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Business Law : Principles for Today's Commercial Environment

by
Edition:
1st
ISBN13:

9780324153552

ISBN10:
0324153554
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
3/14/2003
Publisher(s):
South-Western College/West

Questions About This Book?

What version or edition is this?
This is the 1st edition with a publication date of 3/14/2003.
What is included with this book?
  • The New copy of this book will include any supplemental materials advertised. Please check the title of the book to determine if it should include any CDs, lab manuals, study guides, etc.

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Summary

This first edition, written by the same authors of the Anderson family of texts, re-positions Anderson's Business Law of the Regulatory Environment by incorporating all relevant UCC Sections into the text. As the new incarnation of Anderson, this book retains the tradition of accuracy, depth and contemporary perspective. Its cases are excerpted, relevant and interesting. The UCC coverage provides the student with the code language when reading applicable portions of the text. This text meets AACSB requirements and offers complete coverage for CPA preparation, featuring ethics, public policy and the Internet.

Table of Contents

Preface xvii
About the Authors xxi
Part 1 The Legal and Social Environment of Business
1(264)
The Nature and Sources of Law
2(9)
Nature of Law and Legal Rights
3(4)
Legal Rights
3(1)
Individual Rights
3(1)
The Right of Privacy
3(1)
Privacy and Technology
4(3)
Sources of Law
7(1)
Uniform State Laws
8(1)
Classifications of Law
8(3)
The Court System and Dispute Resolution
11(20)
The Court System
12(4)
The Types of Courts
12(1)
The Federal Court System
12(2)
State Court Systems
14(2)
Court Procedure
16(5)
Participants in the Court System
16(1)
Which Law Applies---Conflicts of Law
16(1)
Initial Steps in a Lawsuit
17(3)
The Trial
20(1)
Posttrial Procedures
21(1)
Alternative Dispute Resolution (ADR)
21(10)
Arbitration
21(4)
Mediation
25(1)
Med Arb
25(1)
Reference to a Third Person
25(1)
Association Tribunals
26(1)
Summary Jury Trial
26(1)
Rent-a-Judge
26(1)
Minitrial
26(1)
Contract Provisions
27(1)
Disposition of Complaints and Ombudsmen
27(4)
Business Ethics, Social Forces, and the Law
31(26)
What Is Business Ethics?
32(3)
The Law as the Standard for Business Ethics
32(1)
The Notion of Universal Standards for Business Ethics
32(1)
The Standard of Situational Business Ethics or Moral Relativism
33(1)
The Business Stakeholder Standard of Behavior
33(2)
Why Is Business Ethics Important?
35(10)
The Importance of Trust
35(1)
Business Ethics and Financial Performance
36(1)
The Importance of a Good Reputation
37(1)
Business Ethics and Business Regulation: Public Policy, Law, and Ethics
38(7)
How to Recognize and Resolve Ethical Dilemmas
45(12)
Categories of Ethical Behavior
45(4)
Resolving Ethical Dilemmas
49(8)
The Constitution as the Foundation of the Legal Environment
57(28)
The U.S. Constitution and the Federal System
58(1)
What a Constitution Is
58(1)
The Branches of Government
58(1)
The U.S. Constitution and the States
58(5)
Delegated and Shared Powers
58(1)
Other Powers
58(1)
Federal Supremacy
59(4)
Interpreting and Amending the Constitution
63(2)
Conflicting Theories
63(1)
Amending the Constitution
64(1)
The Living Constitution
64(1)
Federal Powers
65(7)
The Power to Regulate Commerce
65(5)
The Financial Powers
70(2)
Constitutional Limitations on Government
72(13)
Due Process
72(1)
Equal Protection of the Law
73(1)
Privileges and Immunities
74(1)
Protection of the Person
74(5)
The Bill of Rights and Business as a Person
79(6)
Government Regulation of Competition and Prices
85(21)
Power to Regulate Business
86(1)
Regulation, Free Enterprise, and Deregulation
86(1)
Regulation of Production, Distribution, and Financing
86(1)
Regulation of Unfair Competition
87(1)
Regulation of Markets and Competition
87(13)
Regulation of Prices
87(7)
Prevention of Monopolies and Combinations
94(6)
Power to Protect Business
100(6)
Remedies for Anticompetitive Behavior
102(4)
Administrative Agencies
106(21)
Nature of the Administrative Agency
107(2)
Purpose of Administrative Agencies
107(1)
Uniqueness of Administrative Agencies
107(1)
Open Operation of Administrative Agencies
107(2)
Legislative Power of the Agency
109(6)
Agency's Regulations as Law
109(1)
Agency Adoption of Regulations
110(5)
Executive Power of the Agency
115(1)
Enforcement or Execution of the Law
115(1)
Constitutional Limitations on Administrative Investigation
115(1)
Judicial Power of the Agency
115(12)
The Agency as a Specialized Court
116(1)
Punishment and Enforcement Powers of Agencies
117(1)
Exhaustion of Administrative Remedy
117(1)
Appeal from Administrative Action and Finality of Administrative Determination
117(6)
Liability of the Agency
123(4)
The Legal Environment of International Trade
127(26)
General Principles
128(7)
The Legal Background
128(1)
International Trade Organizations, Conferences, and Treaties
129(5)
Forms of Business Organizations
134(1)
Governmental Regulation
135(18)
Export Regulations
135(1)
Protection of Intellectual Property Rights
136(3)
Antitrust
139(1)
Securities Regulation in an International Environment
140(3)
Barriers to Trade
143(3)
Relief Mechanisms for Economic Injury Caused by Foreign Trade
146(1)
Expropriation
147(1)
Government-Assisted Export Programs
147(1)
The Foreign Corrupt Practices Act
148(5)
Crimes
153(28)
General Principles
154(10)
Nature and Classification of Crimes
154(1)
Basis of Criminal Liability
154(1)
Responsibility for Criminal Acts
154(9)
Indemnification of Crime Victims
163(1)
White-Collar Crimes
164(7)
Conspiracies
164(1)
Crimes Related to Production, Competition, and Marketing
165(1)
Money Laundering
165(1)
Racketeering
166(1)
Bribery
166(1)
Commercial Bribery
167(1)
Extortion and Blackmail
167(1)
Corrupt Influence
167(1)
Counterfeiting
168(1)
Forgery
168(1)
Perjury
168(1)
False Claims and Pretenses
169(1)
Bad Checks
169(1)
Credit Card Crimes
169(1)
Embezzlement
170(1)
Obstruction of Justice---Sarbanes-Oxley
170(1)
Corporate Fraud---Sarbanes-Oxley
171(1)
Criminal Law and the Computer
171(2)
What Is a Computer Crime?
171(1)
The Computer as Victim
171(1)
Unauthorized Use of Computers
172(1)
Computer Raiding
172(1)
Diverted Delivery by Computer
172(1)
Economic Espionage by Computer
173(1)
Electronic Fund Transfer Crimes
173(1)
Circumventing Copyright Protection Devices via Computer
173(1)
Criminal Procedure Rights for Businesses
173(8)
Fourth Amendment Rights for Businesses
173(2)
Fifth Amendment Self-Incrimination Rights for Businesses
175(1)
Due Process Rights for Businesses
176(5)
Torts
181(29)
General Principles
182(1)
What Is a Tort?
182(1)
Tort and Crime Distinguished
182(1)
The Types of Torts
182(1)
Intentional Torts
183(9)
False Imprisonment
183(1)
Intentional Infliction of Emotional Distress
183(1)
Invasion of Privacy
184(2)
Defamation
186(4)
Product Disparagement
190(1)
Wrongful Interference with Contracts
190(1)
Spoilation of Evidence
190(1)
Trespass
190(1)
Computer Torts
191(1)
Negligence
192(10)
Elements of Negligence
192(6)
Defenses to Negligence
198(3)
Liability for Negligence
201(1)
Strict Liability
202(1)
What Is Strict Liability?
202(1)
Imposing Strict Liability
202(1)
Tort Reform
202(8)
Intellectual Property Rights and the Internet
210(28)
Trademarks and Service Marks
211(9)
Introduction
211(1)
Registrable Marks
211(4)
Trade Dress Protection
215(1)
Limited Lanham Act Protection of Product Design
215(2)
Injunction against Improper Use of Mark
217(1)
Abandonment of Exclusive Right to Mark
217(1)
Prevention of Dilution of Famous Marks
218(1)
Internet Domain Names and Trademark Rights
218(2)
Copyrights
220(7)
Duration of Copyright
220(1)
Copyright Notice
220(1)
What Is Copyrightable?
221(1)
Copyright Ownership and the Internet
221(1)
Rights of Copyright Holders
221(1)
Limitation on Exclusive Character of Copyright
221(3)
Digital Millennium Copyright Act
224(3)
Patents
227(2)
Types, Duration, and Notice
227(1)
Patentability and Exclusive Rights
228(1)
Patentable Internet Business Methods
229(1)
Secret Business Information
229(1)
Trade Secrets
229(1)
Loss of Protection
229(1)
Defensive Measures
229(1)
Criminal Sanctions
230(1)
Protection of Computer Software and Mask Works
230(8)
Copyright Protection of Computer Programs
230(1)
Patent Protection of Programs
231(1)
Trade Secrets
231(1)
Restrictive Licensing
231(1)
Semiconductor Chip Protection
232(6)
Cyberlaw
238(27)
Introduction to Cyberlaw
239(1)
What Is Cyberlaw?
239(1)
What Are the Issues in Cyberlaw?
239(1)
Tort Issues in Cyberspace
239(8)
Privacy Issues in Cyberlaw
239(4)
Appropriation in Cyberspace
243(1)
Defamation in Cybrspace
243(4)
Contract Issues in Cyberspace
247(3)
Formation of Contracts in Cyberspace
247(2)
Misrepresentation and Fraud in Cyberspace
249(1)
Intellectual Property Issues in Cyberspace
250(1)
Criminal Law Issues in Cyberspace
251(3)
Nature and Types of Cyberspace Crimes
251(3)
Criminal Procedure and Rights in Cyberspace
254(1)
Constitutional Restraints and Protections in Cyberspace
254(6)
First Amendment Rights in Cyberspace
254(3)
Commerce Clause Issues in Cyberspace
257(1)
Due Process Issues in Cyberspace
258(2)
Securities Law Issues in Cyberspace
260(5)
Part 2 Contracts
265(146)
Nature and Classes of Contracts: Contracting on the Internet
266(11)
Nature of Contracts
267(1)
Definition of a Contract
267(1)
Elements of a Contract
267(1)
Subject Matter of Contracts
267(1)
Parties to a Contract
267(1)
How a Contract Arises
268(1)
Intent to Make a Binding Agreement
268(1)
Freedom of Contract
268(1)
Classes of Contracts
268(4)
Formal and Informal Contracts
268(1)
Express and Implied Contracts
268(1)
Valid and Voidable Contracts and Void Agreements
269(1)
Executed and Executory Contracts
269(1)
Bilateral and Unilateral Contracts
270(1)
Quasi Contracts
271(1)
Contracting on the Internet
272(5)
Formation of Contracts: Offer and Acceptance
277(18)
Requirements of an Offer
278(5)
Contractual Intention
278(1)
Definiteness
279(4)
Communication of Offer to Offeree
283(1)
Termination of Offer
283(2)
Revocation of Offer by Offeror
283(1)
Counteroffer by Offeree
284(1)
Rejection of Offer by Offeree
284(1)
Lapse of Time
284(1)
Death or Disability of Either Party
285(1)
Subsequent Illegality
285(1)
Acceptance of Offer
285(10)
What Constitutes an Acceptance?
285(1)
Privilege of Offeree
285(1)
Effect of Acceptance
285(1)
Nature of Acceptance
285(1)
Who May Accept?
286(1)
Manner and Time of Acceptance
286(2)
Communication of Acceptance
288(2)
Auction Sales
290(5)
Capacity and Genuine Assent
295(20)
Contractual Capacity
296(6)
Contractual Capacity Defined
296(1)
Minors
296(4)
Mentally Incompetent Persons
300(1)
Intoxicated Persons
301(1)
Mistake
302(3)
Unilateral Mistake
302(1)
Mutual Mistake
303(2)
Mistake in the Transcription or Printing of the Contract: Reformation
305(1)
Deception
305(5)
Intentional Misrepresentation
305(1)
Fraud
306(3)
Nondisclosure
309(1)
Pressure
310(5)
Undue Influence
310(1)
Duress
310(5)
Consideration
315(14)
General Principles
316(2)
Consideration Defined and Explained
316(1)
Gifts
316(1)
Adequacy of Consideration
316(1)
Forbearance as Consideration
317(1)
Illusory Promises
317(1)
Third Parties
318(1)
Special Situations
318(4)
Preexisting Legal Obligation
318(3)
Past Consideration
321(1)
Moral Obligation
321(1)
Exceptions to the Laws of Consideration
322(7)
Exceptions to Consideration
322(7)
Legality and Public Policy
329(17)
General Principles
330(6)
Effect of Illegality
330(1)
Exceptions to Effect of Illegality
330(1)
Partial Illegality
330(1)
Crimes and Civil Wrongs
330(1)
Good Faith and Fairness
331(1)
Unconscionable Clauses
332(4)
Agreements Affecting Public Welfare
336(1)
Agreements Contrary to Public Policy
336(1)
Gambling, Wagers, and Lotteries
336(1)
Regulation of Business
337(9)
Effect of Violation
337(1)
Statutory Regulation of Contracts
337(1)
Licensed Callings or Dealings
337(1)
Contracts in Restraint of Trade
337(1)
Agreements Not to Compete
338(3)
Usurious Agreements
341(5)
Writing, Electronic Forms, and Interpretation of Contracts
346(20)
Statute of Frauds
347(6)
Validity of Oral Contracts
347(1)
Contracts that Must Be Evidenced by a Writing
347(3)
Note or Memorandum
350(3)
Effect of Noncompliance
353(1)
Parol Evidence Rule
353(2)
Exclusion of Parol Evidence
353(1)
When the Parol Evidence Rule Does Not Apply
354(1)
C. Rules of Construction and Interpretation
355(11)
Intention of the Parties
355(2)
Whole Contract
357(1)
Contradictory and Ambiguous Terms
357(3)
Implied Terms
360(1)
Conduct and Custom
360(1)
Avoidance of Hardship
360(6)
Third Persons and Contracts
366(13)
Third-Party Beneficiary Contracts
367(2)
Definition
367(1)
Modification or Termination of Intended Third-Party Beneficiary Contract
367(1)
Limitations on Intended Third-Party Beneficiary
368(1)
Incidental Beneficiaries
368(1)
Assignments
369(10)
Definitions
369(1)
Form of Assignment
369(1)
Notice of Assignment
369(1)
Assignment of Right to Money
370(1)
Nonassignable Rights
370(1)
Rights of Assignee
371(1)
Continuing Liability of Assignor
371(1)
Liability of Assignee
372(2)
Warranties of Assignor
374(1)
Delegation of Duties
374(5)
Discharge of Contracts
379(17)
Conditions Relating to Performance
380(1)
Classifications of Conditions
380(1)
Discharge by Performance
381(4)
Normal Discharge of Contracts
381(1)
Nature of Performance
381(1)
Time of Performance
382(1)
Adequacy of Performance
383(2)
Discharge by Action of Parties
385(1)
Discharge by Unilateral Action
385(1)
Discharge by Agreement
386(1)
Discharge by External Causes
386(1)
Discharge by Impossibility
386(10)
Developing Doctrines
388(3)
Temporary Impossibility
391(1)
Discharge by Operation of Law
391(5)
Breach of Contract and Remedies
396(15)
What Constitutes a Breach of Contract?
397(3)
Definition of Breach
397(1)
Anticipatory Breach
397(3)
Waiver of Breach
400(1)
Cure of Breach by Waiver
400(1)
Existence and Scope of Waiver
400(1)
Reservation of Rights
400(1)
Remedies for Breach of Contract
401(3)
Remedies upon Anticipatory Repudiation
401(1)
Remedies in General and the Measure of Damages
401(1)
Monetary Damages
402(1)
Rescission
403(1)
Action for Specific Performance
403(1)
Action for an Injunction
404(1)
Reformation of Contract by a Court
404(1)
Contract Provisions Affecting Remedies and Damages
404(7)
Limitation of Remedies
404(1)
Liquidated Damages
404(1)
Limitation of Liability Clauses
405(6)
Part 3 Sales and Leases of Goods
411(142)
Personal Property and Bailments
412(18)
Personal Property
413(7)
Personal Property in Context
413(1)
Title to Personal Property
413(1)
Gifts
413(3)
Finding of Lost Property
416(1)
Occupation of Personal Property
417(1)
Escheat
417(2)
Multiple Ownership of Personal Property
419(1)
Community Property
420(1)
Bailments
420(10)
Definition
420(1)
Elements of Bailment
420(1)
Nature of the Parties' Interests
421(1)
Classification of Ordinary Bailments
421(1)
Renting of Space Distinguished
421(1)
Duties and Rights of the Bailee
422(1)
Breach of Duty of Care: Burden of Proof
422(1)
Liability for Defects in Bailed Property
422(2)
Contract Modification of Liability
424(1)
Extraordinary Bailments
425(5)
Nature and Form of Sales
430(26)
Nature and Legality
431(11)
Subject Matter of Sales
431(1)
Sale Distinguished from Other Transactions
432(2)
Formation of Sales Contracts
434(6)
Terms in the Formed Contract
440(2)
Bulk Transfers
442(1)
Form of Sales Contract
442(5)
Amount
442(1)
Nature of the Writing Required
443(3)
Effect of Noncompliance
446(1)
Exceptions to Requirement of a Writing
446(1)
Noncode Requirements
447(1)
Bill of Sale
447(1)
Uniform Law for International Sales
447(1)
Scope of the CISG
447(1)
Irrevocable Offers
447(1)
Statute of Frauds
448(1)
The Mirror-Image Rule Returns under CISG
448(1)
Leases of Goods
448(8)
Types of Leases
449(1)
Form of Lease Contract
449(1)
Warranties
449(2)
Irrevocable Promises: Commercial Finance Leases
451(1)
Default
451(5)
Legal Aspects of Supply Chain Management: Title and Risk of Loss
456(29)
Types of Potential Problems and Transactions
457(1)
Damage to Goods
457(1)
Creditors' Claims
457(1)
Insurance
457(1)
Determining Rights: Identification of Goods
457(1)
Existing Goods
457(1)
Future Goods
458(1)
Fungible Goods
458(1)
Effect of Identification
458(1)
Determining Rights: Passage of Title
458(10)
Passage of Title Using Documents of Title
458(3)
Passage of Title in Nonshipment Contracts
461(1)
Passage of Title in Warehouse Arrangements
462(1)
Passage of Title in Bailments and Other Forms of Possession
463(2)
Delivery and Shipment Terms
465(2)
Passage of Title in Shipment Contracts
467(1)
Determining Rights: Risk of Loss
468(6)
Risk of Loss in Nonshipment Contracts
468(1)
Risk of Loss in Shipment Contracts
469(1)
Damage to or Destruction of Goods
470(1)
Common Carriers, Risk of Loss, and Liability
470(3)
Effect of Seller's Breach in Risk of Loss
473(1)
Determining Rights: Special Situations
474(11)
Returnable Goods Transactions
474(4)
Consignments and Factors
478(1)
Reservation of a Security Interest
478(2)
Self-Service Stores
480(1)
Auction Sales
480(5)
Product Liability: Warranties and Torts
485(29)
General Principles
486(1)
Theories of Liability
486(1)
Nature of Harm
486(1)
Who Is Liable in Product Liability
486(1)
Express Warranties
487(4)
Definition of Express Warranty
487(1)
Form of Express Warranty
488(1)
Time of Making Express Warranty
488(1)
Seller's Opinion or Statement of Value
488(1)
Warranty of Conformity to Description, Sample, or Model
489(2)
Federal Regulation of Express Warranties
491(1)
Effect of Breach of Express Warranty
491(1)
Implied Warranties
491(8)
Definition of Implied Warranty
492(1)
Implied Warranties of Sellers
492(1)
Additional Implied Warranties of Merchant Sellers
493(3)
Implied Warranties in Particular Sales
496(3)
Necessity of Defect
499(1)
Warranties in the International Sale of Goods
499(1)
Disclaimer of Warranties
499(4)
Validity of Disclaimer
499(4)
Particular Language for Disclaimers
503(1)
Exclusion of Warranties by Examination of Goods
503(1)
Postsale Disclaimer
503(1)
Other Theories of Product Liability
503(11)
Negligence
503(1)
Fraud
503(1)
Strict Tort Liability
503(4)
Cumulative Theories of Liability
507(7)
Obligations and Performance
514(20)
General Principles
515(3)
Obligation of Good Faith
515(1)
Time Requirements of Obligations
515(1)
Repudiation of the Contract
515(1)
Adequate Assurance of Performance
515(3)
Duties of the Parties
518(16)
Seller's Duty to Deliver
518(1)
Buyer's Duty upon Receipt of Goods
519(3)
Buyer's Duty to Accept Goods
522(3)
Buyer's Duty to Pay
525(1)
When Duties Are Excused
525(9)
Remedies for Breach of Sales Contracts
534(19)
Statute of Limitations
535(1)
Time Limits for Suits under the UCC
535(1)
Time Limits for Other Suits
535(1)
Remedies of the Seller
535(3)
Seller's Lien
535(1)
Seller's Remedy of Stopping Shipment
535(1)
Resale by Seller
536(1)
Cancellation by Seller
536(1)
Seller's Action for Damages under the Market Price Formula
536(1)
Seller's Action for Lost Profits
537(1)
Other Types of Damages
537(1)
Seller's Action for the Purchase Price
537(1)
Seller's Nonsale Remedies
537(1)
Remedies of the Buyer
538(6)
Rejection of Improper Tender
538(1)
Revocation of Acceptance
538(1)
Buyer's Action for Damages for Nondelivery---Market Price Recovery
538(1)
Buyer's Action for Damages for Nondelivery---Cover Price Recovery
539(1)
Other Types of Damages
539(2)
Action for Breach of Warranty
541(1)
Cancellation by Buyer
542(1)
Buyer's Resale of Goods
542(1)
Action for Conversion or Recovery of Goods: Specific Performance
542(1)
Nonsale Remedies of the Buyer
543(1)
Contract Provisions on Remedies
544(3)
Limitation of Damages
544(3)
Down Payments and Deposits
547(1)
Limitation of Remedies
547(1)
Waiver of Defenses
547(1)
Preservation of Defenses
547(1)
Remedies in the International Sale of Goods
547(6)
Remedies of the Seller
548(1)
Remedies of the Buyer
548(5)
Part 4 Negotiable Instruments
553(82)
Kinds of Instruments, Parties, and Negotiability
554(16)
Types of Negotiable Instruments and Parties
555(3)
Definition
555(1)
Kinds of Instruments
555(2)
Parties to Instruments
557(1)
Negotiability
558(12)
Definition of Negotiability
558(1)
Requirements of Negotiability
558(7)
Factors Not Affecting Negotiability
565(1)
Ambiguous Language
565(1)
Statute of Limitations
566(4)
Transfers of Negotiable Instruments and Warranties of Parties
570(20)
Transfer of Negotiable Instruments
571(1)
Effect of Transfer
571(1)
Definition of Negotiation
571(1)
How Negotiation Occurs: The Order or Bearer Character of an Instrument
571(1)
How Negotiation Occurs: Bearer Instruments
571(9)
How Negotiation Occurs: Order Instruments
573(1)
Blank Indorsement
573(3)
Special Indorsement
576(1)
Qualified Indorsement
576(1)
Restrictive Indorsement
576(1)
Correction of Name by Indorsement
577(1)
Bank Indorsement
577(1)
Multiple Payees and Indorsements
578(2)
Agent or Officer Indorsement
580(1)
Missing Indorsement
580(1)
Problems in Negotiation of Instruments
580(4)
Forged and Unauthorized Indorsements
580(1)
Quasi Forgeries: The Impostor Rule
581(3)
Effect of Incapacity or Misconduct on Negotiation
584(1)
Lost Instruments
584(1)
Warranties in Negotiation
584(6)
Warranties of Unqualified Indorser
584(1)
Warranties of Other Parties
585(5)
Liability of the Parties Under Negotiable Instruments
590(17)
Parties to Negotiable Instruments: Rights and Liabilities
591(5)
Types of Parties
591(1)
Ordinary Holders and Assignees
591(1)
The Holder in Due Course Protections
591(5)
Defenses to Payment of a Negotiable Instrument
596(6)
Classification of Defenses
596(1)
Defenses against Assignee or Ordinary Holder
596(1)
Limited Defenses Not Available against a Holder in Due Course
597(1)
Universal Defenses Available against All Holders
597(4)
Denial of Holder in Due Course Protection
601(1)
Liability Issues: How Payment Rights Arise and Defenses Are Used
602(5)
The Roles of Parties and Liability
602(1)
Attaching Liability of the Primary Parties: Presentment
602(1)
Dishonor and Notice of Dishonor
603(4)
Checks and Funds Transfers
607(28)
Checks
608(8)
Nature of a Check
608(1)
Certified Checks
609(1)
Presentment for Obtaining Payment on a Check
610(1)
Dishonor of a Check
611(1)
The Customer-Bank Relationship
611(1)
Stopping Payment of a Check
612(3)
Wrongful Dishonor of a Check
615(1)
Agency Status of Collecting Bank
615(1)
Bank's Duty of Care
615(1)
Liability of a Bank
616(6)
Premature Payment of a Postdated Check
616(1)
Payment over a Stop Payment Order
616(3)
Payment on a Forged Signature of Drawer
619(1)
Payment on a Forged or Missing Indorsement
619(2)
Alteration of a Check
621(1)
Unauthorized Collection of a Check
621(1)
Time Limitations
622(1)
Consumer Funds Transfers
622(3)
Electronic Fund Transfers Act
622(1)
Kinds of Electronic Fund Transfer Systems
623(1)
Consumer Liability
623(2)
Funds Transfers
625(10)
What Law Governs?
625(1)
Characteristics of Funds Transfers
625(1)
Pattern of Funds Transfers
625(1)
Scope of UCC Article 4A
625(2)
Definitions
627(1)
Form of Payment Order
627(1)
Manner of Transmitting Payment Order
627(1)
Security Procedure
628(1)
Regulation by Agreement and Funds Transfer System Rule
628(1)
Acceptance of Payment Order
628(1)
Reimbursement of the Bank
628(1)
Refund on Noncompletion of Transfer
629(1)
Error in Funds Transfer
629(1)
Liability for Loss
629(6)
Part 5 Debtor-Creditor Relationships
635(100)
Nature of the Debtor-Creditor Relationship
636(19)
Creation of the Credit Relationship
637(1)
Suretyship and Guaranty
637(8)
Definitions
637(1)
Indemnity Contract Distinguished
637(1)
Creation of the Relationship
638(1)
Rights of Sureties
639(1)
Defenses of Sureties
640(5)
Letters of Credit
645(10)
Definition
645(4)
Parties
649(1)
Duration
649(1)
Form
650(1)
Duty of Issuer
650(1)
Reimbursement of Issuer
650(5)
Consumer Protection
655(25)
General Principles
656(5)
Expansion of Protection
656(1)
Proof of Consumer Status
656(1)
Who Is a Defendant in a Consumer Protection Suit?
656(1)
Fault of the Business
657(1)
Consumer Fault
657(1)
Consumer Remedies
657(3)
Civil and Criminal Penalties
660(1)
Areas of Consumer Protection
661(19)
Advertising
661(1)
Seals of Approval
662(1)
Labeling
662(1)
Selling Methods
662(5)
The Consumer Contract
667(1)
Credit Cards
668(1)
Payments
669(1)
Preservation of Consumer Defenses
669(1)
Product Safety
670(1)
Credit, Collection, and Billing Methods
670(3)
Protection of Credit Standing and Reputation
673(1)
New Consumer Protections
674(6)
Secured Transactions in Personal Property
680(29)
Creation of Secured Transactions
681(5)
Definitions
681(1)
Creation of a Security Interest
681(3)
Purchase Money Security Interest
684(1)
The Nature and Classification of Collateral
684(2)
Perfection of Secured Transactions
686(7)
Perfection by Creditor's Possession
686(1)
Perfection for Consumer Goods
686(1)
Perfection for Health-Care Insurance Receivables
686(1)
Automatic Perfection
686(1)
Temporary Perfection
687(1)
Perfection by Control
687(1)
Perfection for Motor Vehicles
687(1)
Perfection by Filing a Financing Statement
687(5)
Loss of Perfection
692(1)
Rights of Parties before Default
693(1)
Status of Creditor before Default
693(1)
Status of Debtor before Default
693(1)
Statement of Account
693(1)
Termination Statements
693(1)
Correction Statements
694(1)
Priorities
694(7)
Unsecured Party versus Unsecured Party
694(1)
Secured Party versus Unsecured Party
694(1)
Secured Party versus Secured Party
695(1)
Perfected Secured Party versus Secured Party
696(1)
Perfected Secured Party versus Perfected Secured Party
696(2)
Secured Party versus Buyer of Collateral from Debtor
698(3)
Rights of Parties after Default
701(8)
Creditor's Possession and Disposition of Collateral
701(2)
Creditor's Retention of Collateral
703(1)
Debtor's Right of Redemption
703(1)
Disposition of Collateral
703(1)
Postdisposition Accounting
704(5)
Bankruptcy
709(26)
Bankruptcy Law
710(1)
The Federal Law
710(1)
Kinds of Bankruptcy Proceedings
710(1)
How Bankruptcy Is Declared
710(3)
Declaration of Voluntary Bankruptcy
710(2)
Declaration of Involuntary Bankruptcy
712(1)
Automatic Stay
712(1)
If the Creditors Are Wrong: Rights of Debtor in an Involuntary Bankruptcy
713(1)
Administration of the Bankruptcy Estate
713(6)
The Order of Relief
713(1)
List of Creditors
714(1)
Trustee in Bankruptcy
714(1)
The Bankrupt's Estate
715(1)
Voidable Transfers
715(3)
Proof of Claim
718(1)
Priority of Claims
718(1)
Debtor's Duties and Exemptions
719(1)
Debtor's Duties
719(1)
Debtor's Exemptions
719(1)
Debtor's Protection against Discrimination
720(1)
Discharge in Bankruptcy
720(8)
Denial of Discharge
720(8)
Reorganization Plans under Chapter 11
728(1)
Contents of the Plan
728(1)
Confirmation of the Plan
728(1)
Payment Plans under Chapter 13
728(7)
Contents of the Plan
729(1)
Confirmation of the Plan
729(1)
Discharge of the Debtor
729(6)
Part 6 Agency and Employment
735(106)
Agency
736(25)
Nature of the Agency Relationship
737(2)
Definitions and Distinctions
737(1)
Classification of Agents
738(1)
Agency Coupled with an Interest
738(1)
Creating the Agency
739(1)
Authorization by Appointment
739(1)
Authorization by Conduct
739(1)
Agency by Ratification
739(1)
Proving the Agency Relationship
740(1)
Agent's Authority
740(6)
Scope of Agent's Authority
740(1)
Effect of Proper Exercise of Authority
741(1)
Duty to Ascertain Extent of Agent's Authority
741(1)
Limitations on Agent's Authority
742(4)
Duties and Liabilities of Principal and Agent
746(5)
Duties and Liabilities of Agent during Agency
746(2)
Duties and Liabilities of Agent after Termination of Agency
748(1)
Duties and Liabilities of Principal to Agent
748(3)
Termination of Agency
751(10)
Termination by Act of Parties
752(1)
Termination by Operation of Law
752(1)
Disability of the Principal under the UDPAA
752(3)
Termination of Agency Coupled with an Interest
755(1)
Protection of Agent from Termination of Authority
755(1)
Effect of Termination of Authority
755(6)
Third Persons in Agency
761(21)
Liability of Agent to Third Person
762(4)
Action of Authorized Agent of Disclosed Principal
762(1)
Unauthorized Action
762(1)
Disclosure of Principal
762(2)
Assumption of Liability
764(1)
Execution of Contract
764(1)
Torts and Crimes
765(1)
Liability of Principal to Third Person
766(2)
Agent's Contracts
766(1)
Payment to Agent
767(1)
Agent's Statements
767(1)
Agent's Knowledge
767(1)
Liability of Principal for Torts and Crimes of Agent
768(10)
Vicarious Liability for Torts and Crimes
768(3)
Negligent Hiring and Retention of Employees
771(4)
Negligent Supervision and Training
775(1)
Agent's Crimes
775(1)
Owner's Liability for Acts of an Independent Contractor
775(2)
Enforcement of Claim by Third Person
777(1)
Transactions with Sales Personnel
778(4)
Soliciting and Contracting Agents
778(4)
Regulation of Employment
782(29)
The Employment Relationship
783(6)
Characteristics of Relationship
783(1)
Creation of Employment Relationship
783(1)
Duration and Termination of Employment Contract
783(4)
Duties of the Employee
787(1)
Rights of the Employee
787(2)
Labor Relations Laws
789(8)
The National Labor Relations Act
789(2)
National Labor Relations Board
791(1)
Election Conduct
791(1)
Union Activity on Private Property
791(3)
Firing Employees for Union Activity
794(2)
Duty of Employer to Bargain Collectively
796(1)
Right to Work
796(1)
Strike and Picketing Activity
796(1)
Regulation of Internal Union Affairs
797(1)
Pension Plans and Federal Regulation
797(1)
ERISA
797(1)
Unemployment Benefits, Family Leaves, and Social Security
798(1)
Unemployment Compensation
798(1)
Family and Medical Leaves of Absence
799(1)
Social Security
799(1)
Employees' Health and Safety
799(2)
Standards
799(1)
Employer Duties
800(1)
Enforcement
800(1)
State ``Right-to-Know'' Legislation
801(1)
Compensation for Employees' Injuries
801(2)
Common Law Status of Employer
801(1)
Statutory Changes
802(1)
Employee Privacy
803(2)
Source of Privacy Rights
804(1)
Monitoring Employee Telephone Conversations
804(1)
E-Mail Monitoring
804(1)
Property Searches
805(1)
Drug and Alcohol Testing
805(1)
Employer-Related Immigration Laws
805(6)
Employer Liability
805(1)
Employer Verification and Special Hiring Programs
806(5)
Equal Employment Opportunity Law
811(30)
Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, As Amended
812(6)
Theories of Discrimination
812(2)
The Equal Employment Opportunity Commission
814(4)
Protected Classes and Exceptions
818(10)
Race and Color
818(1)
Religion
818(1)
Sex
819(1)
Sexual Harassment
819(2)
National Origin
821(2)
Title VII Exceptions
823(3)
Affirmative Action and Reverse Discrimination
826(2)
Other Equal Employment Opportunity (EEO) Laws
828(8)
Equal Pay
828(1)
Age Discrimination
828(2)
Discrimination against Persons with Disabilities
830(6)
Extraterritorial Employment
836(5)
Part 7 Business Organizations
841(188)
Types of Business Organizations
842(16)
Principal Forms of Business Organizations
843(1)
Individual Proprietorships
843(1)
Partnerships, LLPs, and LLCs
843(1)
Corporations
843(1)
Specialized Forms of Organizations
844(1)
Joint Ventures
844(1)
Unincorporated Associations
844(1)
Cooperatives
845(1)
The Franchise Business Format
845(13)
Definition and Types of Franchises
845(1)
The Franchise Agreement
846(2)
Special Protections under Federal Laws
848(3)
Disclosure
851(1)
Vicarious Liability Claims against Franchisors
851(7)
Partnerships
858(25)
Nature and Creation
859(11)
Definition
859(1)
Characteristics of a Partnership
859(1)
Rights of Partners
859(1)
Partnership Agreement
859(1)
Determining the Existence of a Partnership
860(7)
Partners as to Third Persons
867(2)
Partnership Property
869(1)
Tenancy in Partnership
869(1)
Assignment of a Partner's Interest
870(1)
Authority of Partners
870(2)
Authority of Majority of Partners
870(1)
Express Authority of Individual Partners
870(1)
Customary Authority of Individual Partners
870(1)
Limitations on Authority
870(2)
Prohibited Transactions
872(1)
Duties, Rights, and Liabilities of Partners
872(3)
Duties of Partners
872(1)
Rights of Partners as Owners
873(1)
Liability of Partners and Partnership
874(1)
Enforcement and Satisfaction of Creditors' Claims
874(1)
Dissolution and Termination
875(8)
Effect of Dissolution
875(1)
Dissolution by Act of the Parties
875(1)
Dissolution by Operation of Law
875(1)
Dissolution by Decree of Court
876(1)
Application under the RUPA
876(1)
Notice of Dissolution
876(1)
Winding Up Partnership Affairs
877(1)
Distribution of Assets
877(1)
Continuation of Partnership Business
877(6)
LTDS., LLCS and LLPS
883(20)
The Arrival of Partnership Limited Liability
884(1)
Limited Partnerships
884(3)
Formation of Limited Partnerships
884(1)
Characteristics of Limited Partnerships
885(2)
Limited Liability Companies
887(11)
Characteristics of LLCs
887(11)
LLCs and Other Entities
898(1)
Limited Liability Partnerships
898(5)
Extent of Limited Liability
898(1)
Registration and Usage
899(4)
Corporation Formation
903(23)
Nature and Classes
904(3)
The Corporation as a Person
904(1)
Classifications of Corporations
905(1)
Corporations and Governments
906(1)
Corporate Powers
907(2)
Particular Powers
907(2)
Ultra Vires Acts
909(1)
Creation and Termination of the Corporation
909(8)
Promoters
909(1)
Incorporation
910(1)
Application for Incorporation
910(1)
The Certificate of Incorporation
911(1)
Proper and Defective Incorporation
911(4)
Insolvency, Bankruptcy, and Reorganization
915(1)
Forfeiture of Charter
915(1)
Judicial Dissolution
916(1)
Consolidations, Mergers, and Conglomerates
917(9)
Definitions
917(3)
Legality
920(1)
Liability of Successor Corporations
920(6)
Management of Corporations
926(26)
Shareholders
927(1)
Extent of Management Control by Shareholders
927(1)
Meetings of Shareholders
927(1)
Action without Meeting
927(1)
Directors
927(12)
Qualifications
928(1)
Powers of Directors
928(1)
Conflict of Interest
928(3)
Meetings of Directors
931(1)
Liability of Directors
931(8)
Officers, Agents, and Employees
939(5)
Powers of Officers
940(1)
Liability Relating to Fiduciary Duties
940(4)
Agents and Employees
944(1)
Liability
944(8)
Liability of Management to Third Persons
944(1)
Criminal Liability
945(1)
Indemnification of Officers, Directors, Employees, and Agents
946(1)
Liability for Corporate Debts
947(1)
Protection of Shareholders
947(1)
Civil Liability of the Corporations
947(5)
Shareholder Rights in Corporations
952(22)
Corporate Stocks and Bonds
953(1)
Nature of Stock
953(1)
Certificates of Stock and Uncertificated Shares
953(1)
Kinds of Stock
953(1)
Characteristics of Bonds
954(1)
Terms and Control
954(1)
Acquisition of Shares
954(3)
Nature of Acquisition
955(1)
Statute of Frauds
955(1)
Subscription
955(1)
Transfer of Shares
955(1)
Mechanics of Transfer
956(1)
Effect of Transfer
956(1)
Lost, Destroyed, and Stolen Share Certificates
957(1)
Rights of Shareholders
957(8)
Ownership Rights
957(1)
Right to Vote
958(1)
Preemptive Offer of Shares
959(1)
Inspection of Books
960(2)
Dividends
962(1)
Capital Distribution
963(1)
Shareholders' Actions
963(2)
Liability of Shareholders
965(9)
Limited Liability
965(1)
Ignoring the Corporate Entity
965(3)
Other Exceptions to Limited Liability
968(1)
The Professional Corporation
969(5)
Securities Regulation
974(31)
State Regulation
975(1)
State Blue Sky Laws
975(1)
National Securities Markets Improvement Act
975(1)
Federal Regulation
975(24)
Federal Laws Regulating the Securities Industry
975(2)
Definition of Security
977(4)
Securities Act of 1933
981(2)
Securities Exchange Act of 1934
983(5)
Trading on Insider Information
988(9)
Disclosure of Ownership and Short-Swing Profits
997(1)
Tender Offers
998(1)
Regulation of Accountants and Attorneys by the SEC
998(1)
Industry Self-Regulation
999(6)
Arbitration of Securities Disputes
1000(5)
Accountants' Liability and Malpractice
1005(24)
General Principles of Accountants' Liability
1006(4)
What Constitutes Malpractice?
1006(2)
Choice of Remedy
1008(1)
The Environment of Accountants' Malpractice Liability
1009(1)
Limitation of Liability
1009(1)
Accountants' Liability to Third Parties: Beyond Privity
1010(13)
Status of the Accountant
1010(1)
The Conflicting Theories of Accountants' Third-Party Liability
1010(5)
Nonliability Parties
1015(5)
Defenses to Accountants' Liability: Contributory and Comparative Negligence of the Client or Third Party
1020(1)
Accountants' Fraud Malpractice Liability to Third Persons
1021(2)
Sarbanes-oxley Auditor and Accounting Related Provisions
1023(6)
Auditor Independence
1023(1)
Audit Committees
1024(1)
Records Retention
1025(4)
Part 8 Real Property and Estates
1029(124)
Real Property
1030(23)
Nature of Real Property
1031(5)
Land
1031(1)
Easements
1031(3)
Profits
1034(1)
Licenses
1034(1)
Liens
1034(1)
Fixtures
1034(2)
Nature and Form of Real Property Ownership
1036(1)
Fee Simple Estate
1036(1)
Life Estate
1037(1)
Future Interests
1037(1)
Liability to Third Persons for Condition of Real Property
1037(3)
Common Law Rule
1037(1)
Modern Changes
1038(2)
Recreational Use Statutes
1040(1)
Co-Ownership of Real Property
1040(1)
Multiple Ownership
1040(1)
Condominiums
1040(1)
Transfer of Real Property by Deed
1041(5)
Definitions
1041(1)
Classification of Deeds
1041(1)
Execution of Deeds
1041(1)
Delivery and Acceptance of Deeds
1041(3)
Recording of Deeds
1044(1)
Additional Protection of Buyers
1045(1)
Grantor's Warranties
1045(1)
Grantee's Covenants
1046(1)
Other Methods of Transferring Real Property
1046(1)
Eminent Domain
1046(1)
Adverse Possession
1046(1)
Mortgages
1046(7)
Characteristics of a Mortgage
1046(1)
Property Subject to Mortgage
1046(1)
Form of Mortgage
1047(1)
Creative Forms of Financing
1047(1)
Recording or Filing of Mortgage
1047(1)
Responsibilities of the Parties
1047(1)
Transfer of Interest
1047(1)
Rights of Mortgagee after Default
1048(1)
Rights of Mortgagor after Default
1048(5)
Environmental Law and Land Use Controls
1053(22)
Statutory Environmental Law
1054(6)
Air Pollution Regulation
1054(1)
Water Pollution Regulation
1055(1)
Solid Waste Disposal Regulation
1055(1)
Environmental Quality Regulation
1056(1)
Other Environmental Regulations
1057(3)
State Environmental Regulation
1060(1)
Enforcement of Environmental Laws
1060(6)
Parties Responsible for Enforcement
1061(1)
Criminal Penalties
1061(1)
Civil Remedies
1061(1)
Private Remedies: Nuisance
1062(3)
Private Remedies: Due Diligence
1065(1)
Land Use Controls
1066(9)
Restrictive Covenants in Private Contracts
1066(2)
Public Zoning
1068(7)
Insurance
1075(23)
The Insurance Contract
1076(8)
The Parties
1076(1)
Insurable Interest
1076(2)
The Contract
1078(1)
Antilapse and Cancellation Statutes and Provisions
1078(1)
Modification of Contract
1079(1)
Interpretation of Contract
1079(3)
Burden of Proof
1082(1)
Insurer Bad Faith
1082(1)
Time Limitations on Insured
1083(1)
Subrogation of Insurer
1083(1)
Kinds of Insurance
1084(14)
Business Liability Insurance
1085(2)
Marine Insurance
1087(2)
Fire and Homeowners Insurance
1089(1)
Automobile Insurance
1090(1)
Life Insurance
1090(8)
Leases
1098(18)
Creation and Termination
1099(2)
Definition and Nature
1099(1)
Creation of the Lease Relationship
1099(1)
Classification of Tenancies
1099(1)
Termination of Lease
1100(1)
Notice of Termination
1101(1)
Renewal of Lease
1101(1)
Rights and Duties of Parties
1101(6)
Possession
1101(2)
Use of Premises
1103(1)
Rent
1104(1)
Repairs and Condition of Premises
1104(1)
Improvements
1105(1)
Taxes and Assessments
1105(1)
Tenant's Deposit
1106(1)
Protection from Retaliation
1106(1)
Remedies of Landlord
1106(1)
Liability for Injury on Premises
1107(5)
Landlord's Liability to Tenant
1107(4)
Landlord's Liability to Third Persons
1111(1)
Tenant's Liability to Third Persons
1111(1)
Transfer of Rights
1112(4)
Transfer of Landlord's Reversionary Interest
1112(1)
Tenant's Assignment of Lease and Sublease
1112(4)
Decedents' Estates and Trusts
1116(37)
Wills
1117(5)
Definitions
1117(1)
Parties to Will
1117(3)
Testamentary Intent
1120(1)
Form
1121(1)
Modification of Will
1121(1)
Revocation of Will
1121(1)
Election to Take against the Will
1121(1)
Disinheritance
1121(1)
Special Kinds of Wills
1121(1)
Administration of Decedents' Estates
1122(9)
Definitions
1122(1)
Probate of Will
1122(1)
Will Contest
1122(1)
When Administration Is Not Necessary
1122(4)
Appointment of Personal Representative
1126(1)
Proof of Claims against the Estate
1126(1)
Construction of a Will
1126(1)
Testate Distribution of an Estate
1126(1)
Intestate Distribution of an Estate
1126(5)
Trusts
1131(8)
Definitions
1131(1)
Creation of Trusts
1131(1)
Nature of Beneficiary's Interest
1132(1)
Powers of Trustee
1132(1)
Duties of Trustee
1132(1)
Remedies for Breach of Trust
1133(1)
Termination of Trust
1133(6)
Appendices
A How to Find the Law
1139(3)
B The Constitution of the United States
1142(11)
Index 1153


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