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The Changing Earth: Exploring Geology and Evolution,9780534389987
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The Changing Earth: Exploring Geology and Evolution

by
Edition:
3rd
ISBN13:

9780534389987

ISBN10:
0534389988
Media:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
8/1/2001
Publisher(s):
Cengage Learning
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Summary

Text specifically written for the combined physical and historical geology course. Softcover.

Author Biography

James S. Monroe is professor emeritus of geology at Central Michigan University where he taught physical geology, historical geology, prehistoric life, and stratigraphy and sedimentology since 1975 Reed Wicander is a geology professor at Central Michigan University where he teaches physical geology, historical geology, prehistoric life, and invertebrate paleontology

Table of Contents

Prefacep. xix
Developing Critical Thinking and Study Skillsp. xxiv
Understanding Earth: An Introductionp. 2
Prologuep. 3
Introduction to Earth Systemsp. 3
What is Geology?p. 4
Geology and the Human Experiencep. 6
How Geology Affects Our Everyday Livesp. 6
The Origin of the Solar System and the Differentiation of Early Earthp. 10
Earth as a Dynamic Planetp. 11
Geology and the Formulation of Theoriesp. 12
Plate Tectonic Theoryp. 13
The Rock Cyclep. 15
Organic Evolutionp. 18
Geologic Time and Uniformitarianismp. 19
Chapter Summaryp. 20
Important Termsp. 20
Review Questionsp. 21
Points to Ponderp. 21
Additional Readingsp. 22
World Wide Web Activitiesp. 22
Mineralsp. 25
Prologuep. 25
Introductionp. 26
Matter and Its Compositionp. 26
Mineralsp. 30
Mineral Diversityp. 32
Mineral Groupsp. 32
Physical Properties of Mineralsp. 35
Rock-Forming Mineralsp. 38
Mineral Resources and Reservesp. 42
Chapter Summaryp. 43
Important Termsp. 43
Review Questionsp. 44
Points to Ponderp. 45
Additional Readingsp. 45
World Wide Web Activitiesp. 45
Igneous Rocks and Intrusive Igneous Activityp. 46
Prologuep. 47
Introductionp. 48
Magma and Lavap. 48
Igneous Rocksp. 49
Intrusive Igneous Bodies: Plutonsp. 59
Mechanics of Batholith Emplacementp. 61
Chapter Summaryp. 62
Important Termsp. 63
Review Questionsp. 63
Points to Ponderp. 64
Additional Readingsp. 64
World Wide Web Activitiesp. 65
Volcanismp. 66
Prologuep. 67
Introductionp. 68
Volcanismp. 69
Distribution of Volcanoesp. 84
Plate Tectonics and Igneous Activityp. 84
Chapter Summaryp. 88
Important Termsp. 89
Review Questionsp. 89
Points to Ponderp. 90
Additional Readingsp. 90
World Wide Web Activitiesp. 91
Weathering, Soil, Sediment, and Sedimentary Rocksp. 92
Prologuep. 93
Introductionp. 94
Mechanical Weatheringp. 95
Chemical Weatheringp. 97
Soilp. 100
Weathering and Mineral Resourcesp. 104
Sedimentp. 106
Sedimentary Rocksp. 108
Sedimentary Faciesp. 112
Environmental Analysisp. 113
Sediments, Sedimentary Rocks, and Natural Resourcesp. 118
Chapter Summaryp. 120
Important Termsp. 121
Review Questionsp. 121
Points to Ponderp. 122
Additional Readingsp. 122
World Wide Web Activitiesp. 123
Metamorphism and Metamorphic Rocksp. 124
Prologuep. 125
Introductionp. 126
The Agents of Metamorphismp. 126
Types of Metamorphismp. 130
Classification of Metamorphic Rocksp. 132
Metamorphic Zones and Faciesp. 137
Metamorphism and Plate Tectonicsp. 139
Metamorphism and Natural Resourcesp. 140
Chapter Summaryp. 141
Important Termsp. 141
Review Questionsp. 142
Points to Ponderp. 142
Additional Readingsp. 143
World Wide Web Activitiesp. 143
Earthquakes and Earth's Interiorp. 144
Prologuep. 145
Introductionp. 147
Elastic Rebound Theoryp. 148
Seismologyp. 149
The Frequency and Distribution of Earthquakesp. 150
Seismic Wavesp. 153
Locating an Earthquakep. 154
Measuring Earthquake Intensity and Magnitudep. 156
The Destructive Effects of Earthquakesp. 158
Earthquake Predictionp. 162
Earthquake Controlp. 163
Earth's Interiorp. 164
Earth's Corep. 166
The Mantlep. 168
Earth's Internal Heatp. 169
Seismic Tomographyp. 169
Chapter Summaryp. 170
Important Termsp. 171
Review Questionsp. 171
Points to Ponderp. 172
Additional Readingsp. 173
World Wide Web Activitiesp. 173
The Sea Floorp. 174
Prologuep. 175
Introductionp. 176
Oceanographic Researchp. 176
Continental Marginsp. 179
Types of Continental Marginsp. 181
The Deep-Ocean Basinp. 181
Deep-Sea Sedimentationp. 187
Reefsp. 188
Resources from the Seap. 189
Chapter Summaryp. 190
Important Termsp. 191
Review Questionsp. 191
Points to Ponderp. 192
Additional Readingsp. 192
World Wide Web Activitiesp. 193
Plate Tectonics: A Unifying Theoryp. 194
Prologuep. 195
Introductionp. 197
Early Ideas About Continental Driftp. 197
Alfred Wegener and the Continental Drift Hypothesisp. 198
The Evidence for Continental Driftp. 198
Paleomagnetism and Polar Wanderingp. 203
Magnetic Reversals and Sea-Floor Spreadingp. 204
Plate Tectonic Theoryp. 207
Plate Boundariesp. 208
Plate Movement and Motionp. 216
The Driving Mechanism of Plate Tectonicsp. 217
Plate Tectonics and the Distribution of Natural Resourcesp. 219
Plate Tectonics and the Distribution of Lifep. 220
Chapter Summaryp. 221
Important Termsp. 222
Review Questionsp. 222
Points to Ponderp. 223
Additional Readingsp. 223
World Wide Web Activitiesp. 223
Deformation, Mountain Building, and the Continentsp. 224
Prologuep. 225
Introductionp. 225
Deformationp. 226
Mountainsp. 238
Microplate Tectonics and Mountain Buildingp. 242
Composition and Structure of Earth's Crustp. 243
The Principle of Isostasyp. 244
Chapter Summaryp. 246
Important Termsp. 246
Review Questionsp. 247
Points to Ponderp. 248
Additional Readingsp. 248
World Wide Web Activitiesp. 248
Mass Wastingp. 250
Prologuep. 251
Introductionp. 252
Factors Influencing Mass Wastingp. 252
Types of Mass Wastingp. 258
Recognizing and Minimizing the Effects of Mass Movementsp. 269
Chapter Summaryp. 275
Important Termsp. 276
Review Questionsp. 276
Points to Ponderp. 277
Additional Readingsp. 277
World Wide Web Activitiesp. 277
Running Waterp. 278
Prologuep. 279
Introductionp. 281
The Hydrologic Cyclep. 281
Running Waterp. 283
Stream Erosionp. 285
Transport of Sediment Loadp. 285
Stream Depositionp. 286
Drainage Basins and Drainage Patternsp. 294
Base Levelp. 296
The Graded Streamp. 297
Development of Stream Valleysp. 298
Superposed Streamsp. 299
Stream Terracesp. 300
Incised Meandersp. 300
Chapter Summaryp. 302
Important Termsp. 302
Review Questionsp. 303
Points to Ponderp. 304
Additional Readingsp. 304
World Wide Web Activitiesp. 304
Groundwaterp. 306
Prologuep. 307
Introductionp. 308
Groundwater and the Hydrologic Cyclep. 308
Porosity and Permeabilityp. 308
The Water Tablep. 309
Groundwater Movementp. 310
Springs, Water Wells, and Artesian Systemsp. 310
Groundwater Erosion and Depositionp. 314
Modifications of the Groundwater System and Their Effectsp. 320
Hot Springs and Geysersp. 325
Chapter Summaryp. 331
Important Termsp. 332
Review Questionsp. 332
Points to Ponderp. 332
Additional Readingsp. 333
World Wide Web Activitiesp. 333
Glaciers and Glaciationp. 334
Prologuep. 335
Introductionp. 336
Glaciers and the Hydrologic Cyclep. 337
The Origin of Glacial Icep. 337
Types of Glaciersp. 337
The Glacial Budgetp. 339
Rates of Glacial Movementp. 340
Glacial Erosion and Transportp. 341
Glacial Depositsp. 346
Glaciers and Isostasyp. 351
Causes of Glaciationp. 351
Chapter Summaryp. 355
Important Termsp. 355
Review Questionsp. 356
Points to Ponderp. 356
Additional Readingsp. 357
World Wide Web Activitiesp. 357
Work of Wind and Desertsp. 358
Prologuep. 359
Introductionp. 361
Sediment Transport by Windp. 361
Wind Erosionp. 361
Wind Depositsp. 364
Air Pressure Belts and Global Wind Patternsp. 370
The Distribution of Desertsp. 371
Characteristics of Desertsp. 372
Desert Landformsp. 376
Chapter Summaryp. 380
Important Termsp. 381
Review Questionsp. 381
Points to Ponderp. 382
Additional Readingsp. 382
World Wide Web Activitiesp. 383
Shorelines and Shoreline Processesp. 384
Prologuep. 385
Introductionp. 386
Shoreline Processesp. 386
Shoreline Depositionp. 391
Shoreline Erosionp. 398
Rising Sea Level and Coastal Managementp. 400
Types of Coastsp. 403
Chapter Summaryp. 405
Important Termsp. 405
Review Questionsp. 405
Points to Ponderp. 406
Additional Readingsp. 406
World Wide Web Activitiesp. 407
Geologic Time: Concepts and Principlesp. 408
Prologuep. 409
Introductionp. 410
Early Concepts of Geologic Time and the Age of Earthp. 411
James Hutton and the Recognition of Geologic Timep. 412
Relative Dating Methodsp. 413
Correlationp. 421
Absolute Dating Methodsp. 425
Development of the Geologic Time Scalep. 433
Stratigraphy and Stratigraphic Terminologyp. 433
Chapter Summaryp. 435
Important Termsp. 435
Review Questionsp. 436
Points to Ponderp. 436
Additional Readingsp. 437
World Wide Web Activitiesp. 437
Fossils and Evolutionp. 438
Prologuep. 439
Introductionp. 440
The Evolution of an Ideap. 440
Mendel and the Birth of Geneticsp. 443
The Modern Synthesisp. 446
Evidence for Evolutionp. 450
Fossils and Fossilizationp. 454
Fossils and Evolutionp. 459
Chapter Summaryp. 460
Important Termsp. 460
Review Questionsp. 461
Points to Ponderp. 461
Additional Readingsp. 462
World Wide Web Activitiesp. 462
A History of the Universe, Solar System and Planetsp. 464
Prologuep. 465
Introductionp. 466
Origin of the Universep. 466
Origin and Early Development of the Solar Systemp. 467
Meteoritesp. 469
The Planetsp. 473
Origin and Differentiation of the Early Earthp. 483
Origin of the Earth-Moon Systemp. 484
Chapter Summaryp. 487
Important Termsp. 487
Review Questionsp. 487
Points to Ponderp. 488
Additional Readingsp. 488
World Wide Web Activitiesp. 489
Precambrian Earth and Life Historyp. 490
Prologuep. 491
Introductionp. 492
Shields and Cratonsp. 493
Archean Rocksp. 494
Development of Archean Cratonsp. 494
Archean Plate Tectonicsp. 496
Proterozoic Crustal Evolutionp. 497
Proterozoic Super Continentsp. 502
Proterozoic Rocksp. 503
The Archean Atmosphere and Oceansp. 506
The Proterozoic Atmospherep. 507
The Origin of Lifep. 508
Archean Lifep. 510
Proterozoic Lifep. 511
Archean Mineral Depositsp. 517
Proterozoic Mineral Depositsp. 518
Chapter Summaryp. 519
Important Termsp. 520
Review Questionsp. 520
Points to Ponderp. 521
Additional Readingsp. 521
World Wide Web Activitiesp. 522
Paleozoic Earth Historyp. 524
Prologuep. 525
Introductionp. 525
Continental Architecture: Cratons and Mobile Beltsp. 526
Paleozoic Paleogeographyp. 527
Paleozoic Evolution of North Americap. 532
The Sauk Sequencep. 533
The Tippecanoe Sequencep. 533
The Kaskaskia Sequencep. 539
The Absaroka Sequencep. 544
History of the Paleozoic Mobile Beltsp. 549
Paleozoic Microplates and the Formation of Pangaeap. 554
Paleozoic Mineral Resourcesp. 554
Chapter Summaryp. 556
Important Termsp. 556
Review Questionsp. 557
Points to Ponderp. 562
Additional Readingsp. 562
World Wide Web Activitiesp. 563
Paleozoic Life Historyp. 564
Prologuep. 565
Introductionp. 565
The Cambrian Period and the Emergence of a Shelly Faunap. 566
Paleozoic Invertebrate Marine Lifep. 567
Vertebrate Evolutionp. 575
Fishp. 577
Amphibians--Vertebrates Invade the Landp. 581
Evolution of the Reptiles--the Land is Conqueredp. 582
Plant Evolutionp. 584
Chapter Summaryp. 589
Important Termsp. 592
Review Questionsp. 592
Points to Ponderp. 593
Additional Readingsp. 593
World Wide Web Activitiesp. 593
Mesozoic Earth and Life Historyp. 596
Prologuep. 597
Introductionp. 598
The Breakup of Pangaeap. 598
The Mesozoic History of North Americap. 600
Mesozoic Mineral Resourcesp. 612
Mesozoic Lifep. 612
Mesozoic Climates and Paleogeographyp. 624
Mass Extinctions--A Crisis in the History of Lifep. 625
Chapter Summaryp. 626
Important Termsp. 627
Review Questionsp. 627
Points to Ponderp. 632
Additional Readingsp. 632
World Wide Web Activitiesp. 633
Cenozoic Earth and Life Historyp. 634
Prologuep. 635
Introductionp. 636
Cenozoic Plate Tectonics and Orogenyp. 636
The North American Cordillerap. 637
The Interior Lowlandsp. 642
The Gulf Coastal Plainp. 643
Eastern North Americap. 644
Pleistocene Glaciationp. 645
The Effects of Glaciationp. 646
Cenozoic Mineral Resourcesp. 647
Cenozoic Lifep. 648
Pleistocene Faunasp. 655
Primate Evolutionp. 655
Pleistocene Extinctionsp. 661
Chapter Summaryp. 661
Important Termsp. 662
Review Questionsp. 662
Points to Ponderp. 663
Additional Readingsp. 663
World Wide Web Activitiesp. 664
English-Metric Conversion Chartp. 665
Periodic Table of the Elementsp. 666
Mineral Identification Tablesp. 669
Topographic Mapsp. 673
Classification of Organismsp. 677
Answers to Multiple-Choice Review Questionsp. 683
Glossaryp. 685
Creditsp. 699
Indexp. 707
Table of Contents provided by Syndetics. All Rights Reserved.


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