waveform generation 152
7.10. BGISAR imaging by GPS P PCM waveform 153
7.11. Multistatic SAR imaging by pulse LFM waveform 162
7.12. Isorange ellipse generation 166
7.13. Range resolution determination 168