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Chemistry in Context : Applying Chemistry to Society,9780073101590

Chemistry in Context : Applying Chemistry to Society

by
Edition:
5th
ISBN13:

9780073101590

ISBN10:
0073101591
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
2/8/2005
Publisher(s):
McGraw-Hill Science/Engineering/Math
List Price: $156.60

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Summary

Following in the tradition of the first four editions, the goal of this market leading textbook, Chemistry in Context, fifth edition, is to establish chemical principles on a need-to-know basis within a contextual framework of significant social, political, economic and ethical issues. The non traditional approach of Chemistry in Context reflect today's technological issues and the chemistry principles imbedded within them. Global warming, alternate fuels, nutrition, and genetic engineering are examples of issues that are covered in CIC.

Table of Contents

Preface xi
Why the Spiderweb?
2(6)
The Air We Breathe
8(52)
Everyday Breathing
10(2)
What's in a Breath? The Composition of Air
12(3)
What Else Is in a Breath?
15(3)
Taking and Assessing Risks
18(4)
The Atmosphere: Our Blanket of Air
22(3)
Classifying Matter: Mixtures. Elements, and Compounds
25(3)
Atoms and Molecules
28(3)
Formulas and Names: The Vocabulary of Chemistry
31(2)
Chemical Change: Oxygen's Role in Burning
33(3)
Fire and Fuel: Air Quality and Burning Hydrocarbons
36(2)
Air Pollutants: Direct Sources
38(5)
Ozone: A Secondary Pollutant
43(3)
The Inside Story of Air Quality
46(4)
Back to the Breath---at the Molecular Level
50(10)
Conclusion
53(1)
Chapter Summary
54(1)
Questions
54(6)
Protecting the Ozone Layer
60(54)
Ozone: What and Where Is It?
62(2)
Atomic Structure and Periodicity
64(4)
Molecules and Models
68(5)
Waves of Light
73(4)
Radiation and Matter
77(2)
The Oxygen/Ozone Screen
79(3)
Biological Effects of Ultraviolet Radiation
82(6)
Stratospheric Ozone Destruction---A Global Phenomenon
88(4)
Chlorofluorocarbons: Properties, Uses, and Interactions with Ozone
92(4)
The Antarctic Ozone Hole: A Closer Look
96(3)
Responses to a Global Concern
99(4)
Looking to the Future
103(11)
Conclusion
108(1)
Chapter Summary
109(1)
Questions
109(5)
The Chemistry of Global Warming
114(56)
In the Greenhouse: Earth's Energy Balance
116(3)
Gathering Evidence: The Testimony of Time
119(5)
Molecules: How They Shape Up
124(6)
Vibrating Molecules and the Greenhouse Effect
130(3)
The Carbon Cycle: Contributions from Nature and Humans
133(5)
Quantitative Concepts: Mass
138(2)
Quantitative Concepts: Molecules and Moles
140(4)
Methane and Other Greenhouse Gases
144(2)
Gathering Evidence: Projecting into the Future
146(8)
Responding to Science with Policy Changes
154(3)
The Kyoto Protocol on Climate Change
157(4)
Global Warming and Ozone Depletion
161(9)
Conclusion
162(1)
Chapter Summary
163(1)
Questions
164(6)
Energy, Chemistry, and Society
170(48)
Energy, Work, and Heat
172(2)
Energy Transformation
174(4)
From Fuel Sources to Chemical Bonds
178(3)
Energy Changes at the Molecular Level
181(4)
Energy as a Barrier to Reaction
185(2)
Energy Consumption
187(3)
Coal
190(2)
Petroleum
192(5)
Manipulating Molecules to Make Gasoline
197(2)
Newer Fuels and Other Sources
199(7)
The Case for Conservation
206(12)
Conclusion
213(1)
Chapter Summary
213(1)
Questions
213(5)
The Water We Drink
218(48)
Water from the Tap or Bottle
220(2)
Where Does Drinking Water Come From?
222(2)
Water as a Solvent
224(2)
Solute Concentration in Aqueous Solutions
226(2)
Water's Molecular Structure and Physical Properties
228(2)
The Role of Hydrogen Bonding
230(3)
Water as a Solvent: A Closer Look
233(5)
Water Solutions of Ionic Compounds
238(3)
Covalent Compounds and Their Solutions
241(2)
Protecting Our Drinking Water: Federal Legislation
243(2)
Treatment of Municipal Drinking Water
245(2)
Effects of Dissolved Materials on Water Quality
247(9)
How Hard Is Your Water?
247(3)
Is There Lead in Your Drinking Water?
250(4)
Are There Trihalomethanes in Your Drinking Water?
254(2)
Consumer Choices: Tap Water, Bottled Water, and Filtered Water
256(2)
International Needs for Safe Drinking Water
258(8)
Conclusion
261(1)
Chapter Summary
261(1)
Questions
262(4)
Neutralizing the Threat of Acid Rain
266(42)
What Is a Acid?
268(2)
What Is a Base?
270(1)
Neutralization: Bases Are Antacids
271(2)
Introducing pH
273(2)
Measuring the pH of Rain
275(2)
In Search of the Extra Acidity
277(2)
Sulfur Dioxide and the Combustion of Coal
279(1)
Nitrogen Oxides and the Acidification of Los Angeles
280(2)
SO2 and NOx---How Do They Stack Up?
282(3)
Acid Deposition and Its Effects on Materials
285(4)
Acid Deposition, Haze, and Human Health
289(3)
NOx---The Double Whammy
292(3)
Damage to Lakes and Streams
295(2)
Control Strategies
297(3)
The Politics of Acid Rain
300(8)
Conclusion
303(1)
Chapter Summary
303(1)
Questions
304(4)
The Fires of Nuclear Fission
308(48)
A Comeback for Nuclear Energy?
310(2)
How Does Fission Produce Energy?
312(5)
How Does a Nuclear Reactor Produce Electricity?
317(3)
Could There Be Another Chernobyl? Safeguards Against a Meltdown
320(4)
Can a Nuclear Power Plant Undergo a Nuclear Explosion?
324(2)
Could Nuclear Fuel Be Diverted to Make Weapons?
326(1)
What Is Radioactivity?
327(3)
What Hazards Are Associated with Radioactivity?
330(5)
How Long Will Nuclear Waste Products Remain Radioactive?
335(3)
How Will We Dispose of Waste from Nuclear Plants?
338(6)
What Is Low-Level Radioactive Waste?
344(1)
Nuclear Power Worldwide
345(2)
Living with Nuclear Power: What Are the Risks and Benefits?
347(2)
What Is the Future for Nuclear Power?
349(7)
Conclusion
351(1)
Chapter Summary
351(1)
Questions
351(5)
Energy from Electron Transfer
356(40)
Electrons, Cells, and Batteries: The Basics
357(3)
Some Common Batteries
360(3)
Lead-Acid (Storage) Batteries
363(1)
Fuel Cells: The Basics
364(4)
Fuel Cells: Large and Small
368(1)
Alternative Energy Sources for Transportation
369(5)
Hybrid Vehicles
374(2)
Splitting Water: Fact or Fantasy?
376(3)
The Hydrogen Economy
379(2)
Photovoltaics: Plugging in the Sun
381(15)
Conclusion
390(1)
Chapter Summary
390(1)
Questions
391(5)
The World of Plastics and Polymers
396(34)
Polymers: The Long, Long Chain
398(2)
The ``Big Six'': Theme and Variations
400(4)
Addition Polymerization: Adding Up the Monomers
404(3)
Polyethylene: A Closer Look at the Most Common Plastic
407(4)
Condensation Polymers: Bonding by Elimination
411(2)
Polyamides: Natural and Nylon
413(2)
Plastics: Where From and Where To?
415(4)
Recycling of Plastics
419(11)
Conclusion
424(1)
Chapter Summary
424(1)
Questions
425(5)
Manipulating Molecules and Designing Drugs
430(54)
A Classic Wonder Drug
432(2)
The Study of Carbon--Containing Molecules
434(4)
Functional Groups
438(4)
How Aspirin Works: Relating Molecular Structure to Activity
442(3)
Modern Drug Design
445(4)
Left- and Right-Handed Molecules
449(3)
Steroids: Cholesterol, Sex Hormones, and More
452(2)
``The Pill''
454(3)
Emergency Contraception and the ``Abortion Pill''
457(2)
Anabolic Steroids and Designer Steroids
459(1)
Drug Testing and Approval
460(5)
Brand Name or Generic Prescriptions
465(1)
Over-the-Counter Drugs
466(2)
Herbal Medicine
468(4)
Drugs of Abuse
472(12)
Drug Schedules
473(1)
Marijuana
473(2)
MDMA (Ecstasy)
475(1)
OxyContin---Hillbilly Heroin?
476(1)
Conclusion
477(1)
Chapter Summary
478(1)
Questions
479(5)
Nutrition: Food for Thought
484(44)
You Are What You Eat
485(6)
Carbohydrates---Sweet and Starchy
491(3)
Fats and Oils: Part of the Lipid Family
494(2)
Saturated and Unsaturated Fats and Oils
496(3)
Controversial Cholesterol
499(4)
Proteins: First Among Equals
503(2)
Good Nutrition and Alternative Diets: Getting Enough Protein
505(3)
Vitamins: The Other Essentials
508(1)
Minerals: Macro and Micro
509(2)
Energy from the Metabolism of Food
511(4)
Quality versus Quantity: Diet Fads
515(3)
Feeding a Hungry World
518(2)
Food Preservation
520(8)
Conclusion
522(1)
Chapter Summary
523(1)
Questions
523(5)
Genetic Engineering and the Chemistry of Heredity
528(41)
The Chemistry of Heredity
529(5)
The Double Helix of DNA
534(3)
Cracking the Chemical Code
537(4)
Protein Structure and Synthesis
541(2)
The Human Genome Project
543(2)
Recombinant DNA
545(2)
Engineering New Drugs and Vaccines
547(1)
Diagnosis Through DNA
548(3)
Genetic Fingerprinting
551(3)
Mixing Genes from Several Species: Improving on Nature?
554(5)
Cloning Mammals and Humans
559(2)
The New Prometheus(?)
561(8)
Conclusion
563(1)
Chapter Summary
563(1)
Questions
564(5)
Appendix 1 Measure for Measure: Conversion Factors and Constants 569(1)
Appendix 2 The Power of Exponents 570(1)
Appendix 3 Clearing the Logjam 571(2)
Appendix 4 Answers to Your Turn Questions Not Answered in Text 573(9)
Appendix 5 Answers to Selected End-of-Chapter Questions Indicated in Color in the Text 582(13)
Glossary 595(8)
Credits 603(2)
Index 605


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