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Cathodic Protection Industrial Solutions for Protecting Against Corrosion,9781118290408
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Cathodic Protection Industrial Solutions for Protecting Against Corrosion



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As a companion to their first book, Corrosion Chemistry, published by Wiley-Scrivener, Cathodic Protection covers both the theoretical aspects of cathodic protection and the practical applications of the technology. Of use to engineers and scientists across a variety of disciplines and industries, this is the most up-to-date and timely treatment of cathodic protection on the market. Both books together offer the engineer, scientist, or student the most useful guide to corrosion and cathodic protection ever written. Though several books on similar topics have been written in the past, nothing has been produced within the last 20 years that covers these topics in such a comprehensive fashion and in such a useable format. Efficient and to-the-point, these guides are rich in valuable information for the engineer working in the field, the scientist researching this area, or the student hopeful of obtaining a degree in mechanical, petroleum, electrical, process, or chemical engineering. As a reference for the engineer in the field, Cathodic Protection is both a refresher for the veteran on the chemistry of cathodic protection and its uses, over a variety of industries. It is the most up-to-date, comprehensive treatment of cathodic protection available, covering the most cutting-edge new processes and theories. For the freshman engineer just entering the field, it is a tremendous introduction to this science. As a textbook, it can be used for a single semester technical course in undergraduate and postgraduate education for disciplines such as chemistry, chemical engineering, petroleum engineering, civil engineering, material engineering, mechanical engineering, metallurgical engineering, mining engineering, agricultural engineering, and other related technical fields.

Author Biography

Dr. Volkan Cicek is a chemist and corrosion scientist and received his BSc at Bogazici University, Istanbul, Turkey, and his PhD from Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK, U.S. After working as a dean of academics and vice principal in U.S. public schools for several years, Dr. Cicek is the current vice president for scientific affairs at Ishik University, Erbil, Iraq.

Table of Contents

Acknowledgements xv

Preface xvii

1 Corrosion of Materials 1

1.1 Deterioration or Corrosion of Ceramic Materials 2

1.2 Degradation or Deterioration of Polymers 3

1.3 Corrosion or Deterioration of Metals 3

2 Factors Influencing Corrosion 19

2.1 Nature of the Metal 19

2.2 Nature of the Corroding Environment 22

3 Corrosion Mechanisms 25

3.1 Direct Chemical Attack or Chemical or Dry Corrosion 25

3.2 Electrochemical or Aqueous or Wet Corrosion 29

3.3 Differences between Chemical and Electrochemical Corrosion 32

4 Corrosion Types 35

4.1 Uniform Corrosion 35

4.2 Non-Uniform Corrosion 46

5 Thermodynamics of Corrosion 75

5.1 Gibbs Free Energy (ΔG) 76

5.2 Passivity 78

5.3 Pourbaix Diagrams 80

5.4 Corrosion Equilibrium and Adsorptions 82

5.5 Concentration Corrosion Cells 85

5.6 Polarization 87

5.7 Polarization Curves 90

6 Corrosion Prevention and Protection 97

6.1 Proper Design 98

6.2 Choice of Material 101

6.2.8 Interference Effects 104

6.3 Protective Coatings 105

6.4 Changing the Environmental Factors that Accelerate Corrosion 114

6.5 Changing the Electrochemical Characteristic of the Metal Surface 123

7 Cost of Corrosion 127

7.1 Corrosion Preventative Measures 128

7.2 Lost Production Due to Plants Going out of Service or Shutdowns 128

7.3 Product Loss Due to Leakages 128

7.4 Contamination of the Product 129

7.5 Maintenance Costs 129

7.6 Overprotective Measures 129

8 Cathodic Protection 131

8.1 Sacrificial Anode Cathodic Protection Systems 132

8.2 Impressed Current Cathodic Protection Systems 134

8.3 Cathodic Protection Current Need 136

8.4 Effect of Coatings on Cathodic Protection 138

8.5 Effect of Passivation on Cathodic Protection 138

8.6 Automated Cathodic Protection Systems 139

8.7 Cathodic Protection Criteria 139

8.8 Reliability of Cathodic Protection Criteria 141

8.9 Interference Effects of Cathodic Protection Systems 142

8.10. Criteria for Cathodic Protection Projects 150

8.11. Cost of Cathodic Protection 151

8.12. Comparison of Cathodic Protection Systems 153

9 Sacrificial Anode or Galvanic Cathodic Protection Systems 157

9.1 Anodic Potentials and Anodic Polarization 158

9.2 Galvanic Cathodic Protection Current Need 159

9.3 Anodic Current Capacity and Anodic Current Efficiency 160

9.4 Service Life of an Anode 160

9.5 Minimum Number of Galvanic Anodes 161

9.6 Commonly Used Galvanic Anodes 161

9.7 Performance Measurements of Galvanic Anodes 169

9.8 Galvanic Anodic Beds 171

9.8.1 Anodic Bed Filling Materials 172

9.8.2 Anodic Bed Resistance 173

9.9 Sacrificial Anode Cathodic Protection Projects 175

9.10 Maintenance of Sacrificial Anode Cathodic Protection Systems 176

10 Impressed Current Cathodic Protection Systems 179

10.1 T/R Units 180

10.2 Types of Anodes 184

10.3 Anodic Bed Resistance 188

10.4 Types of Anodic Beds 190

10.5 Cable Cross-Sections 193

10.6 Impressed Current Cathodic Protection Projects 194

10.7 Maintenance of Impressed Current Cathodic Protection Systems 197

11 Corrosion and Corrosion Prevention of Concrete Structures 201

11.1 Concrete’s Chemical Composition 202

11.2 Corrosion Reactions of Concrete 204

11.3 Factors Affecting Corrosion Rate in Reinforced Concrete Structures 205

11.4 Corrosion Measurements in Reinforced Concrete Structures 216

11.5 Corrosion Prevention of Reinforced Concrete 219

12 Cathodic Protection of Reinforced Concrete Steels 223

12.1 Current Needed for Cathodic Protection of Steel Structures 225

12.2 Cathodic Protection Criteria 226

12.3 Determination of Protection Potential 227

12.4 Cathodic Protection Methods for Reinforced Concrete Steels 227

12.5 Cathodic Protection of Pre-stressed Steel Concrete Pipes 229

13 Corrosion in Petroleum Industry 231

13.1 Hydrochloric Acid (HCl) and Chlorides 233

13.2 Hydrogen (H2) Gas 235

13.3 Hydrogen Sulfide (H2S) and Other Sulfur Compounds 236

13.4 Sulfuric Acid (H2SO4) 237

13.5 Hydrogen Fluoride (HF) 238

13.6 Carbon Dioxide (CO2) 238

13.7 Dissolved Oxygen (O2) and Water (H2O) 239

13.8 Organic Acids 242

13.9 Nitrogen (N2) Compounds and Ammonia (NH3) 242

13.10 Phenols 243

13.11 Phosphoric Acid (H3PO4) 243

13.12 Caustic Soda (NaOH) 244

13.13 Mercury (Hg) 245

13.14 Aluminum Chloride (AlCl3) 245

13.15 Sulfate Reducing Bacteria (SRB) 245

14 Corrosion in Pipeline Systems 247

14.1 Pipes Made of Iron and Its Alloys 248

14.2 Petroleum or Crude Oil Pipeline Systems 250

14.3 Water Pipeline Systems 252

15 Cathodic Protection of Pipeline Systems 255

15.1 Measurement of Terrain’s Resistivity 256

15.2 Potential Measurements 257

15.3 Determination of Coating Failures Based on Potential Measurements 259

15.4 Measuring Potential along the Pipeline 260

15.5 Maintenance of Pipeline Cathodic Protection Systems 261

15.6 Measurement Stations 262

15.7 Static Electricity and Its Prevention 265

15.8 Cathodic Protection of Airport Fuel Distribution Lines 266

15.9 Cathodic Protection of Water Pipelines 267

16 Corrosion and Cathodic Protection of Crude Oil or Petroleum Storage Tanks 269

16.1 Cathodic Protection of Inner Surfaces of Crude Oil Storage Tanks 270

17 Corrosion and Cathodic Protection of Metallic Structures in Seawater 279

17.1 Factors Affecting Corrosion Rate of Metallic Structures in Seawater 280

17.2 Cathodic Protection of Metallic Structures in the Sea 284

17.3 Cathodic Protection of Ships 285

17.4 Cathodic Protection of Pier Poles with Galvanic Anodes 292

18 Cathodic Protection of the Potable Water Tanks 295

19 Corrosion and Corrosion Prevention in Boilers 297

19.1 Corrosion in Boilers 298

19.2 Corrosion Prevention in Boilers 301

20 Corrosion and Corrosion Prevention in Geothermal Systems 305

20.1 Corrosion in Geothermal Systems 305

20.2 Corrosion Prevention in Geothermal Systems 306

References 309

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