What is included with this book?
Preface | p. xiii |
Acknowledgments | p. xv |
Introduction | p. 1 |
Importance of Blades in Steam Turbines | p. 1 |
Brief Historical Perspective of Technological Development | p. 2 |
Steam Turbine Design Process, Performance Estimation, and Determination of Blade Loads | p. 11 |
Turbine Design Process | p. 12 |
Introduction to Steam Turbine Thermodynamics | p. 13 |
Velocity Diagrams | p. 17 |
Euler's Equation | p. 17 |
Impulse Turbine | p. 19 |
Reaction Turbine | p. 22 |
Application Requirements and Conditions of Service | p. 25 |
Preliminary Turbine Design | p. 27 |
Number of Stages | p. 27 |
Airfoil Section Shape | p. 29 |
Number of Blades | p. 32 |
Blade Loading | p. 34 |
Steady Loads | p. 34 |
Unsteady Blade Loads | p. 37 |
Turbine Blade Construction, Materials, and Manufacture | p. 47 |
Airfoils | p. 49 |
Impulse and Reaction Blades | p. 50 |
Impulse | p. 50 |
Reaction | p. 51 |
Twisted-Tapered Airfoils | p. 52 |
Roots | p. 53 |
Circumferential or Tangential Dovetail Roots | p. 53 |
Axial Roots | p. 57 |
Pinned Roots | p. 59 |
Shrouds and Auxiliary Dampers | p. 62 |
Riveted Shrouds | p. 62 |
Integral Shrouds | p. 63 |
Z-Lock Shrouds | p. 64 |
Auxiliary Shroud Dampers | p. 65 |
Blade Materials | p. 67 |
Stainless Steel | p. 68 |
Titanium | p. 69 |
Other Blade Materials | p. 70 |
Material Forms | p. 71 |
Manufacturing Processes | p. 73 |
Erosion Protection-Condensing Stages | p. 76 |
Bladed Disk Assembly Processes | p. 79 |
Assembly of Bladed Disks with Circumferential Dovetail Roots | p. 79 |
Bladed Disk Assembly-Axial Fir Tree Roots | p. 83 |
Bladed Disk Assembly-Pinned Roots | p. 84 |
Riveted Shroud Installation | p. 86 |
Integral Shroud Installation | p. 93 |
Inspection, Testing, and Quality Assurance | p. 96 |
System of Stress and Damage Mechanisms | p. 99 |
Stress-Strain Behavior of Metals | p. 100 |
Engineering Stress-Strain Properties | p. 105 |
True Stress-Strain Properties | p. 106 |
Measure of Material's Engineering Energy Capacity | p. 108 |
Stress Tensor and Strain Tensor | p. 109 |
Stress at a Point and Stress Concentration | p. 110 |
Three-Dimensional Expression for Stress at a Point | p. 115 |
Principal Stresses and Direction Cosines | p. 116 |
Deformation and Fracture Damage | p. 120 |
Theories of Failure under Static Loads | p. 121 |
Creep | p. 125 |
Damage due to Cyclic Loading | p. 137 |
Review of Fundamentals of Vibration | p. 157 |
Discrete Systems | p. 158 |
Single-Degree-of-Freedom (SDOF) System | p. 158 |
Multiple-Degree-of-Freedom (MDOF) System | p. 161 |
System with Equal Frequencies | p. 164 |
Continuous Systems | p. 166 |
Cantilever Beam | p. 166 |
Circular Plate | p. 169 |
Damping Concepts | p. 171 |
Rheological Model | p. 171 |
Factors Affecting Damping | p. 172 |
Viscous Damping | p. 173 |
Critical Damping | p. 173 |
Proportional Damping | p. 173 |
Frictional Damping and Z-Lock Shroud | p. 174 |
Simple Estimation Method-Macromodel | p. 177 |
Dynamic Consideration | p. 181 |
Equivalent Viscous Damping | p. 184 |
Macroslip and Microslip | p. 186 |
Summary of Simple Analysis | p. 188 |
Vibration Behavior of Bladed Disk System | p. 191 |
Single Cantilevered Blade | p. 191 |
Packet of Blades | p. 192 |
Individual Disks | p. 193 |
Analysis of a Bladed Disk System | p. 194 |
Freestanding (Blades with or without a Shroud But Not Connected to One Another) | p. 194 |
Packeted Bladed Disk | p. 196 |
Completely Shrouded Design | p. 200 |
Evaluation Concepts for Blade Resonant Vibration | p. 201 |
Campbell Diagram | p. 201 |
Interference Diagram (SAFE Diagram) | p. 202 |
Work Done by an Applied Force | p. 203 |
Interference Diagram When Harmonics of Excitation Are Larger Than One-Half of the Number of Blades | p. 217 |
Effect of Temperature and Speed on Natural Frequencies | p. 221 |
Effect on Natural Frequency due to Centrifugal Stiffening | p. 221 |
Lacing Wire Construction | p. 222 |
Determination of Effects of Number of Blades in a Packet | p. 225 |
Quick Check for Requirement of a Lacing Wire Construction | p. 225 |
Sizing and Positioning of a Lacing Wire | p. 227 |
Check of Stress in the Hole in the Blade | p. 229 |
Partial Admission Stage | p. 232 |
Damped Free Vibration | p. 238 |
Damped Forced Vibration | p. 238 |
Effect of Mistuning of a Bladed Disk System on Vibration Response | p. 243 |
Impure Mode Shapes (Packeted Bladed Disk) | p. 245 |
Graphical Method | p. 250 |
Mathematical Expression | p. 253 |
Effect on Response | p. 254 |
Reliability Evaluation for Blade Design | p. 257 |
Loads, Stress, and Evaluation | p. 257 |
Stress due to Centrifugal Load | p. 258 |
Stress due to Steam Forces | p. 259 |
Resonant Vibration | p. 262 |
Blade Frequency Evaluation | p. 263 |
Exciting Forces | p. 264 |
Running Speed Harmonic Excitation | p. 264 |
Nozzle Passing Frequency (NPF) Excitation | p. 265 |
Partial Admission Excitation | p. 267 |
Factor of Safety Calculation | p. 268 |
Influence of Tolerance Stack Up in Root-Disk Attachment | p. 272 |
Summary of Design Criteria | p. 277 |
Checklist for Auditing a Blade Design | p. 278 |
Life Assessment Aspects for Blade | p. 283 |
Assessment of Useful Life of Blade in Presence of High Cycle Fatigue | p. 283 |
Factor of Safety Concept for High Cycle Fatigue | p. 289 |
Life Estimation | p. 289 |
Process of Shot Peen and Laser Peen to Improve Fatigue Life | p. 294 |
Basic Explanation for Increase in Fatigue Life | p. 294 |
Residual Stress due to Shot Peen | p. 296 |
Linear Approximation of Compressive Layer Profile | p. 296 |
Exponential Approximation of Compressive Layer Profile | p. 299 |
Combination of Applied and Residual Compressive Stress | p. 302 |
Linear Approximation of Combined Stress | p. 303 |
Exponential Approximation of Combined Stress | p. 304 |
Mechanistic View of Improvement in Fatigue Life due to Shot Peen | p. 306 |
Improvement during High Cycle Fatigue | p. 306 |
Improvement during Low Cycle Fatigue-Zero Mean Stress | p. 308 |
Process of Laser Peen | p. 308 |
Estimation of Risk | p. 313 |
Probabilistic Concept to Quantify Risk of a Proposed Design | p. 313 |
Probabilistic Treatment of Factor of Safety Based on Goodman Equation | p. 320 |
Transformation of Random Variables | p. 324 |
Single Cantilever Beam | p. 325 |
Probabilistic Low Cycle Fatigue Concept | p. 330 |
Summary | p. 333 |
Deterministic Reliability Estimation | p. 333 |
Stress and Fatigue Analysis | p. 333 |
Creep Analysis | p. 334 |
Modal Analysis | p. 334 |
Response Analysis | p. 335 |
Goodman Factor of Safety Based on Above Analysis | p. 335 |
Deterministic Life Estimation | p. 335 |
Probabilistic Reliability Analysis | p. 338 |
Probabilistic Goodman Analysis | p. 338 |
Probabilistic Frequency Analysis | p. 340 |
Probabilistic Life Estimation | p. 340 |
Appendix: Fourier Series | p. 343 |
Bibliography | p. 347 |
Index | p. 351 |
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