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Chemical Risk Assessment A Manual for REACH,9781119953685
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Chemical Risk Assessment A Manual for REACH

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Edition:
1st
ISBN13:

9781119953685

ISBN10:
1119953685
Format:
Hardcover
Pub. Date:
1/7/2014
Publisher(s):
Wiley
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Summary

This book is an essential guide and support to understanding of the science and policy, procedure and practice that underpins the REACH risk assessments required for the use and placing on the market of chemicals in the European Union. A clear understanding of information provision and how this affects the assessment of chemical safety is fundamentally important to the success of policy on chemicals and ultimately to the sustainability of the chemicals industry. 

Within the book, the scientific processes that underpin the policy are explained in a practical way.  Importantly, it includes coverage of techniques to help solve the problems of using potentially risky and hazardous chemicals through the use of less hazardous alternatives and ‘green chemistry’, and also the analysis of the risks of the use of the most hazardous substances against the social and economic benefits of use.  

Chemical Risk Assessment: A Manual for REACH covers the following main themes: i) Assessment of chemical risk; ii) Risk management; iii) Hazard reduction, substitution and green chemistry; iv) Risk versus benefit – socio-economic analysis.

The book acts as a practical guide and overview to chemicals risk assessment and risk management (in the EU context), as well as a support text for planning for the challenges of the future, which will see ever-increasing pressure to withdraw hazardous substances from the EU (and global) market, balanced against opportunities for innovation in the development of less hazardous chemicals.

Table of Contents

List of Figures xv

List of Tables xvii

List of Contributors xix

Introduction xxi

1. Introduction: Policy and Scientific Context of Chemicals Risk and Risk Management 1

1.1 Overview of the Risk Assessment of Chemical Substances 4

1.2 Chemical Hazard and Risk Programmes 5

1.2.1 REACH Overview 5

1.2.2 Registration 6

1.2.3 Evaluation 8

1.2.4 Authorisation and Restriction 11

1.2.5 Hazard and Risk Communication 14

1.2.6 Hazards 16

1.2.7 Overview of Types of Exposure 17

1.2.8 Overview of Risk Characterisation 19

1.2.9 Successful Interaction with REACH: Registration, Evaluation and Authorisation 21

1.2.10 Regulation and Assessment of Hazardous Chemicals Outside of the European Union 24

2. Roles and Responsibilities in REACH 39

2.1 The Structure and Responsibilities of the Authorities 39

2.1.1 Role of the ECHA 39

2.1.2 The Role of the Member State Committee (MSC) 40

2.1.3 The Role of the Member State Competent Authorities (MSCA) 40

2.2 Forum Enforcement Project – REACH-EN-FORCE-1 41

2.3 Future Aims of the HSE (an Example of a ECHA-Related Authority Acting in the UK) 41

2.4 What Does REACH Require as Regards Enforcement? 41

2.5 What Powers Do Enforcing Authorities Have? 42

2.6 The Responsibilities of Industry 42

2.6.1 Responsibilities of the Manufacturer 42

2.6.2 Responsibilities of the Importer 43

2.6.3 The Only Representative 43

2.6.4 Responsibilities of the Downstream User 43

2.7 Communication in the Supply Chain and with Regulators 44

2.7.1 Use Descriptor System 44

3. Control of Chemicals – Legislative and Policy Context 57

3.1 How EU Chemical Legislation Evolved 57

3.2 Air Quality Regulations 63

3.3 Water Framework Directive 64

3.4 Carcinogens at Work 65

3.5 Cosmetics 66

3.6 Biocidal and Plant Protection Products 67

3.7 Nationally (UK)-Implemented Legislative and Policy Frameworks 68

3.7.1 Workplace Exposure 68

3.7.2 Control of Substances Hazardous to Health Regulations (COSHH) 2002 69

3.7.3 Dangerous Substances and Explosive Atmospheres Regulations (DSEAR) 2002 72

3.8 UK Environmental Regulation 74

3.8.1 Overview and IPPC 74

3.8.2 Waste (England and Wales) Regulations 2011 SI 988 75

3.8.3 Water Legislation in the UK 75

3.8.4 Directive 2006/118/EC on the Protection of Groundwater against Pollution and Deterioration 77

3.8.5 Groundwater (England and Wales) Regulations 2009 (SI 2009 No. 2902) 77

3.8.6 Air Legislation in the UK 77

4. Identification of Substances for REACH – Practicalities 81

4.1 Substance Identification 81

4.1.1 Types of Substances 82

4.1.2 Mono-Constituent Substances 82

4.1.3 Multi-Constituent Substances (MCSs) 82

4.1.4 Substances with Unknown or Variable Composition, or of Biological Origin (UVCBs) 82

4.1.5 Nanomaterials 83

4.1.6 Articles 84

4.1.7 EC Number 84

4.2 Sameness 85

4.3 Essentially-Pure Substances 85

4.4 Approaching the Substance Data Set – Understanding the Substance 86

5. Physico-Chemical Properties for REACH – Purpose and Practicalities 89

5.1 Physico-Chemical Properties 89

5.2 Strategy in Physico-Chemical Testing Plans 91

5.2.1 Tier 1 Tests 91

5.2.2 Tier 2 Tests 92

5.2.3 Tier 3 Tests 93

5.3 Difficult-to-Measure Substances 94

5.3.1 Multiconstituent or UVCB Substances (Mixtures) 94

5.3.2 Poorly Soluble Substances 94

5.3.3 Volatile Substances 94

5.3.4 Unstable Substances Either by Hydrolysis, Photolysis or Oxidation 94

5.3.5 Ionisable Substances 95

5.3.6 Surface Active Substances 95

5.4 Hazardous Physico-Chemical Data 95

5.5 Relationship between Physico-Chemical Tests 95

5.6 Application of Physico-Chemical Test Data 96

5.7 Can Physico-Chemical Tests Be Omitted? 96

5.8 (Q)SAR and Physico-Chemical Tests 97

5.9 (Quantitative) Structure-Activity Relationships ((Q)SAR) 97

6. Assessing and Documenting the Intrinsic Properties of Substances in REACH 103

6.1 Introduction to REACH Data Requirements 103

6.1.1 Strictly Controlled Conditions 104

6.2 Hazards 108

6.3 PBT 108

6.4 Equivalent Concern 109

6.4.1 Adversity 109

6.4.2 Mode of Action 110

6.5 Test Proposal Rule 110

6.6 Availability of Existing Data and Rights of Access 111

6.7 Data Reliability 111

6.8 Data Gaps – Options for Surrogate Data for Description of Hazard and Risk – Including Read-Across 111

6.9 Read-Across 113

7. Assessing Environmental Properties Data 115

7.1 Environmental Properties Data 115

7.1.1 PNECs 115

7.1.2 Classification and Labelling (C&L) 116

7.1.3 PBT 116

7.2 Environmental Fate 116

7.2.1 Degradation 117

7.2.2 Bioaccumulation 120

7.2.3 Adsorption 121

7.3 Ecotoxicology 123

7.3.1 Introduction 123

7.3.2 Hazard Assessment and Risk Characterisation 123

7.3.3 Data Review 127

7.3.4 Testing of Difficult Substances 127

7.3.5 (Q)SARs, Data Waiving and EPM 128

7.3.6 Further Testing 129

7.3.7 Toxicity to Sewage Treatment Plant Microorganisms 129

7.4 Turning Intrinsic Properties into ‘No-Effect’ Concentrations 130

7.4.1 Selecting a Suitable Starting Point for a PNEC Calculation 131

7.4.2 Calculating a PNEC Using Assessment Factors 131

7.4.3 Calculating a PNEC Using Sensitivity Distribution 133

7.4.4 Calculating a PNEC Using Equilibrium Partitioning 133

7.4.5 Intermittent versus Continuous Releases 134

8. Environmental Exposure 137

8.1 Substance Identity and Approach to Exposure Assessment 137

8.2 Characterising Releases 138

8.2.1 Evaluating Use Pattern 138

8.3 Evaluating Releases 139

8.3.1 Reality Checking – Top Down and Bottom Up 141

8.4 Documentation for the Registration 142

8.4.1 Uncertainty 142

8.5 Local Scale Releases 142

8.5.1 Site Size 142

8.5.2 Site Inspections 143

8.6 Exposure Assessment – Models or Measurements? 143

8.6.1 Using Measurements 143

8.6.2 Using Models 145

8.6.3 Models or Measurements – Recommended Approach 145

8.6.4 Tools 145

8.7 Water 146

8.7.1 Release via Waste-Water 146

8.7.2 River Environment 148

8.7.3 Marine Environment 149

8.7.4 Sediments 149

8.8 Soil 149

8.8.1 WWTP Sludge and Agricultural Soil 149

8.8.2 Deposition 149

8.8.3 Biodegradation in Soil 150

8.8.4 Crops and Grassland 150

8.8.5 Industrial Soil 150

8.9 Air 150

8.9.1 Air in the Standard PEC Models 150

8.9.2 Ozone Depletion and Other Specific Effects 150

8.9.3 Long Range Pollutants 151

8.10 The Food Chain 151

8.10.1 Biomagnification 151

8.10.2 Secondary Poisoning 151

9. Assessing the Hazards to Human Health from Chemicals 153

9.1 Mammalian Toxicology 153

9.2 Exposure Routes and Local/Systemic Effect Types 153

9.3 Acute and Chronic Effects 154

9.4 Influences on Toxicity 154

9.5 How Chemicals Cause Harm 155

9.5.1 Asphyxiants 155

9.5.2 Narcotics 155

9.5.3 Irritants and Corrosives 155

9.5.4 Sensitisation (Allergic Reactions) 156

9.5.5 Carcinogenicity 156

9.5.6 Genotoxic Effects 157

9.5.7 Reproductive and Developmental Effects 157

9.5.8 Target Organ Effects 157

9.6 Toxicokinetics 157

9.7 Toxicological Testing 158

9.7.1 Data Gaps 159

9.7.2 Data Waiving 159

9.7.3 Acute Toxicity Studies 159

9.7.4 Short-Term, Repeated Dose Studies 160

9.7.5 Long-Term (Chronic) Studies 160

9.7.6 Other Systemic Effects 161

9.7.7 Local Effects 162

9.8 Genetic Toxicology 162

9.8.1 Introduction 162

9.8.2 Hazard Assessment 163

9.8.3 Risk Assessment 166

9.9 Turning Intrinsic Properties into ‘No-Effect’ Levels 166

9.9.1 Special Cases 169

10. Human Exposure to Chemicals 171

10.1 Exposure 171

10.2 Exposure to Chemicals in the Workplace 173

10.2.1 First Tier Models 173

10.2.2 Higher Tier Models 174

10.2.3 Risk Management Measures 174

10.2.4 Exposure in the Professional Use Setting 175

10.2.5 Models 176

10.2.6 Measurements 178

10.3 Risk Management Measures 179

10.4 Consumer Exposure 179

10.4.1 General Considerations for Exposure Estimation for Consumers 180

10.4.2 Tier 1 Models 180

10.4.3 Refinement of Initial Exposure Estimates, Higher Tier Models and Measurements 181

10.4.4 Risk Management Measures – Consumers 181

10.5 Indirect Exposure (Humans via the Environment) 182

10.6 Risk due to Physico-Chemical Hazard 182

11. Managing Hazard and Risk 185

11.1 Characterisation, Assessment and Management of Risk 185

11.2 What Is ‘Risk’ under REACH? 186

11.3 What Are Risk Reduction and Risk Management? 187

11.3.1 Risk 187

11.3.2 How Can Risks Be Controlled Adequately? 189

11.4 Where Safe Levels Cannot Be Established – CMRs

and PBTs (and vPvBs) 190

11.5 Responsibilities in the Supply Chain – Introduction 190

11.6 Regulatory Requirements 191

11.7 Guidance 193

11.8 The Extended Safety Data Sheet 193

11.8.1 Current issues surrounding the use of eSDS by DUs 194

11.9 When Communication Is Difficult 194

11.10 Exposure Measurements in the Workplace – Occupational Hygiene 195

11.11 Control of Environmental Releases – Abatement Techniques 196

11.11.1 Engineering Controls 196

11.11.2 Enclosure and Containment 197

11.11.3 Bunding 197

11.11.4 Dedicated Equipment 197

11.11.5 Investment and Scale of Use – Economic Viability 197

11.11.6 Waste Stream Treatments 197

11.11.7 WWTP Treatments 198

11.11.8 Custom and Practise 198

11.11.9 Handling Standards 198

11.11.10 Clean-Down Practises 198

11.12 Effectiveness of Risk Reduction – Risk Management Options 200

11.13 Types of Risk Management – in the Workplace 201

11.13.1 Options Overview 202

11.13.2 Understanding Assumptions and Critical Issues 202

11.13.3 Risk Management Measures 202

11.14 Types of Risk Management – for the Environment 203

11.14.1 Unacceptable Risk 203

11.14.2 Options Overview 203

11.14.3 When a Data Set Is Not Complete 204

11.14.4 When a Data Set Is as Complete as It Can Be 204

11.14.5 Understanding Assumptions and Critical Issues 204

11.14.6 Strategies to Reduce the Amount of Substance Released to the Environment 204

11.15 Consumer Protection 205

12. Avoiding the Use of Hazardous Substances: Substitution and Alternatives 207

12.1 Properties That Contribute to Hazard and Risk for Human Health and the Environment 209

12.2 Assessment of Alternatives – Replacement of Use 210

12.3 What Is an Alternative? 211

12.4 Analysis of Alternatives 211

12.5 Substitution – Replacement with Substances of Reduced Hazard 211

12.5.1 Examples of Voluntary Substitution 212

12.5.2 Regulation-Led Substitution – Case Studies 213

12.6 Sustainability and Green Chemistry 218

12.7 What Is Green Chemistry in Practice? Principles and Concepts 219

12.7.1 Why Is Green Chemistry Important? 220

12.7.2 Research in Green Chemistry 220

12.7.3 Substance Design 220

12.7.4 Process Design 222

13. Hazards, Risks and Impacts – The Development and Application of Frameworks for the Assessment of Risk 225

13.1 Policy Context – Risk, Hazard and the Precautionary Principle 226

13.1.1 Assessment Frameworks – Hazard and Risk and Impacts 230

13.1.2 Precaution – Where No Safe Level Can Be Established 232

13.1.3 Application of Assessment Frameworks to Human Health and Environmental Protection 234

13.2 From Hazards to Risks to Impacts – Understanding the Implications of Exposure to Dangerous Chemicals 235

13.2.1 Introduction: The Need for a Culture of Safety 236

13.2.2 Responsible Care® 238

13.2.3 Standards and Management Tools 239

13.2.4 Risk Control and Management 241

13.2.5 Risk Control and Management in REACH 241

13.3 Risk Management Options – REACH Processes for Control of Hazardous and Risky Substances 244

13.3.1 Restrictions and Authorisations in REACH 244

13.3.2 Restrictions 246

13.3.3 Authorisations 247

14. Socio-Economic Analysis in REACH 251

14.1 Background – the Need for and Development of Socio-Economic Analysis in the Regulation of Chemicals 253

14.2 What Is SEA and Why Is It Needed and Applied in REACH? 254

14.2.1 What Is SEA within REACH? 254

14.3 Role, Purpose and Performing an SEA in REACH 255

14.3.1 Role and Purpose of an SEA in REACH 255

14.3.2 Doing an SEA in REACH 256

14.4 The Difficulties of Moving from Risks to Impacts 256

14.5 Regulatory Processes – Who Are the Decision Makers

and What Are Their Roles? 265

14.6 The Wider Benefits of Performing an SEA 265

14.7 Developments and the Future 267

15. REACH: How It Is Working and May Develop 269

15.1 Introduction 269

15.2 Experiences and Observations 269

15.2.1 Observations 270

15.3 Basics of Successful Submission 271

15.4 Testing, Prediction and Read-Across 271

15.5 The Community Rolling Action Plan 272

15.6 EU and National Responsibilities 272

15.7 Risk-Based Regulation and the Precautionary Approach 272

15.8 Higher Tiers of Assessment 273

15.9 REACH Developments 274

15.9.1 Methods of Operation and Constant Change 274

15.9.2 Improved Efficiency of Operation 275

15.9.3 Increased Scope 275

15.9.4 Policy Development on the Control of Chemicals – EU and Global Perspectives 276

15.10 Rationalising Overlap with Other Legislation 276

15.11 Scientific Developments and Challenges 278

15.12 Impact on Industry 278

15.12.1 Manufacturers and Importers 278

15.12.2 Downstream Users and Consumers 278

15.12.3 Innovation 279

15.13 ECHA Evaluation Report 2012 279

16. Resources, Official Guidance, Further Reading and Centres of Expertise 283

16.1 Introduction to Resources and Organisations 283

16.1.1 Official Journal 283

16.1.2 ECHA and REACH-IT 284

16.1.3 CEFIC and Sector Groups 285

16.1.4 IUCLID Guidance 285

16.1.5 ECETOC 286

16.1.6 OECD 286

16.1.7 EU JRC 286

16.2 Facts and Statistics 286

Appendix A Substance Classification and Labelling under REACH 317

A.1 Important Differences 319

A.1.1 Physico-Chemical Hazards 320

A.1.2 Health Hazards 320

A.1.3 Environmental Hazards 321

A.1.4 Supplementary Labelling Requirements under the CLP Regulations 321

A.2 CLP Symbols 322

A.2.1 Comparison of DSP/DPD with CLP 2008 325

A.3 Specific Target Organ Systemic Toxicity – Single Exposure 334

A.3.1 Carcinogenic Substances 335

A.3.2 Mutagenic Substances 337

A.3.3 Effect during Lactation 337

A.3.4 Aquatic Environment 338

A.3.5 Ozone 338

A.4 Harmonised Classification and Labelling 339

Appendix B Further Discussion of Substance Identification and Sameness 341

B.1 Substance Identifiers 341

B.1.1 EC Name 341

B.1.2 CAS Registry Number (CAS# or CAS No.) 341

B.1.3 SMILES 341

B.1.4 InChI 342

B.2 Substance Analysis 342

B.2.1 Sameness 343

B.2.2 Impurities 344

B.2.3 Departures from the Agreed Norm 344

B.3 Straightforward Organic Substances 345

B.3.1 Identity 345

B.3.2 Purity and Characterisation 346

B.4 Complex Organic Substances 347

B.5 Inorganic Substances 348

B.5.1 Structure 349

B.5.2 Elemental Quantification 349

B.6 Analysis of UVCBs 349

Appendix C Tools for REACH Compliance: IUCLID, Chesar

and In-House Databases 351

C.1 International Uniform Chemical Information Database (IUCLID) 351

C.2 IUCLID and PPORDs 354

C.3 Submission of PPORD to ECHA 354

C.3.1 IUCLID Submission 354

C.3.2 Notification by REACH-IT 355

C.4 Chesar 356

C.4.1 Introduction 356

C.4.2 Chesar Functionalities or Organisation of the Tool 356

C.4.3 Assessment workflow of Chesar 358

C.5 Advice on Storing of Data Outside of the IUCLID 358

C.5.1 Structure 359

C.5.2 Identifiers 360

C.5.3 Mechanistic Issues 360

C.5.4 Identification and Expression of Substance Identity 361

C.5.5 Result Values 361

C.5.6 SMILES and Textual Representations of Structure 361

C.5.7 Modifications to the Data Set 361

C.5.8 Composited Fields and Repeated Processes 361

C.5.9 Duplicates 362

C.5.10 Validation 362

C.5.11 Checking 363

C.5.12 Study Reports and Cataloguing 363

C.5.13 Snapshots and Backups 364

Appendix D Glossary 365

Index 383



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