9780444503510

The Chemistry and Technology of Furfural and Its Many By-Products

by
  • ISBN13:

    9780444503510

  • ISBN10:

    044450351X

  • Edition: 1st
  • Format: Hardcover
  • Copyright: 2000-02-09
  • Publisher: Elsevier Science
  • Purchase Benefits
  • Free Shipping On Orders Over $35!
    Your order must be $35 or more to qualify for free economy shipping. Bulk sales, PO's, Marketplace items, eBooks and apparel do not qualify for this offer.
  • Get Rewarded for Ordering Your Textbooks! Enroll Now
List Price: $305.00 Save up to $7.62
  • Buy New
    $297.38
    Add to Cart Free Shipping

    PRINT ON DEMAND: 2-4 WEEKS. THIS ITEM CANNOT BE CANCELLED OR RETURNED.

Supplemental Materials

What is included with this book?

  • The New copy of this book will include any supplemental materials advertised. Please check the title of the book to determine if it should include any access cards, study guides, lab manuals, CDs, etc.
  • The eBook copy of this book is not guaranteed to include any supplemental materials. Typically, only the book itself is included. This is true even if the title states it includes any access cards, study guides, lab manuals, CDs, etc.

Summary

This book is a world first, since the furfural industry has been traditionally secretive to the point of appearing shrouded in clouds of mystery. Even renowned encyclopedic works have published but scant and often erroneous information on the subject.Striking a healthy balance between theory and practice, the book leads the reader from reaction mechanisms and kinetics to the technology of making furfural by various old and new processes, using conventional raw materials or sulfite waste liquor. Detailed discussions of means of increasing the yield are of great chemical and technological interest as well as of immense economic importance.From furfural proper, the treatise shifts to the fascinating field of wanted and unwanted by-products ranging from largely unutilized carboxylic acids to troublesome impurities such as 5-methyl furfural and 2-furyl methyl ketone, and then to extremely valuable serendipitous flavor compounds such as diacetyl and 2,3-pentanedione. A wide variety of derivatives are discussed; considerable space is devoted to polytetrahydrofuran, an important building block of stretchable synthetic fibers, while furan resins from both furfural and furfuryl alcohol are given the attention commensurate with their industrial importance.Notable supplementary chapters cover the in-line measurement of furfural, the treatment of furfural waste water, and various aspects of corrosion. A chapter on the applications of furfural elaborates not only traditional uses in extracting petroleum and vegetable oils but also the sensational discovery that furfural is a highly effective indirect nematocide. Without becoming toxic, it changes the microflora of the soil by stimulating bacteria antagonistic to nematodes, thereby reducing the nematode population to zero, at an unprecedented low price. It is believed that this application will be the principal outlet for furfural in the future.A comprehensive list of physical properties, some never published before, make the book an indispensable companion for producers, users and researchers alike.

Table of Contents

Introduction
1(2)
Reference
2(1)
The Reactions Leading to Furfural
3(5)
Stoichiometry
3(1)
Mechanism
3(5)
References
7(1)
Acid Catalysis
8(6)
The Temperature Dependence of Acidity
8(3)
The Proton Transfer Concept
11(3)
References
13(1)
The Kinetics of Pentose Formation from Pentosan
14(1)
Reference
14(1)
The Kinetics of Xylose Disappearance
15(4)
References
18(1)
Furfural Loss Reactions
19(4)
Furfural Resinification
19(1)
Furfural Condensation
20(2)
General Loss Appraisal
22(1)
Additional Loss Reactions in Sulfite Liquor
22(1)
References
22(1)
The ``Paradox'' of Furfural Yields
23(5)
References
27(1)
The Discoloration of Furfural
28(6)
References
33(1)
Raw Materials
34(2)
References
35(1)
Furfural Processes
36(39)
The Batch Process of Quaker Oats
36(3)
The Batch Process Used in China
39(2)
The Batch Process of Agrifurane
41(2)
The Continous Process of Quaker Oats
43(3)
The Continous Process of Escher Wyss
46(2)
The Continous Process of Rosenlew
48(3)
Processes of the Future
51(10)
The Supratherm Process
52(3)
The Stake Process
55(3)
The Suprayield Processes
58(3)
Processes Starting with Sulfite Waste Liquor
61(14)
Pentose and Furfural in the Sulfite Process
63(5)
The Voest-Alpine Process
68(1)
The Reactive Desorption Process
68(3)
The Enforced Ebullition Process
71(2)
References
73(2)
Distillation of Furfural
75(11)
References
85(1)
In-Line Measurement of Furfural
86(6)
The Continuous Sampling Unit
86(2)
The Process Spectrometer
88(4)
Treatment of Furfural Waste Water
92(6)
Reference
97(1)
Applications of Furfural
98(6)
Furfural as an Extractant
98(1)
Furfural as a Fungicide
99(1)
Furfural as a Nematocide
99(5)
References
103(1)
Carboxylic Acids
104(16)
Origin of the Carboxylic Acids
104(1)
Recovery by Extraction
105(5)
Recovery by Freezing
110(1)
Recovery by Extractive Condensation
111(3)
Recovery by Multieffect Azeotropic Distillation
114(1)
Recovery by Recirculation
115(5)
References
119(1)
Diacetyl and 2,3-Pentanedione
120(30)
The Formation of Diacetyl
121(4)
Analogy to Charcoal Reactors
125(1)
Production of Diacetyl in ``Free Radical Reactors''
125(1)
Modification of Furfural Batch Reactors to Make Diacetyl
125(3)
The Formation of 2,3-Pentanedione
128(1)
Recovery Techniques
129(21)
Extractive Distillation
129(5)
Cryogenic Crystallization
134(4)
Polyazeotropic Distillation
138(5)
Final Distillation
143(5)
References
148(2)
Furfuryl Alcohol
150(6)
The Vapor Phase Process
150(2)
The Liquid Phase Process
152(2)
Comparison of Different Catalysts
154(2)
Reference
155(1)
Furah
156(3)
References
158(1)
Furoic Acid
159(5)
References
163(1)
Difurfural (5,5'-Diformyl-2,2'-Difuran)
164(6)
References
169(1)
2-Hydroxyfuranone-5
170(2)
Reference
171(1)
Acetoin
172(9)
Catalytic Hydrogenation of Diacetyl
175(3)
Electrolytic Hydrogenation of Diacetyl
178(1)
Preferred Commercial Form
178(3)
References
180(1)
Pyrazines
181(3)
Reference
181(3)
Tetrahydrofuran
184(2)
Reference
185(1)
Polytetrahydrofuran
186(19)
Ring Opening and Addition of Opened Rings
187(1)
Effect of Acetic Anhydride
188(3)
Polymerization with Siliceous Earth
191(3)
Polymerization with Fluosulfonic Acid
194(3)
Polymerization with Antimony Pentachloride
197(1)
Discussion of the Initiators
198(4)
Quality of the THF Input
202(1)
Applications
203(2)
References
204(1)
Xylose
205(5)
Xylose from Agricultural Raw Materials
205(1)
Xylose from Sulfite Waste Liquor
206(4)
References
209(1)
Furan Dialdehyde
210(4)
Reference
213(1)
Furan Resins
214(9)
Furan Resins from Furfural
214(5)
Furan Resins from Furfuryl Alcohol
219(2)
Description of a Resin Plant
221(2)
References
221(2)
Tetrahydrofurfuryl Alcohol
223(1)
References
223(1)
Dihydropyran
224(1)
References
224(1)
Maleic Acid
225(4)
References
228(1)
Methylfuran
229(2)
Reference
230(1)
Pyrolysis of Furfural
231(2)
Reference
232(1)
APPENDICES 233(101)
A. Properties of Furfural
234(6)
B. Properties of Furfuryl Alcohol
240(1)
C. Properties of Furan
241(1)
D. Properties of Tetrahydrofuran
242(1)
E. Properties of Diacetyl
242(2)
F. Properties of 2,3-Pentanedione
244(1)
G. Properties of Acetoin
245(1)
H. Properties of Acetic Acid
246(1)
I. Properties of Formic Acid
247(1)
J. Properties of Difurfural (5,5'-diformyl-2,2'-difuran)
248(1)
K. Properties of Xylose
249(1)
L. Properties of Tetrahydrofurfuryl Alcohol
250(1)
M. Properties of Dihydropyran
251(1)
N. Properties of Furoic Acid
252(1)
O. Properties of Methylfuran
253(1)
P. Properties of 5-Methyl Furfural
254(1)
Q. Properties of 2-Furyl Methyl Ketone
255(1)
R. Properties of Furan Dialdehyde
256(1)
S. Explosion Limits in Air at 760 mm Hg and 20°c
257(1)
T. Spectroscopic Polarity
258(4)
U. Pentosan Determination
262(3)
References
264(1)
V. Methyl Pentosan Determination
265(2)
Reference
266(1)
a. The Entropy Effect in Furfural Loss Reactions
267(4)
References
268(3)
b. The ``Temperature Compensation'' of Acidity
271(2)
c. The Corrosion Debacle in Extracting Furfural with Chloroform
273(4)
Reference
276(1)
d. Corrosion in the Extractive Distillation of Diacetyl
277(4)
References
279(2)
e. Corrosion in the Extraction of Acetic Acid and Formic Acid
281(2)
f. Neutralization of Raw Furfural
283(5)
Reference
286(2)
g. Distillation Measures against the Acidity of Raw Furfural
288(8)
h. Flashing of Residues
296(4)
i. Operational Details of the Quaker Oats Batch Process
300(3)
Reference
302(1)
j. Operational Details of the Rosenlew Process
303(2)
k. Operational Details of a Rosenlew Distillation
305(2)
l. Acidity Conversion Chart
307(2)
m. Extraction of Vegetable Oils with Furfural
309(5)
Reference
313(1)
n. Furoyl Chloride
314(3)
Reference
316(1)
o. Furfural as a Solvent
317(2)
Reference
318(1)
p. The Resinification Loss in Furfural Reactors
319(4)
q. The Condensation Loss in Furfural Reactors
323(4)
Reference
326(1)
r. Odd Applications
327(7)
References
333(1)
Epilogue 334(1)
Subject Index 335

Rewards Program

Write a Review