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Chemical Process Safety : Fundamentals with Applications,9780130181763
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Chemical Process Safety : Fundamentals with Applications

by ;
Edition:
2nd
ISBN13:

9780130181763

ISBN10:
0130181765
Format:
Hardcover
Pub. Date:
10/16/2001
Publisher(s):
Prentice Hall
List Price: $144.00

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    Chemical Process Safety : Fundamentals with Applications




Summary

bull; bull;Combines academic theory with practical industry experience bull;Updated to include the latest regulations and references bull;Covers hazard identification, risk assessment, and inherent safety bull;Case studies and problem sets enhance learning Long-awaited revision of the industry best seller. This fully revised second EDITION of Chemical Process Safety: Fundamentals with Applications combines rigorous academic methods with real-life industrial experience to create a unique resource for students and professionals alike. The primary focus on technical fundamentals of chemical process safety provides a solid groundwork for understanding, with full coverage of both prevention and mitigation measures. Subjects include: bull; bull;Toxicology and industrial hygiene bull;Vapor and liquid releases and dispersion modeling bull;Flammability characterization bull;Relief and explosion venting In addition to an overview of government regulations, the book introduces the resources of the AICHE Center for Chemical Process Safety library. Guidelines are offered for hazard identification and risk assessment. The book concludes with case histories drawn directly from the AUTHORs' experience in the field. A perfect reference for industry professionals, Chemical Process Safety: Fundamentals with Applications, Second EDITION is also ideal for teaching at the graduate and senior undergraduate levels. Each chapter includes 30 problems, and a solutions manual is now available for instructors.

Author Biography

Daniel A. Crowl is the Herbert H. Dow Professor for Chemical Process Safety at Michigan Technological University Joseph F. Louvar retired as director of BASF's Chemical Engineering Department to become a professor at Wayne State University, specializing in chemical process safety, risk assessment, and the design of experiments

Table of Contents

Preface xiii
Nomenclature xv
Introduction
1(34)
Safety Programs
2(2)
Engineering Ethics
4(1)
Accident and Loss Statistics
4(8)
Acceptable Risk
12(2)
Public Perceptions
14(1)
The Nature of the Accident Process
15(5)
Inherent Safety
20(3)
Four Significant Disasters
23(12)
Flixborough, England
23(2)
Bhopal, India
25(1)
Seveso, Italy
26(1)
Pasadena, Texas
27(2)
Suggested Reading
29(1)
Problems
30(5)
Toxicology
35(28)
How Toxicants Enter Biological Organisms
36(3)
Gastrointestinal Tract
37(1)
Skin
37(1)
Respiratory System
38(1)
How Toxicants Are Eliminated from Biological Organisms
39(1)
Effects of Toxicants on Biological Organisms
40(1)
Toxicological Studies
41(1)
Dose versus Response
42(6)
Models for Dose and Response Curves
48(6)
Relative Toxicity
54(1)
Threshold Limit Values
54(9)
Suggested Reading
59(1)
Problems
59(4)
Industrial Hygiene
63(46)
Government Regulations
64(10)
Laws and Regulations
64(1)
Creating a Law
64(1)
Creating a Regulation
64(4)
OSHA: Process Safety Management
68(3)
EPA: Risk Management Plan
71(3)
Industrial Hygiene: Identification
74(4)
Material Safety Data Sheets
74(4)
Industrial Hygiene: Evaluation
78(16)
Evaluating Exposures to Volatile Toxicants by Monitoring
79(4)
Evaluation of Worker Exposures to Dusts
83(1)
Evaluationg Worker Exposures to Noise
84(1)
Estimating Worker Exposures to Toxic Vapors
85(9)
Industrial Hygiene: Control
94(15)
Respirators
96(1)
Ventilation
97(6)
Suggested Reading
103(1)
Problems
104(5)
Source Models
109(62)
Introduction to Source Models
109(3)
Flow of Liquid through a Hole
112(4)
Flow of Liquid through a Hole in a Tank
116(5)
Flow of Liquids through Pipes
121(9)
2-K Method
124(6)
Flow of Vapor through Holes
130(6)
Flow of Gases through Pipes
136(15)
Adiabatic Flows
136(7)
Isothermal Flows
143(8)
Flashing Liquids
151(6)
Liquid Pool Evaporation or Boiling
157(2)
Realistic and Worst-Case Releases
159(1)
Conservative Analysis
159(12)
Suggested Reading
161(1)
Problems
162(9)
Toxic Release and Dispersion Models
171(54)
Parameters Affecting Dispersion
172(4)
Neutrally Buoyant Dispersion Models
176(19)
Steady-State Continuous Point Release with No Wind
180(1)
Puff with No Wind
181(1)
Non-Steady-State Continuous Point Release with No Wind
182(1)
Steady-State Continuous Point Source Release with Wind
183(1)
Puff with No Wind and Eddy Diffusivity Is a Function of Direction
183(1)
Steady-State Continuous Point Source Release with Wind and Eddy Diffusivity Is a Function of Direction
184(1)
Puff with Wind
184(1)
Puff with no Wind and with Source on Ground
185(1)
Steady-State Plume with Source on Ground
185(1)
Continuous Steady-State Source with Source at Height Hr above the Ground
186(1)
Pasquill-Gifford Model
186(4)
Puff with Instantaneous Point Source at Ground Level, Coordinates Fixed at Release Point, Constant Wind Only in x Direction with Constant Velocity u
190(1)
Plume with Continous Steady-State Source at Ground Level and Wind Moving in x Direction at Constant Velocity u
191(1)
Plume with Continuous Steady-State Source at Height Hr above Ground Level and Wind Moving in x Direction at Constant Velocity u
192(1)
Puff with Instantaneous Point Source at Height Hr above Ground Level and a Coordinate System on the Ground That Moves with the Puff
193(1)
Puff with Instantaneous Point Source at Height Hr above Ground Level and a Coordinate System Fixed on the Ground at the Release Point
194(1)
Worst-Case Conditions
194(1)
Limitations to Pasqull-Gifford Dispersion Modeling
194(1)
Dense Gas Dispersion
195(4)
Toxic Effect Criteria
199(13)
Effect of Release Momentum and Buoyancy
212(1)
Release Mitigation
213(12)
Suggested Reading
214(1)
Problems
215(10)
Fires and Explosions
225(66)
The Fire Triangle
225(2)
Distinction between Fires and Explosions
227(1)
Definitions
227(2)
Flammability Characteristics of Liquids and Vapors
229(9)
Liquids
230(3)
Gases and Vapors
233(1)
Vapor Mixtures
233(2)
Flammability Limite Dependence on Temperature
235(1)
Flammability Limit Dependence on Pressure
236(1)
Estimating Flammability Limits
236(2)
Limiting Oxygen Concentration and Inerting
238(2)
Flammability Diagram
240(8)
Ignition Energy
248(1)
Autoignition
249(1)
Auto-Oxidation
249(1)
Adiabatic Compression
249(2)
Ignition Sources
251(1)
Sprays and Mists
252(1)
Explosions
252(39)
Detonation and Deflagration
253(2)
Confined Explosions
255(10)
Blast Damage Resulting from Overpressure
265(4)
TNT Equivalency
269(2)
TNO Multi-Energy Method
271(3)
Energy of Chemical Explosions
274(2)
Energy of Mechanical Explosions
276(3)
Missile Damage
279(1)
Blast Damage to People
279(2)
Vapor Cloud Explosions
281(1)
Boiling-Liquid Expanding-Vapor Explosions
282(1)
Suggested Reading
282(1)
Problems
283(8)
Designs to Prevent Fires and Explosions
291(62)
Inerting
292(15)
Vacuum Purging
292(3)
Pressure Purging
295(2)
Combined Pressure-Vacuum Purging
297(1)
Vacuum and Pressure Purging with Impure Nitrogen
298(1)
Advantages and Disadvantages of the Various Pressure and Vacuum Inerting Procedures
299(1)
Sweep-Through Purging
299(2)
Siphon Purging
301(1)
Using the Flammability Diagram To Avoid Flammable Atmospheres
301(6)
Static Electricity
307(23)
Fundamentals of Static Charge
307(1)
Charge Accumulation
308(1)
Electrostatic Discharges
309(2)
Energy from Electrostatic Discharges
311(1)
Energy of Electrostatic Ignition Sources
312(1)
Streaming Current
313(3)
Electrostatic Voltage Drops
316(1)
Energy of Charged Capacitors
316(5)
Capacitance of a Body
321(3)
Balance of Charges
324(6)
Controlling Static Electricity
330(7)
General Design Methods to Prevent Electrostatic Ignitions
331(1)
Relaxation
332(1)
Bonding and Grounding
332(1)
Dip Pipes
333(3)
Increasing Conductivity with Additives
336(1)
Handling Solids without Flammable Vapors
337(1)
Handling Solids with Flammable Vapors
337(1)
Explosion-Proof Equipment and Instruments
337(3)
Explosion-Proof Housings
339(1)
Area and Material Classification
339(1)
Design of an XP Area
340(1)
Ventilation
340(3)
Open-Air Plants
340(1)
Plants Inside Buildings
341(2)
Sprinkler Systems
343(4)
Miscellaneous Designs for Preventing Fires and Explosions
347(6)
Suggested Reading
347(1)
Problems
348(5)
Introduction to Reliefs
353(30)
Relief Concepts
354(2)
Definitions
356(1)
Location of Reliefs
357(3)
Relief Types
360(4)
Relief Scenarios
364(1)
Data for Sizing Reliefs
365(3)
Relief Systems
368(15)
Relief Installation Practices
368(1)
Relief Design Considerations
368(3)
Horizontal Knockout Drum
371(4)
Flares
375(1)
Scrubbers
376(1)
Condensers
376(1)
Suggested Reading
376(1)
Problems
377(6)
Relief Sizing
383(46)
Conventional Spring-Operated Reliefs in Liquid Service
384(5)
Conventional Spring-Operated Reliefs in Vapor or Gas Service
389(5)
Rupture Disc Reliefs in Liquid Service
394(1)
Rupture Disc Reliefs in Vapor or Gas Service
394(1)
Two-Phase Flow during Runaway Reaction Relief
395(9)
Simplified Nomograph Method
401(3)
Deflagration Venting for Dust and Vapor Explosions
404(7)
Vents for Low-Pressure Structures
406(2)
Vents for High-Pressure Structures
408(3)
Venting for Fire External to Process Vessels
411(4)
Reliefs for Thermal Expansion of Process Fluids
415(14)
Suggested Reading
418(2)
Problems
420(9)
Hazards Identification
429(42)
Process Hazards Checklists
432(1)
Hazards Surveys
432(16)
Hazards and Operability Studies
448(6)
Safety Reviews
454(5)
Other Methods
459(12)
Suggested Reading
460(1)
Problems
460(11)
Risk Assessment
471(44)
Review of Probability Theory
472(14)
Interactions between Process Units
474(6)
Revealed and Unreveled Failures
480(4)
Probability of Coincidence
484(2)
Redundancy
486(1)
Common Mode Failures
486(1)
Event Trees
486(5)
Fault Trees
491(8)
Determining the Minimal Cut Sets
494(3)
Quantitative Calculations Using the Fault Tree
497(1)
Advantages and Disadvantages of Fault Trees
498(1)
Relationship between Fault Trees and Event Trees
498(1)
QRA and LOPA
499(16)
Quantitative Risk Analysis
499(1)
Layer of Protection Analysis
500(3)
Consequence
503(1)
Frequency
503(4)
Suggested Reading
507(1)
Problems
508(7)
Accident Investigations
515(20)
Learning from Accidents
515(1)
Layered Investigations
516(2)
Investigation Process
518(1)
Investigation Summary
519(2)
Aids for Diagnosis
521(7)
Fires
522(1)
Explosions
522(1)
Sources of Ignition in Vessels
523(1)
Pressure Effects
523(2)
Medical Evidence
525(1)
Miscellaneous Aids to Diagnosis
525(3)
Aids for Recommendations
528(7)
Control Plant Modifications
528(1)
User-Friendly Designs
529(1)
Block Valves
529(1)
Double Block and Bleed
530(1)
Preventive Maintenance
530(1)
Analyzers
531(1)
Suggested Reading
532(1)
Problems
532(3)
Case Histories
535(26)
Static Electricity
536(4)
Tank Car Loading Explosion
536(1)
Explosion in a Centrifuge
536(1)
Duct System Explosion
537(1)
Conductor in a Solids Storage Bin
537
Pigment and Filter
536(1)
Pipefitter's Helper
536(1)
Lessons Learned
536(4)
Chemical Reactivity
540(6)
Bottle of Isopropyl Ether
540(1)
Nitrobenzene Sulfonic Acid Decomposition
540(1)
Organic Oxidation
541(1)
Lessons Learned
541(5)
System Designs
546(5)
Ethylene Oxide Explosion
546(1)
Ethylene Explosion
546(1)
Butadiene Explosion
546(1)
Light Hydrocarbon Explosion
547(1)
Pump Vibration
547(1)
Pump Failure
547(1)
Ethylene Explosion (1)
548(1)
Ethylene Explosion (2)
548(1)
Ethylene Oxide Explosion
548(1)
Lessons Learned
549(2)
Procedures
551(5)
Leak Testing a Vessel
552(1)
Man Working in Vessel
552(1)
Vinyl Chloride Explosion
552(1)
Dangerous Water Expansion
553(1)
Phenol-Formaldehyde Runaway Reaction
553(1)
Conditions and Secondary Reaction Cause Explosion
554(1)
Fuel-Blending Tank Explosion
555(1)
Lessons Learned
556(1)
Conclusion
556(5)
Suggested Reading
557(1)
Problems
557(4)
Appendix A: Unit Conversion Constants 561(4)
Appendix B: Flammability Data for Selected Hydrocarbons 565(6)
Appendix C: Detailed Equations for Flammability Diagrams 571(10)
Equations Useful for Placing Vessels into and out of Service
576(5)
Appendix D: Formal Safety Review Report for Example 10-4 581(10)
Appendix E: Saturation Vapor Pressure Data 591

Excerpts

PrefaceThis second edition ofChemical Process Safetyis designed to enhance the process of teaching and applying the fundamentals of chemical process safety. It is appropriate for an industrial reference, a senior-level undergraduate course, or a graduate course in chemical process safety. It can be used by anyone interested in improving chemical process safety, including chemical and mechanical engineers and chemists. More material is presented than can be accommodated in a 3-credit course, providing instructors with the opportunity to emphasize their topics of interest.The primary objective of this textbook is to encapsulate the important technical fundamentals of chemical process safety. The emphasis on the fundamentals will help the student and practicing scientist to understand the concepts and apply them accordingly. This application requires a significant quantity of fundamental knowledge and technology.The second edition has been rewritten to include new process safety technology and new references that have appeared since the first edition was published in 1990. It also includes our combined experiences of teaching process safety in both industry and academia during the past 10 years.Significant modifications were made to the following topics: dispersion modeling, source modeling, flammability characterization, explosion venting, fundamentals of electrostatics, and case histories. This new edition also includes selected materials from the latest AICHE Center for Chemical Process Safety (CCPS) books and is now an excellent introduction to the CCPS library.This second edition also includes more problems (now 30 per chapter). A complete set of problem solutions is available to instructors using the book in their curriculum. These changes fulfill the requests of many professors who have used this textbook.We continue to believe that a textbook on safety is possible only with both industrial and academic inputs. The industrial input ensures that the material is industrially relevant. The academic input ensures that the material is presented on a fundamental basis to help professors and students understand the concepts. Although the authors are (now) both from universities, one has over 30 years of relevant experience in industry (J. F. L.) and the other (D. A. C.) has accumulated significant industrial experience since the writing of the first edition.Since the first edition was published, many universities have developed courses or course content in chemical process safety. This new emphasis on process safety is the result of the positive influences from industry and the Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology (ABET). Based on faculty feedback, this textbook is an excellent application of the fundamental topics that are taught in the first three years of the undergraduate education.Although professors normally have little background in chemical process safety, they have found that the concepts in this text and the accompanying problems and solutions are easy to learn and teach. Professors have also found that industrial employees are enthusiastic and willing to give specific lectures on safety to enhance their courses.This textbook is designed for a dedicated course in chemical process safety. However, we continue to believe that chemical process safety should be part of every undergraduate and graduate course in chemistry and chemical and mechanical engineering, just as it is a part of all the industrial experiences. This text is an excellent reference for these courses. This textbook can also be used as a reference for a design course.Some will remark that our presentation is not complete or that some details are missing. The purpose of this book, however, is not to be complete but to provide a starting point for those who wish to learn about this important area. This book, for example, has a companion text titledHealth


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