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Chemistry And Chemical Reactivity,9780534997663

Chemistry And Chemical Reactivity

by ; ;
Edition:
6th
ISBN13:

9780534997663

ISBN10:
053499766X
Format:
Hardcover
Pub. Date:
1/20/2005
Publisher(s):
BROOKS COLE
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Summary

CHEMISTRY AND CHEMICAL REACTIVITY has been revised to help students get to a higher level of understanding of General Chemistry-concepts. This revision includes General ChemistryNow, a new CD-ROM and web-based learning system that focuses on goals, connections, and complete integration with the text.

Table of Contents

Preface xxiii
A Preface to Students 2(8)
Part 1 The Basic Tools of Chemistry
Matter and Measurement
10(48)
How Hot Is It?
10(2)
Classifying Matter
12(5)
States of Matter and Kinetic-Molecular Theory
13(1)
Matter at the Macroscopic and Particulate Levels
14(1)
Pure Substances
14(1)
Mixtures: Homogeneous and Heterogeneous
15(2)
Elements and Atoms
17(1)
Compounds and Molecules
18(2)
Physical Properties
20(3)
Density
20(2)
Temperature Dependence of Physical Properties
22(1)
Extensive and Intensive Properties
23(1)
Physical and Chemical Changes
23(2)
Units of Measurement
25(7)
Temperature Scales
26(2)
Length
28(2)
Volume
30(1)
Chemical Perspectives: It's a Nanoworld!
31(1)
Mass
32(1)
Making Measurements: Precision, Accuracy, and Experimental Error
32(3)
A Closer Look: Standard Deviation
33(2)
Mathematics of Chemistry
35(23)
Exponential or Scientific Notation
35(3)
Significant Figures
38(3)
Problem Solving by Dimensional Analysis
41(2)
Graphing
43(1)
Problem Solving and Chemical Arithmetic
44(2)
Chapter Goals Revisited
46(1)
Key Equations
47(1)
Study Questions
48(10)
Atoms and Elements
58(38)
Stardust
58(2)
Protons, Electrons, and Neutrons: Development of Atomic Structure
60(7)
Electricity
60(1)
Radioactivity
60(1)
Cathode-Ray Tubes and the Characterization of Electrons
61(3)
Protons
64(1)
Neutrons
64(1)
Historical Perspectives: Uncovering Atomic Structure
65(1)
The Nucleus of the Atom
65(2)
Atomic Number and Atomic Mass
67(2)
Atomic Number
67(1)
Relative Atomic Mass and the Atomic Mass Unit
67(1)
Mass Number
67(2)
Isotopes
69(3)
Isotope Abundance
69(1)
Determining Atomic Mass and Isotope Abundance
70(1)
A Closer Look: Atomic Mass and the Mass Defect
71(1)
Atomic Weight
72(1)
Atoms and the Mole
73(4)
Historical Perspectives: Amedeo Avogadro and His Number
74(1)
Molar Mass
74(3)
The Periodic Table
77(5)
Features of the Periodic Table
77(3)
Developing the Periodic Table
80(1)
Historical Perspectives: Periodic Table
81(1)
An Overview of the Elements, Their Chemistry, and the Periodic Table
82(6)
Group 1A, Alkali Metals: Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs, Fr
82(1)
Group 2A, Alkaline Earth Metals: Be, Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba, Ra
82(1)
Group 3A: B, Al, Ga, In, TI
82(1)
Group 4A: C, Si, Ge, Sn, Pb
83(2)
Group 5A: N, P, As, Sb, Bi
85(1)
Group 6A: O, S, Se, Te, Po
85(1)
Group 7A, Halogens: F, Cl, Br, I, At
86(1)
Group 8A, Noble Gases: He, Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe, Rn
86(1)
The Transition Elements
87(1)
Essential Elements
88(8)
Chapter Goals Revisited
89(1)
Key Equations
89(1)
Study Questions
90(6)
Molecules, Ions, and Their Compounds
96(44)
DNA: The Most Important Molecule
96(2)
Molecules, Compounds, and Formulas
98(2)
Formulas
99(1)
Molecular Models
100(3)
A Closer Look: Computer Resources for Molecular Modeling
102(1)
Ionic Compounds: Formulas, Names, and Properties
103(11)
Ions
104(3)
Formulas of Ionic Compounds
107(2)
Names of Ions
109(2)
Names of Ionic Compounds
111(1)
Properties of Ionic Compounds
111(3)
Molecular Compounds: Formulas, Names, and Properties
114(2)
Formulas, Compounds, and the Mole
116(3)
Describing Compound Formulas
119(9)
Percent Composition
119(2)
Empirical and Molecular Formulas from Percent Composition
121(6)
A Closer Look: Mass Spectrometry, Molar Mass, and Isotopes
127(1)
Hydrated Compounds
128(12)
Chapter Goals Revisited
130(1)
Key Equations
131(1)
Study Questions
132(8)
Chemical Equations and Stoichiometry
140(34)
Black Smokers and the Origin of Life
140(2)
Chemical Equations
142(3)
Historical Perspectives: Antoine Laurent Lavoisier (1743--1794)
143(2)
Balancing Chemical Equations
145(3)
Mass Relationships in Chemical Reactions: Stoichiometry
148(4)
Reactions in Which One Reactant Is Present in Limited Supply
152(5)
A Stoichiometry Calculation with a Limiting Reactant
153(4)
Percent Yield
157(1)
Chemical Equations and Chemical Analysis
158(16)
Quantitative Analysis of a Mixture
158(4)
Determining the Formula of a Compound by Combustion
162(3)
Chapter Goals Revisited
165(1)
Key Equation
165(1)
Study Questions
166(8)
Reactions in Aqueous Solution
174(58)
Salt
174(2)
Properties of Compounds in Aqueous Solution
176(5)
Ions in Aqueous Solution: Electrolytes
176(1)
Types of Electrolytes
177(2)
Solubility of Ionic Compounds in Water
179(2)
Precipitation Reactions
181(4)
Net Ionic Equations
183(2)
Acids and Bases
185(6)
Acids
185(2)
Chemical Perspectives: Sulfuric Acid
187(1)
A Closer Look: The H+ Ion in Water
188(1)
Bases
188(1)
Oxides of Nonmetals and Metals
189(1)
Chemical Perspectives: Limelight and Metal Oxides
190(1)
Reactions of Acids and Bases
191(3)
Gas-Forming Reactions
194(1)
Classifying Reactions in Aqueous Solution
195(2)
A Summary of Common Reaction Types in Aqueous Solution
196(1)
A Closer Look: Product-Favored and Reactant-Favored Reactions
197(1)
Oxidation--Reduction Reactions
197(8)
Redox Reactions and Electron Transfer
198(2)
Oxidation Numbers
200(1)
A Closer Look: Are Oxidation Numbers ``Real''?
201(1)
Recognizing Oxidation--Reduction Reactions
202(3)
Measuring Concentrations of Compounds in Solution
205(7)
Solution Concentration: Molarity
205(4)
Preparing Solutions of Known Concentration
209(3)
pH, a Concentration Scale for Acids and Bases
212(2)
Stoichiometry of Reactions in Aqueous Solution
214(18)
General Solution Stoichiometry
214(2)
Titration: A Method of Chemical Analysis
216(5)
Chapter Goals Revisited
221(2)
Key Equations
223(1)
Study Questions
223(9)
Principles of Reactivity: Energy and Chemical Reactions
232(62)
Abba's Refrigerator
232(4)
Energy: Some Basic Principles
236(5)
Conservation of Energy
236(1)
Temperature and Heat
237(1)
Systems and Surroundings
238(1)
Directionality of Heat Transfer: Thermal Equilibrium
238(1)
A Closer Look: Why Doesn't the Heat in a Room Cause Your Cup of Coffee to Boil?
239(1)
Energy Units
240(1)
Chemical Perspectives: Food and Calories
241(1)
Specific Heat Capacity and Heat Transfer
241(5)
A Closer Look: Sign Conventions
243(1)
Quantitative Aspects of Heat Transfer
244(2)
Energy and Changes of State
246(4)
The First Law of Thermodynamics
250(4)
Historical Perspectives: Work, Heat, Cannons, Soup, and Beer
251(1)
A Closer Look: P-V Work
252(1)
Enthalpy
253(1)
State Functions
254(1)
Enthalpy Changes for Chemical Reactions
254(3)
Calorimetry
257(4)
Constant Pressure Calorimetry: Measuring ΔH
257(2)
Constant Volume Calorimetry: Measuring ΔE
259(2)
Hess's Law
261(4)
Energy Level Diagrams
262(3)
Standard Enthalpies of Formation
265(4)
Enthalpy Change for a Reaction
267(1)
A Closer Look: Hess's Law and Equation 6.6
268(1)
Product-or Reactant-Favored Reactions and Thermochemistry
269(25)
Chapter Goals Revisited
270(1)
Key Equations
271(1)
Study Questions
272(10)
The Chemistry of Fuels and Energy Sources
282(1)
Supply and Demand: The Balance Sheet on Energy
283(1)
Energy Consumption
283(1)
Energy Resources
284(1)
Fossil Fuels
284(1)
Coal
285(1)
Natural Gas
286(1)
Petroleum
286(1)
Other Fossil Fuel Sources
287(1)
Energy in the Future: Choices and Alternatives
288(1)
Fuel Cells
288(1)
A Hydrogen Economy
289(2)
Biosources of Energy
291(1)
Solar Energy
292(1)
What Does the Future Hold for Energy?
292(1)
Suggested Readings
292(1)
Study Questions
293(1)
Part 2 The Structure of Atoms and Molecules
Atomic Structure
294(38)
Colors in the Sky
294(2)
Electromagnetic Radiation
296(4)
Wave Properties
296(2)
Standing Waves
298(1)
The Visible Spectrum of Light
299(1)
Planck, Einstein, Energy, and Photons
300(5)
Planck's Equation
300(2)
Einstein and the Photoelectric Effect
302(2)
Energy and Chemistry: Using Planck's Equation
304(1)
Chemical Perspectives: UV Radiation, Skin Damage, and Sunscreens
305(1)
Atomic Line Spectra and Niels Bohr
305(8)
Atomic Line Spectra
305(2)
The Bohr Model of the Hydrogen Atom
307(2)
The Bohr Theory and the Spectra of Excited Atoms
309(4)
A Closer Look: Experimental Evidence for Bohr's Theory
313(1)
The Wave Properties of the Electron
313(1)
Quantum Mechanical View of the Atom
314(6)
Historical Perspectives: 20th-Century Giants of Science
315(1)
The Uncertainty Principle
315(1)
Schrodinger's Model of the Hydrogen Atom and Wave Functions
316(1)
Quantum Numbers
316(2)
Useful Information from Quantum Numbers
318(2)
The Shapes of Atomic Orbitals
320(3)
s Orbitals
320(1)
p Orbitals
321(2)
d Orbitals
323(1)
f Orbitals
323(1)
Atomic Orbitals and Chemistry
323(9)
Chapter Goals Revisited
324(1)
Key Equations
325(1)
Study Questions
326(6)
Atomic Electron Configurations and Chemical Periodicity
332(40)
Everything in Its Place
332(2)
Electron Spin
334(4)
Magnetism
334(1)
Paramagnetism and Unpaired Electrons
335(1)
A Closer Look: Paramagnetism and Ferromagnetism
336(1)
Chemical Perspectives: Quantized Spins and MRI
337(1)
The Pauli Exclusion Principle
338(1)
Atomic Subshell Energies and Electron Assignments
339(4)
Order of Subshell Energies and Assignments
339(2)
Effective Nuclear Charge, Z*
341(2)
Atomic Electron Configurations
343(8)
Electron Configurations of the Main Group Elements
343(6)
Electron Configurations of the Transition Elements
349(2)
Electron Configurations of Ions
351(2)
Atomic Properties and Periodic Trends
353(10)
Atomic Size
353(4)
Ionization Energy
357(2)
Electron Affinity
359(2)
Ion Sizes
361(2)
Periodic Trends and Chemical Properties
363(9)
Chapter Goals Revisited
365(1)
Study Questions
366(6)
Bonding and Molecular Structure: Fundamental Concepts
372(64)
Molecules in Space
372(2)
Valence Electrons
374(2)
Lewis Symbols for Atoms
375(1)
Chemical Bond Formation
376(1)
Bonding in Ionic Compounds
377(5)
Ion Attraction and Lattice Energy
378(3)
Why Don't Compounds Such as NaCl2 and NaNe Exist?
381(1)
Covalent Bonding and Lewis Structures
382(8)
Lewis Electron Dot Structures
382(1)
The Octet Rule
383(3)
Predicting Lewis Structures
386(4)
Resonance
390(2)
A Closer Look: Resonance Structures, Lewis Structures, and Molecular Models
391(1)
Exceptions to the Octet Rule
392(5)
Compounds in Which an Atom Has Fewer Than Eight Valence Electrons
393(1)
Compounds in Which an Atom Has More Than Eight Valence Electrons
393(3)
Chemical Perspectives: The Importance of Odd-Electron Molecules
396(1)
Molecular Shapes
397(8)
Central Atoms Surrounded Only by Single-Bound Pairs
398(1)
Central Atoms with Single-Bond Pairs and Lone Pairs
399(2)
Central Atoms with More Than Four Valence Electron Pairs
401(2)
Multiple Bonds and Molecular Geometry
403(2)
Charge Distribution in Covalent Bonds and Molecules
405(8)
Formal Charges on Atoms
405(2)
A Closer Look: Formal Charge and Oxidation Number
407(1)
Bond Polarity and Electronegativity
408(2)
A Closer Look: Electronegativity
410(1)
Combining Formal Charge and Bond Polarity
411(2)
Molecular Polarity
413(6)
Historical Perspectives: Developing Concepts of Bonding and Structure
415(1)
Chemical Perspectives: Cooking with Microwaves
416(3)
Bond Properties: Order, Length, and Energy
419(5)
Bond Order
419(1)
Bond Length
419(2)
Bond Energy
421(3)
The DNA Story---Revisited
424(12)
Chapter Goals Revisited
425(2)
Key Equations
427(1)
Study Questions
427(9)
Bonding and Molecular Structure: Orbital Hybridization and Molecular Orbitals
436(38)
Linus Pauling: A Life of Chemical Thought
436(2)
Orbitals and Bonding Theories
438(1)
Valence Bond Theory
439(18)
Orbital Overlap Model of Bonding
439(2)
Hybridization of Atomic Orbitals
441(9)
Multiple Bonds
450(4)
Cis-Trans Isomerism: A Consequence of π Bonding
454(1)
Benzene: A Special Case of π Bonding
455(2)
Molecular Orbital Theory
457(17)
Principles of Molecular Orbital Theory
457(2)
Bond Order
459(1)
Molecular Orbitals of Li2 and Be2
460(1)
Molecular Orbitals from Atomic p Orbitals
461(1)
Electron Configurations for Homonuclear Molecules for Boron Through Fluorine
462(2)
A Closer Look: Molecular Orbitals for Compounds Formed from p-Block Elements
464(1)
Electron Configurations for Heteronuclear Diatomic Molecules
465(1)
Resonance and MO Theory
465(2)
Chapter Goals Revisited
467(1)
Key Equations
467(1)
Study Questions
468(6)
Carbon: More Than Just Another Element
474(72)
A Colorful Beginning
474(2)
Why Carbon?
476(5)
Structural Diversity
476(1)
Isomers
477(1)
A Closer Look: Writing Formulas and Drawing Structures
478(2)
A Closer Look: Optical Isomers and Chirality
480(1)
Stability of Carbon Compounds
480(1)
Hydrocarbons
481(15)
Alkanes
481(6)
A Closer Look: Flexible Molecules
487(1)
Alkenes and Alkynes
487(5)
Aromatic Compounds
492(3)
A Closer Look: Petroleum Chemistry
495(1)
Alcohols, Ethers, and Amines
496(6)
Alcohols and Ethers
497(2)
Properties of Alcohols and Ethers
499(1)
Amines
500(2)
Compounds with a Carbonyl Group
502(10)
Aldehydes and Ketones
503(1)
Carboxylic Acids
504(2)
A Closer Look: Glucose and Sugars
506(1)
Chemical Perspectives: Aspirin Is More Than 100 Years Old!
507(1)
Esters
507(2)
Amides
509(1)
A Closer Look: Fats and Oils
510(2)
Polymers
512(34)
Classifying Polymers
512(1)
Addition Polymers
513(4)
Condensation Polymers
517(3)
Chemical Perspectives: Super Diapers
520(1)
Chapter Goals Revisited
520(2)
Study Questions
522(8)
The Chemistry of Life: Biochemistry
530(1)
Proteins
531(1)
Amino Acids Are the Building Blocks of Proteins
531(2)
Protein Structure and Hemoglobin
533(1)
Sickle Cell Anemia
533(2)
Enzymes, Active Sites, and Lysozyme
535(2)
Nucleic Acids
537(1)
Nucleic Acid Structure
537(1)
Protein Synthesis
538(2)
The RNA World and the Origin of Life
540(1)
Metabolism
541(1)
Energy and ATP
541(1)
Chemical Perspectives: AIDS and Reverse Transcriptase
542(1)
Oxidation--Reduction and NADH
543(1)
Respiration and Photosynthesis
543(1)
Concluding Remarks
544(1)
Suggested Readings
544(1)
Study Questions
544(2)
Part 3 States of Matter
Gases and Their Properties
546(42)
Up, Up, and Away!
546(2)
The Properties of Gases
548(2)
Gas Pressure
548(2)
A Closer Look: Measuring Gas Pressure
550(1)
Gas Laws: The Experimental Basis
550(7)
The Compressibility of Gases: Boyle's Law
550(2)
The Effect of Temperature on Gas Volume: Charles's Law
552(2)
Combining Boyle's and Charles's Laws: The General Gas Law
554(2)
Avogadro's Hypothesis
556(1)
The Ideal Gas Law
557(4)
The Density of Gases
559(1)
Calculating the Molar Mass of a Gas from P, V, and T Data
560(1)
Gas Laws and Chemical Reactions
561(3)
Gas Mixtures and Partial Pressures
564(3)
Historical Perspectives: Studies on Gases
567(1)
The Kinetic-Molecular Theory of Gases
567(4)
Molecular Speed and Kinetic Energy
567(3)
Kinetic-Molecular Theory and the Gas Laws
570(1)
Diffusion and Effusion
571(2)
Some Applications of the Gas Laws and Kinetic-Molecular Theory
573(2)
Separating Isotopes
573(1)
Deep Sea Diving
574(1)
Nonideal Behavior: Real Gases
575(13)
Chemical Perspectives: The Earth's Atmosphere
577(1)
Chapter Goals Revisited
578(1)
Key Equations
579(1)
Study Questions
580(8)
Intermolecular Forces, Liquids, and Solids
588(68)
The Mystery of the Disappearing Fingerprints
588(2)
States of Matter and the Kinetic-Molecular Theory
590(1)
Intermolecular Forces
591(8)
Interactions Between Ions and Molecules with a Permanent Dipole
592(2)
Interactions Between Molecules with Permanent Dipoles
594(1)
A Closer Look: Hydrated Salts
595(1)
Interactions Involving Nonpolar Molecules
596(3)
Hydrogen Bonding
599(5)
Hydrogen Bonding and the Unusual Properties of Water
602(2)
Summary of Intermolecular Forces
604(2)
Properties of Liquids
606(10)
Vaporization
606(3)
Vapor Pressure
609(4)
Boiling Point
613(1)
Critical Temperature and Pressure
613(1)
Surface Tension, Capillary Action, and Viscosity
614(2)
The Solid State: Metals
616(6)
Crystal Lattices and Unit Cells
617(4)
A Closer Look: Packing Oranges
621(1)
The Solid State: Structures and Formulas of Ionic Solids
622(3)
Other Kinds of Solid Materials
625(2)
Molecular Solids
625(1)
Network Solids
625(1)
Amorphous Solids
626(1)
The Physical Properties of Solids
627(3)
Melting: Conversion of Solid to Liquid
627(1)
Sublimation: Conversion of Solid to Vapor
628(2)
Phase Diagrams
630(26)
Water
630(1)
Carbon Dioxide
631(2)
Chapter Goals Revisited
633(1)
Key Equation
634(1)
Study Questions
634(8)
The Chemistry of Modern Materials
642(1)
Metals
643(1)
Bonding in Metals
643(1)
Alloys: Mixtures of Metals
644(1)
Semiconductors
645(1)
Bonding in Semiconductors: The Band Gap
646(1)
Applications of Semiconductors: Diodes, LEDs, and Transistors
647(1)
Microfabrication Techniques Using Semiconductor Materials
648(1)
Ceramics
649(1)
Glass: A Disordered Ceramic
650(1)
Fired Ceramics for Special Purposes: Cements, Clays, and Refractories
651(1)
Modern Ceramics with Exceptional Properties
652(1)
Biomaterials: Learning from Nature
653(1)
The Future of Materials
654(1)
Suggested Readings
655(1)
Study Questions
655(1)
Solutions and Their Behavior
656(42)
The Killer Lakes of Cameroon
656(3)
Units of Concentration
659(3)
The Solution Process
662(7)
Liquids Dissolving in Liquids
662(1)
A Closer Look: Supersaturated Solutions
663(1)
Solids Dissolving in Water
664(2)
Heat of Solution
666(3)
Factors Affecting Solubility: Pressure and Temperature
669(3)
Dissolving Gases in Liquids: Henry's Law
669(3)
Colligative Properties
672(14)
Changes in Vapor Pressure: Raoult's Law
672(2)
Boiling Point Elevation
674(3)
Freezing Point Depression
677(1)
Colligative Properties and Molar Mass Determination
678(1)
Colligative Properties of Solutions Containing Ions
679(2)
Osmosis
681(4)
A Closer Look: Reverse Osmosis in Tampa Bay
685(1)
Colloids
686(12)
Types of Colloids
687(1)
Surfactants
688(2)
Chapter Goals Revisited
690(1)
Key Equations
691(1)
Study Questions
692(6)
Part 4 The Control of Chemical Reactions
Principles of Reactivity: Chemical Kinetics
698(58)
Faster and Faster
698(2)
Rates of Chemical Reactions
700(4)
Reaction Conditions and Rate
704(2)
Effect of Concentration on Reaction Rate
706(6)
Rate Equations
707(1)
The Order of a Reaction
707(2)
The Rate Constant, k
709(1)
Determining a Rate Equation
709(3)
Concentration---Time Relationships: Integrated Rate Laws
712(10)
First-Order Reactions
713(2)
Second-Order Reactions
715(1)
Zero-Order Reactions
716(1)
Graphical Methods for Determining Reaction Order and the Rate Constant
716(3)
Half-Life and First-Order Reactions
719(3)
A Microscopic View of Reaction Rates
722(10)
Concentration, Reaction Rate, and Collision Theory
722(1)
Temperature, Reaction Rate, and Activation Energy
723(3)
A Closer Look: Reaction Coordinate Diagrams
726(1)
Effect of Molecular Orientation on Reaction Rate
726(1)
The Arrhenius Equation
727(2)
Effect of Catalysts on Reaction Rate
729(3)
A Closer Look: Enzymes: Nature's Catalysts
732(1)
Reaction Mechanisms
732(24)
Molecularity of Elementary Steps
733(1)
Rate Equations for Elementary Steps
734(1)
Molecularity and Reaction Order
734(2)
Reaction Mechanisms and Rate Equations
736(5)
Chapter Goals Revisited
741(2)
Key Equations
743(1)
Study Questions
744(12)
Principles of Reactivity: Chemical Equilibria
756(40)
Fertilizer and Poison Gas
756(2)
The Nature of the Equilibrium State
758(2)
The Equilibrium Constant and Reaction Quotient
760(10)
Writing Equilibrium Constant Expressions
763(1)
A Closer Look: Equilibrium Constant Expressions for Gases---Kc and Kp
764(1)
The Meaning of the Equilibrium Constant, K
765(2)
The Reaction Quotient, Q
767(3)
Determining an Equilibrium Constant
770(2)
Using Equilibrium Constants in Calculations
772(5)
Calculations Where the Solution Involves a Quadratic Expression
774(3)
More About Balanced Equations and Equilibrium Constants
777(4)
Disturbing a Chemical Equilibrium
781(6)
Effect of Temperature Changes on Equilibrium Composition
781(2)
Effect of the Addition or Removal of a Reactant or Product
783(2)
Effect of Volume Changes on Gas-Phase Equilibria
785(2)
Applying the Principles of Chemical Equilibrium
787(9)
The Haber-Bosch Process
787(1)
Chapter Goals Revisited
788(1)
Key Equations
789(1)
Study Questions
789(7)
Principles of Reactivity: The Chemistry of Acids and Bases
796(52)
Nature's Acids
796(2)
Acids, Bases, and the Equilibrium Concept
798(1)
The Brønsted-Lowry Concept of Acids and Bases
799(3)
Conjugate Acid--Base Pairs
802(1)
Water and the pH Scale
802(4)
Water Autoionization and the Water Ionization Constant, Kw
803(2)
The pH Scale
805(1)
Determining and Calculating pH
806(1)
Equilibrium Constants for Acids and Bases
806(8)
Aqueous Solutions of Salts
810(2)
A Logarithmic Scale of Relative Acid Strength, pKa
812(1)
Relating the Ionization Constants for an Acid and Its Conjugate Base
813(1)
Equilibrium Constants and Acid--Base Reactions
814(2)
Predicting the Direction of Acid--Base Reactions
814(2)
Types of Acid--Base Reactions
816(2)
The Reaction of a Strong Acid with a Strong Base
816(1)
The Reaction of a Weak Acid with a Strong Base
817(1)
The Reaction of Strong Acid with a Weak Base
817(1)
The Reaction of a Weak Acid with a Weak Base
818(1)
Calculations with Equilibrium Constants
818(8)
Determining K from Initial Concentrations and Measured pH
818(2)
What Is the pH of an Aqueous Solution of a Weak Acid or Base?
820(4)
What Is the pH of a Solution After an Acid-Base Reaction?
824(2)
Polyprotic Acids and Bases
826(2)
The Lewis Concept of Acids and Bases
828(4)
Cationic Lewis Acids
829(1)
Molecular Lewis Acids
830(2)
Molecular Structure, Bonding, and Acid--Base Behavior
832(16)
Why Is HF a Weak Acid Whereas HCl Is a Strong Acid?
832(1)
Chemical Perspectives: Lewis and Brønslted Bases: Adrenaline and Serotonin
833(1)
Why Is HNO2, a Weak Acid Whereas HNO3 Is a Strong Acid?
833(2)
Why Are Carboxylic Acids Brønsted Acids?
835(1)
Why Are Hydrated Metal Cations Brønsted Acids?
836(1)
Why Are Anions Brønsted Bases?
836(1)
Why Are Organic Amines Brønsted and Lewis Bases?
836(1)
Chapter Goals Revisited
837(1)
Key Equations
838(1)
Study Questions
839(9)
Principles of Reactivity: Other Aspects of Aqueous Equilibria
848(54)
Roses Are Red, Violets Are Blue, and Hydrangeas Are Red or Blue
848(2)
The Common Ion Effect
850(4)
Controlling pH: Buffer Solutions
854(7)
General Expressions for Buffer Solutions
856(1)
Preparing Buffer Solutions
857(3)
How Does a Buffer Maintain pH?
860(1)
Acid--Base Titrations
861(12)
Current Perspectives: Buffers in Biochemistry
862(1)
Titration of a Strong Acid with a Strong Base
862(2)
Titration of a Weak Acid with a Strong Base
864(3)
Titration of Weak Polyprotic Acids
867(1)
Titration of a Weak Base with a Strong Acid
868(2)
pH Indicators
870(3)
Solubility of Salts
873(11)
The Solubility Product Constant, Ksp
873(2)
Relating Solubility and Ksp
875(2)
A Closer Look: Solubility Calculations
877(2)
Solubility and the Common Ion Effect
879(3)
The Effect of Basic Anions on Salt Solubility
882(2)
Precipitation Reactions
884(3)
Ksp and the Reaction Quotient, Q
884(1)
Ksp, the Reaction Quotient, and Precipitation Reactions
885(2)
Solubility and Complex Ions
887(3)
Solubility, Ion Separations, and Qualitative Analysis
890(12)
Chapter Goals Revisited
892(1)
Key Equations
893(1)
Study Questions
894(8)
Principles of Reactivity: Entropy and Free Energy
902(40)
Perpetual Motion Machines
902(2)
Spontaneous Change and Equilibrium
904(1)
Heat and Spontaneity
904(2)
Dispersal of Energy and Matter
906(6)
Dispersal of Energy
906(1)
Dispersal of Matter
907(2)
Applications of the Dispersal of Matter
909(2)
The Boltzmann Equation for Entropy
911(1)
A Summary: Matter and Energy Dispersal
911(1)
Entropy and the Second Law of Thermodynamics
912(5)
A Closer Look: Reversible and Irreversible Processes
914(1)
Entropy Changes in Physical and Chemical Processes
915(2)
Entropy Changes and Spontaneity
917(4)
Calculating ΔS°sys, the Entropy Change for the System
918(1)
Calculating ΔS°surr, the Entropy Change for the Surroundings
918(1)
Calculating ΔS°univ, the Total Entropy Change for the System and Surroundings
918(1)
In Summary: Spontaneous or Not?
919(2)
Gibbs Free Energy
921(7)
ΔG® and Spontaneity
922(1)
What Is ``Free'' Energy?
922(1)
Calculating ΔG®rxn, the Free Energy Change for a Reaction
923(1)
Standard Free Energy of Formation
924(1)
Free Energy and Temperature
925(3)
ΔG°, K, and Product Favorablility
928(3)
Free Energy, the Reaction Quotient, and the Equilibrium Constant
929(1)
Using the Relationship Between ΔG°rxn and K
930(1)
Thermodynamics, Time, and Life
931(11)
Chemical Perspectives: Thermodynamics and Speculation on the Origin of Life
932(1)
Chapter Goals Revisited
933(1)
Key Equations
934(1)
Study Questions
934(8)
Principles of Reactivity: Electron Transfer Reactions
942(70)
Blood Gases
942(3)
Oxidation--Reduction Reactions
945(7)
Balancing Oxidation--Reduction Equations
946(6)
Simple Voltaic Cells
952(5)
Voltaic Cells with Inert Electrodes
955(1)
Electrochemical Cell Conventions
956(1)
Chemical Perspectives: Frogs and Voltaic Piles
957(1)
Commercial Voltaic Cells
957(5)
Primary Batteries: Dry Cells and Alkaline Batteries
958(1)
Secondary or Rechargeable Batteries
959(1)
Fuel Cells
960(2)
Chemical Perspectives: Your Next Car?
962(1)
Standard Electrochemical Potentials
962(12)
Electromotive Force
963(1)
Measuring Standard Potentials
963(2)
A Closer Look: EMF, Cell Potential, and Voltage
965(1)
Standard Reduction Potentials
965(2)
Tables of Standard Reduction Potentials
967(2)
Using Tables of Standard Reduction Potentials
969(4)
Chemical Perspectives: An Electrochemical Toothache!
973(1)
Electrochemical Cells Under Nonstandard Conditions
974(4)
The Nernst Equation
975(3)
Electrochemistry and Thermodynamics
978(3)
Work and Free Energy
978(1)
E° and the Equilibrium Constant
979(2)
Historical Perspectives: Electrochemistry and Michael Faraday
981(1)
Electrolysis: Chemical Change Using Electrical Energy
981(5)
Electrolysis of Molten Salts
982(1)
Electrolysis of Aqueous Solutions
983(3)
Counting Electrons
986(26)
Chapter Goals Revisited
989(1)
Key Equations
990(1)
Study Questions
990(8)
The Chemistry of the Environment
998(1)
Water, Water, Everywhere
999(1)
Removing Suspended Particles from Water
1000(1)
Hard Water
1001(2)
Filtration
1003(1)
Disinfection of Water
1003(1)
Air: Now You See It, Now You Don't
1004(1)
Composition of the Atmosphere
1004(1)
Particulates
1004(1)
The PM Index
1005(1)
Particulates and Visibility
1005(1)
Particulate Air Pollution
1006(1)
Green Chemistry
1007(1)
DDT: Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane
1007(1)
CFCs: Chlorofluorocarbons
1008(2)
Regulating Pollutants
1010(1)
Reducing Pollutants through Green Chemistry
1010(1)
For More Information
1011(1)
Study Questions
1011(1)
Part 5 The Chemistry of the Elements
The Chemistry of the Main Group Elements
1012(56)
Sulfur Chemistry and Life on the Edge
1012(2)
Element Abundances
1014(1)
The Periodic Table: A Guide to the Elements
1015(4)
Valence Electrons
1015(1)
Ionic Compounds of Main Group Elements
1015(2)
Molecular Compounds of Main Group Elements
1017(2)
Hydrogen
1019(3)
Chemical and Physical Properties of Hydrogen
1019(1)
A Closer Look: Hydrogen, Helium, and Balloons
1020(1)
Preparation of Hydrogen
1021(1)
The Alkali Metals, Group 1A
1022(5)
Preparation of Sodium and Potassium
1023(1)
Properties of Sodium and Potassium
1024(1)
A Closer Look: The Reducing Ability of the Alkali Metals
1025(1)
Important Lithium, Sodium, and Potassium Compounds
1025(2)
The Alkaline Earth Elements, Group 2A
1027(5)
Properties of Calcium and Magnesium
1028(1)
Metallurgy of Magnesium
1028(1)
Calcium Minerals and Their Applications
1029(1)
Chemical Perspectives: Alkaline Earth Metals and Biology
1030(1)
Chemical Perspectives: Of Romans, Limestone, and Champagne
1031(1)
Boron, Aluminum, and the Group 3A Elements
1032(6)
The General Chemistry of the Group 3A Elements
1032(1)
Boron Minerals and Production of the Element
1032(1)
Metallic Aluminum and Its Production
1033(1)
Boron Compounds
1034(3)
Aluminum Compounds
1037(1)
Silicon and the Group 4A Elements
1038(5)
Silicon
1038(1)
Silicon Dioxide
1039(1)
Silicate Minerals with Chain and Ribbon Structures
1040(1)
Silicates with Sheet Structures and Aluminosilicates
1041(1)
Silicone Polymers
1042(1)
Chemical Perspectives: Lead Pollution, Old and New
1043(1)
Nitrogen, Phosphorus, and the Group 5A Elements
1043(9)
Properties of Nitrogen and Phosphorus
1044(1)
A Closer Look: Making Phosphorus
1045(1)
Nitrogen Compounds
1045(3)
Hydrogen Compounds of Phosphorus and Other Group 5A Elements
1048(1)
Phosphorus Oxides and Sulfides
1048(2)
Phosphorus Oxoacids and Their Salts
1050(2)
Oxygen, Sulfur, and the Group 6A Elements
1052(3)
Preparation and Properties of the Elements
1052(2)
Sulfur Compounds
1054(1)
The Halogens, Group 7A
1055(13)
Preparation of the Elements
1055(3)
Fluorine Compounds
1058(1)
Chlorine Compounds
1059(2)
Chapter Goals Revisited
1061(1)
Study Questions
1061(7)
The Chemistry of the Transition Elements
1068(40)
Memory Metal
1068(2)
Properties of the Transition Elements
1070(6)
Electron Configurations
1072(1)
Oxidation and Reduction
1072(2)
Chemical Perspectives: Corrosion of Iron
1074(1)
Periodic Trends in the d-Block: Size, Density, Melting Point
1075(1)
Metallurgy
1076(4)
Pyrometallurgy: Iron Production
1077(2)
Hydrometallurgy: Copper Production
1079(1)
Coordination Compounds
1080(7)
Complexes and Ligands
1080(3)
Formulas of Coordination Compounds
1083(1)
A Closer Look: Hemoglobin
1084(2)
Naming Coordination Compounds
1086(1)
Structures of Coordination Compounds
1087(5)
Common Coordination Geometries
1087(1)
Isomerism
1088(4)
Bonding in Coordination Compounds
1092(5)
The d Orbitals: Ligand Field Theory
1092(2)
Electron Configurations and Magnetic Properties
1094(3)
Colors of Coordination Compounds
1097(11)
Color
1097(1)
The Spectrochemical Series
1098(2)
A Closer Look: A Spectrophotometer
1100(2)
Chapter Goals Revisited
1102(1)
Study Questions
1103(5)
Nuclear Chemistry
1108
Nuclear Medicine
1108(2)
Natural Radioactivity
1110(1)
Nuclear Reactions and Radioactive Decay
1111(5)
Equations for Nuclear Reactions
1111(2)
Radioactive Decay Series
1113(2)
Other Types of Radioactive Decay
1115(1)
Stability of Atomic Nuclei
1116(6)
The Band of Stability and Radioactive Decay
1117(2)
Nuclear Binding Energy
1119(3)
Rates of Nuclear Decay
1122(5)
Half-Life
1122(1)
Kinetics of Nuclear Decay
1123(2)
Radiocarbon Dating
1125(2)
Artificial Nuclear Reactions
1127(3)
A Closer Look: The Search for New Elements
1129(1)
Nuclear Fission
1130(2)
Nuclear Fusion
1132(1)
Radiation Health and Safety
1132(3)
Units for Measuring Radiation
1132(1)
Radiation: Doses and Effects
1133(1)
A Closer Look: What Is a Safe Exposure?
1134(1)
Applications of Nuclear Chemistry
1135
Nuclear Medicine: Medical Imaging
1135(1)
Nuclear Medicine: Radiation Therapy
1136(1)
Analytical Methods: The Use of Radioactive Isotopes as Tracers
1136(1)
A Closer Look: Technetium-99m
1137(1)
Analytical Methods: Isotope Dilution
1137(1)
Space Science: Neutron Activation Analysis and the Moon Rocks
1138(1)
Food Science: Food Irradiation
1138(1)
Chapter Goals Revisited
1139(1)
Key Equations
1140(1)
Study Questions
1141
Appendices
1(1)
A Using Logarithms and the Quadratic Equation
2(5)
B Some Important Physical Concepts
7(3)
C Abbreviations and Useful Conversion Factors
10(4)
D Physical Constants
14(2)
E Naming Organic Compounds
16(3)
F Values for the Ionization Energies and Electron Affinities of the Elements
19(1)
G Vapor Pressure of Water at Various Temperatures
20(1)
H Ionization Constants for Weak Acids at 25 °C
21(2)
I Ionization Constants for Weak Bases at 25 °C
23(1)
J Solubility Product Constants for Some Inorganic Compounds at 25 °C
24(2)
K Formation Constants for Some Complex Ions in Aqueous Solution
26(1)
L Selected Thermodynamic Values
27(6)
M Standard Reduction Potentials in Aqueous Solution at 25 °C
33(3)
N Answers to Exercises
36(1)
O Answers to Selected Study Questions
36(71)
P Answers to Selected Interchapter Study Questions
107
Glossary/Index 1


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