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Chemistry

by
Edition:
6th
ISBN13:

9780618265053

ISBN10:
0618265058
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
11/13/2002
Publisher(s):
Brooks Cole
List Price: $280.95

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Table of Contents

To the Professor xii
To the Student xviii
Chemical Foundations
1(40)
Chemistry: An Overview
2(4)
Chemical Impact The Chemistry of Art
5(1)
The Scientific Method
6(2)
Units of Measurement
8(3)
Chemical Impact Critical Units!
10(1)
Uncertainty in Measurement
11(3)
Significant Figures and Calculations
14(4)
Dimensional Analysis
18(4)
Temperature
22(3)
Density
25(1)
Classification of Matter
26(15)
Summary
30(1)
Key Terms
30(1)
Questions and Exercises
31(10)
Atoms, Molecules, and Ions
41(39)
The Early History of Chemistry
42(1)
Chemical Impact There's Gold in Them There Plants!
43(1)
Fundamental Chemical Laws
43(3)
Dalton's Atomic Theory
46(3)
Early Experiments to Characterize the Atom
49(4)
Chemical Impact Berzelius, Selenium, and Silicon
50(3)
The Modern View of Atomic Structure: An Introduction
53(3)
Chemical Impact Reading the History of Bogs
55(1)
Molecules and Ions
56(2)
An Introduction to the Periodic Table
58(4)
Chemical Impact Hassium Fits Right in
61(1)
Naming Simple Compounds
62(18)
Chemical Impact Buckminsterfullerene: A New Form of Carbon
66(6)
Summary
72(1)
Key Terms
72(2)
Question and Exercises
74(6)
Stoichiometry
80(53)
Atomic Masses
81(5)
Chemical Impact Buckyballs Teach Some History
84(2)
The Mole
86(4)
Chemical Impact Elemental Analysis Catches Elephant Poachers
88(2)
Molar Mass
90(3)
Chemical Impact Measuring the Masses of Large Molecules, or Making Elephants Fly
91(2)
Percent Composition of Compounds
93(3)
Determining the Formula of a Compound
96(6)
Chemical Equations
102(2)
Balancing Chemical Equations
104(4)
Stoichiometric Calculations: Amounts of Reactants and Products
108(5)
Chemical Impact High Mountains---Low Octane
109(4)
Calculations Involving a Limiting Reactant
113(20)
Summary
121(1)
Key Terms
121(1)
Questions and Exercises
121(12)
Types of Chemical Reactions and Solution Stoichiometry
133(56)
Water, the Common Solvent
134(2)
The Nature of Aqueous Solutions: Strong and Weak Electrolytes
136(4)
Chemical Impact Arrhenius: A Man with Solutions
140(1)
The Composition of Solutions
140(8)
Chemical Impact Tiny Laboratories
147(1)
Types of Chemical Reactions
148(1)
Precipitation Reactions
148(6)
Describing Reactions in Solution
154(2)
Stoichiometry of Precipitation Reactions
156(2)
Acid--Base Reactions
158(6)
Oxidation--Reduction Reactions
164(8)
Chemical Impact Iron Zeroes in on Pollution
166(5)
Chemical Impact Aging: Does It Involve Oxidation?
171(1)
Balancing Oxidation--Reduction Equations
172(17)
Summary
179(1)
Key Terms
179(1)
Questions and Exercises
180(9)
Gases
189(52)
Pressure
190(2)
The Gas Laws of Boyle, Charles, and Avogadro
192(6)
The Ideal Gas Law
198(5)
Gas Stoichiometry
203(3)
Dalton's Law of Partial Pressures
206(6)
Chemical Impact Separating Gases
208(2)
Chemical Impact The Chemistry of Air Bags
210(2)
The Kinetic Molecular Theory of Gases
212(7)
Effusion and Diffusion
219(3)
Real Gases
222(3)
Chemistry in the Atmosphere
225(16)
Chemical Impact Acid Rain: A Growing Problem
226(3)
Summary
229(1)
Key Terms
229(1)
Questions and Exercises
230(11)
Thermochemistry
241(48)
The Nature of Energy
242(6)
Enthalpy and Calorimetry
248(8)
Chemical Impact Nature Has Hot Plants
252(3)
Chemical Impact Firewalking: Magic or Science?
255(1)
Hess's Law
256(4)
Standard Enthalpies of Formation
260(7)
Present Sources of Energy
267(4)
New Energy Sources
271(18)
Chemical Impact Farming the Wind
274(4)
Chemical Impact Veggie Gasoline?
278(1)
Summary
278(1)
Key Terms
278(2)
Questions and Exercises
280(9)
Atomic Structure and Periodicity
289(58)
Electromagnetic Radiation
290(2)
Chemical Impact Flies That Dye
291(1)
The Nature of Matter
292(5)
Chemical Impact Chemistry That Doesn't Leave You in the Dark
293(4)
The Atomic Spectrum of Hydrogen
297(2)
The Bohr Model
299(5)
Chemical Impact Fireworks
302(2)
The Quantum Mechanical Model of the Atom
304(3)
Quantum Numbers
307(2)
Orbital Shapes and Energies
309(1)
Electron Spin and the Pauli Principle
310(2)
Polyelectronic Atoms
312(2)
The History of the Periodic Table
314(3)
Chemical Impact The Growing Periodic Table
316(1)
The Aufbau Principle and the Periodic Table
317(7)
Periodic Trends in Atomic Properties
324(6)
The Properties of a Group: The Alkali Metals
330(17)
Chemical Impact Potassium: Too Much of a Good Thing Can Kill You
334(1)
Summary
335(1)
Key Terms
335(1)
Questions and Exercises
336(11)
Bonding: General Concepts
347(66)
Types of Chemical Bonds
348(4)
Chemical Impact No Lead Pencils
351(1)
Electronegativity
352(2)
Bond Polarity and Dipole Moments
354(3)
Ions: Electron Configurations and Sizes
357(5)
Formation of Binary Ionic Compounds
362(4)
Partial Ionic Character of Covalent Bonds
366(1)
The Covalent Chemical Bond: A Model
367(4)
Covalent Bond Energies and Chemical Reactions
371(3)
The Localized Electron Bonding Model
374(1)
Lewis Structures
375(5)
Chemical Impact Nitrogen Under Pressure
379(1)
Exceptions to the Octet Rule
380(3)
Resonance
383(6)
Molecular Structure: The VSEPR Model
389(24)
Chemical Impact Chemical Structure and Communication: Semiochemicals
398(3)
Summary
401(1)
Key Terms
401(1)
Questions and Exercises
402(11)
Covalent Bonding: Orbitals
413(36)
Hybridization and the Localized Electron Model
413(13)
The Molecular Orbital Model
426(4)
Bonding in Homonuclear Diatomic Molecules
430(6)
Bonding in Heteronuclear Diatomic Molecules
436(1)
Combining the Localized Electron and Molecular Orbital Models
437(12)
Summary
440(1)
Key Terms
440(1)
Questions and Exercises
441(8)
Liquids and Solids
449(62)
Intermolecular Forces
450(4)
The Liquid State
454(2)
An Introduction to Structures and Types of Solids
456(5)
Structure and Bonding in Metals
461(7)
Chemical Impact Seething Surfaces
462(5)
Chemical Impact What Sank the Titanic?
467(1)
Carbon and Silicon: Network Atomic Solids
468(10)
Chemical Impact Golfing with Glass
473(3)
Chemical Impact Transistors and Printed Circuits
476(2)
Molecular Solids
478(1)
Ionic Solids
479(4)
Chemical Impact Gallium Arsenide Lasers
481(2)
Vapor Pressure and Changes of State
483(9)
Phase Diagrams
492(19)
Chemical Impact Making Diamonds at Low Pressures: Fooling Mother Nature
496(2)
Summary
498(1)
Key Terms
498(1)
Questions and Exercises
499(12)
Properties of Solutions
511(44)
Solution Composition
512(3)
Chemical Impact Electronic Ink
514(1)
The Energies of Solution Formation
515(4)
Factors Affecting Solubility
519(5)
Chemical Impact Ionic Liquids?
520(3)
Chemical Impact The Lake Nyos Tragedy
523(1)
The Vapor Pressures of Solutions
524(7)
Chemical Impact Spray Power
527(4)
Boiling-Point Elevation and Freezing-Point Depression
531(4)
Osmotic Pressure
535(5)
Colligative Properties of Electrolyte Solutions
540(3)
Chemical Impact The Drink of Champions---Water
541(2)
Colloids
543(12)
Chemical Impact Organisms and Ice Formation
544(1)
Summary
545(1)
Key Terms
545(1)
Questions and Exercises
546(9)
Chemical Kinetics
555(54)
Reaction Rates
557(4)
Rate Laws: An Introduction
561(2)
Determining the Form of the Rate Law
563(5)
The Integrated Rate Law
568(10)
Rate Laws: A Summary
578(1)
Reaction Mechanisms
579(3)
A Model for Chemical Kinetics
582(6)
Catalysis
588(21)
Chemical Impact Automobiles: Air Purifiers?
591(1)
Chemical Impact Enzymes: Nature's Catalysts
592(3)
Summary
595(1)
Key Terms
595(2)
Questions and Exercises
597(12)
Chemical Equilibrium
609(44)
The Equilibrium Condition
610(3)
The Equilibrium Constant
613(4)
Equilibrium Expressions Involving Pressures
617(3)
Heterogeneous Equilibria
620(2)
Applications of the Equilibrium Constant
622(9)
Solving Equilibrium Problems
631(5)
Le Chatelier's Principle
636(17)
Summary
642(1)
Key Terms
642(1)
Questions and Exercises
643(10)
Acids and Bases
653(60)
The Nature of Acids and Bases
654(3)
Acid Strength
657(5)
The pH Scale
662(3)
Calculating the pH of Strong Acid Solutions
665(1)
Calculating the pH of Weak Acid Solutions
666(10)
Chemical Impact Household Chemistry
674(2)
Bases
676(6)
Chemical Impact Amines
679(3)
Polyprotic Acids
682(5)
Acid--Base Properties of Salts
687(6)
The Effect of Structure on Acid--Base Properties
693(2)
Acid--Base Properties of Oxides
695(1)
The Lewis Acid--Base Model
696(3)
Chemical Impact Self-Destructing Paper
697(2)
Strategy for Solving Acid--Base Problems: A Summary
699(14)
Summary
701(1)
Key Terms
701(2)
Questions and Exercises
703(10)
Applications of Aqueous Equilibria
713(70)
Acid--Base Equilibria
Solutions of Acids or Bases Containing a Common Ion
714(2)
Buffered Solutions
716(10)
Buffer Capacity
726(3)
Titrations and pH Curves
729(15)
Acid--Base Indicators
744(7)
Solubility Equilibria
Solubility Equilibria and the Solubility Product
751(9)
Chemical Impact The Chemistry of Teeth
755(5)
Precipitation and Qualitative Analysis
760(6)
Complex Ion Equilibria
Equilibria Involving Complex Ions
766(17)
Summary
772(1)
Key Terms
772(1)
Questions and Exercises
773(10)
Spontaneity, Entropy, and Free Energy
783(44)
Spontaneous Processes and Entropy
784(6)
Entropy and the Second Law of Thermodynamics
790(1)
Chemical Impact Entropy: An Organizing Force?
791(1)
The Effect of Temperature on Spontaneity
791(4)
Free Energy
795(3)
Entropy Changes in Chemical Reactions
798(4)
Free Energy and Chemical Reactions
802(4)
The Dependence of Free Energy on Pressure
806(4)
Free Energy and Equilibrium
810(4)
Free Energy and Work
814(13)
Summary
816(1)
Key Terms
816(2)
Questions and Exercises
818(9)
Electrochemistry
827(50)
Galvanic Cells
828(2)
Standard Reduction Potentials
830(7)
Cell Potential, Electrical Work, and Free Energy
837(4)
Dependence of Cell Potential on Concentration
841(5)
Batteries
846(5)
Chemical Impact Printed Batteries
847(2)
Chemical Impact Thermophotovoltaics: Electricity from Heat
849(2)
Chemical Impact Fuel Cells for Cars
851(1)
Corrosion
851(4)
Chemical Impact Paint that Stops Rust---Completely
853(2)
Electrolysis
855(5)
Chemical Impact The Chemistry of Sunken Treasure
858(2)
Commercial Electrolytic Processes
860(17)
Summary
865(1)
Key Terms
865(2)
Questions and Exercises
867(10)
The Nucleus: A Chemist's View
877(36)
Nuclear Stability and Radioactive Decay
878(5)
The Kinetics of Radioactive Decay
883(3)
Nuclear Transformations
886(3)
Chemical Impact Stellar Nudeosynthesis
887(2)
Detection and Uses of Radioactivity
889(5)
Thermodynamic Stability of the Nucleus
894(3)
Nuclear Fission and Nuclear Fusion
897(5)
Effects of Radiation
902(11)
Chemical Impact Nuclear Physics: An Introduction
904(1)
Summary
905(1)
Key Terms
905(1)
Questions and Exercises
906(7)
The Representative Elements: Groups 1A Through 4A
913(28)
A Survey of the Representative Elements
914(5)
The Group 1A Elements
919(3)
Hydrogen
922(2)
The Group 2A Elements
924(3)
The Group 3A Elements
927(2)
Chemical Impact Boost Your Boron
928(1)
The Group 4A Elements
929(12)
Chemical Impact Concrete Learning
932(1)
Chemical Impact Beethoven: Hair is the Story
933(1)
Summary
933(1)
Key Terms
933(1)
Questions and Exercises
934(7)
The Representative Elements: Groups 5A Through 8A
941(44)
The Group 5A Elements
942(2)
The Chemistry of Nitrogen
944(11)
Chemical Impact Nitrous Oxide: Laughing Gas That Propels Whipped Cream and Cars
953(2)
The Chemistry of Phosphorus
955(4)
Chemical Impact Phosphorus: An Illuminating Element
956(3)
The Group 6A Elements
959(1)
The Chemistry of Oxygen
960(1)
The Chemistry of Sulfur
961(6)
The Group 7A Elements
967(6)
Chemical Impact Photography
968(5)
The Group 8A Elements
973(12)
Chemical Impact Automatic Sunglasses
974(2)
Summary
976(1)
Key Terms
976(1)
Questions and Exercises
977(8)
Transition Metals and Coordination Chemistry
985(58)
The Transition Metals: A Survey
986(6)
The First-Row Transition Metals
992(6)
Chemical Impact Titanium Dioxide---Miracle Coating
994(2)
Chemical Impact Titanium Makes Great Bicycles
996(2)
Coordination Compounds
998(5)
Chemical Impact Alfred Werner: Coordination Chemist
1003(1)
Isomerism
1003(6)
Chemical Impact The Importance of Being cis
1007(2)
Bonding in Complex Ions: The Localized Electron Model
1009(2)
The Crystal Field Model
1011(7)
Chemical Impact Transition Metal Ions Lend Color to Gems
1016(2)
The Biologic Importance of Coordination Complexes
1018(6)
Chemical Impact The Danger of Mercury
1020(3)
Chemical Impact Supercharged Blood
1023(1)
Metallurgy and Iron and Steel Production
1024(19)
Summary
1032(1)
Key Terms
1032(2)
Questions and Exercises
1034(9)
Organic and Biological Molecules
1043
Alkanes: Saturated Hydrocarbons
1044(8)
Alkenes and Alkynes
1052(3)
Aromatic Hydrocarbons
1055(2)
Hydrocarbon Derivatives
1057(7)
Polymers
1064(10)
Chemical Impact Heal Thyself
1065(5)
Chemical Impact Wallace Hume Carothers
1070(2)
Chemical Impact Plastic That Talks and Listens
1072(2)
Natural Polymers
1074
Chemical Impact Tanning in the Shade
1080(9)
Summary
1089(1)
Key Terms
1089(2)
Questions and Exercises
1091
Appendix 1 Mathematical Procedures
1(13)
A1.1 Exponential Notation
1(3)
A1.2 Logarithms
4(2)
A1.3 Graphing Functions
6(2)
A1.4 Solving Quadratic Equations
8(3)
A1.5 Uncertainties in Measurements
11(3)
Appendix 2 The Quantitative Kinetic Molecular Model
14(4)
Appendix 3 Spectral Analysis
18(3)
Appendix 4 Selected Thermodynamic Data
21(3)
Appendix 5 Equilibrium Constants and Reduction Potentials
24(3)
A5.1 Values of Ka for Some Common Monoprotic Acids
24(1)
A5.2 Stepwise Dissociation Constants for Several Common Polyprotic Acids
24(1)
A5.3 Values of Kb for Some Common Weak Bases
25(1)
A5.4 Ksp Values at 25°C for Common Ionic Solids
25(1)
A5.5 Standard Reduction Potentials at 25°C (298K) for Many Common Half-Reactions
26(1)
Appendix 6 SI Units and Conversion Factors
27(2)
Glossary 29(14)
Answers to Selected Exercises 43(24)
Photo Credits 67(2)
Index 69


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