9780131736887

Cognition : The Thinking Animal

by
  • ISBN13:

    9780131736887

  • ISBN10:

    0131736884

  • Edition: 3rd
  • Format: Hardcover
  • Copyright: 3/22/2006
  • Publisher: Pearson

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Summary

This unique book helps readers understandwhycognitive psychologists approach problems as they do. It explains the questions cognitive psychologists ask, gives clear answers, and provides interesting, lively and comprehensive coverage of controversies in the field.This book is a study of cognition: of how humans think. Topics covered include visual perception, attention, sensory and primary memory, memory encoding, memory retrieval, memory storage, motor control, visual imagery, decision making and deductive reasoning, problem solving, and language.For readers that are interested in understanding the mysteries of cognition, including psychiatrists, psychologists, psychoanalysts, and those in the field of cognitive neuroscience.

Table of Contents

Preface xiii
Cognitive Psychologists' Approach to Research
1(36)
Why Make Assumptions?
3(3)
How Did Philosophers and Early Psychologists Study the Mind?
6(16)
Philosophical Underpinnings
6(7)
The Beginnings of Modern Psychology
13(3)
The Response: Behaviorism
16(2)
Behaviorism's Success
18(4)
How Do Cognitive Psychologists Study the Mind?
22(15)
What Behaviorism Couldn't Do
22(2)
Failures of Behaviorism to Account for Human Behavior
24(2)
The Computer Metaphor and Information Processing
26(2)
The Behaviorist Response
28(1)
Abstract Constructs in Other Fields
29(4)
So What, Finally, is the Cognitive Perspective?
33(4)
Methods of Cognitive Psychology
37(30)
Can We Use Behavioral Data to Test Cognitive Theories?
38(11)
Testing Cognitive Theories
40(3)
Descriptive Research
43(1)
Relational Research
44(1)
Experimental Research
45(4)
Can We Use Neuroscientific Data to Test Cognitive Theories?
49(12)
Where is the Damage?
50(2)
Where is the Activation?
52(5)
The Behavioral Side of the Equation
57(1)
Problems and Limitations of Localization Studies
58(1)
Do We Really Need Cognitive Psychology?
59(2)
The Five-Minute Brain Anatomy Lesson
61(6)
Cerebral Cortex
62(2)
The Rest of the Brain
64(3)
Visual Perception
67(40)
What Makes Visual Perception Hard?
69(3)
How Are Visual Ambiguities Resolved?
72(16)
Shape
73(2)
Brightness
75(2)
Distance and Size
77(4)
Top-Down Influences in Vision
81(2)
An Alternative: The Ecological Approach
83(5)
What is Visual Perception For?
88(19)
Identifying Objects
89(10)
Navigation
99(8)
Attention
107(36)
In What Way is Attention Limited?
109(11)
Parallel Performance
110(2)
Consistent Attention Requirements
112(3)
Allocation of Attention
115(1)
Reduction in Attention Demands with Practice: Automaticity
116(4)
What is the Fate of Sensory Stimuli That Are Not Selected to Receive Attention?
120(13)
Early Filter Theories
122(2)
Late Filter Theories
124(2)
The Movable Filter Model
126(2)
What is Selected?
128(3)
How Does Selection Operate?
131(2)
Why Does Selection Fail?
133(10)
Properties of Attention That Cause Selection Failures
133(4)
Interaction of Attention with Other Components of Cognition
137(6)
Sensory Memory and Primary Memory
143(29)
What is Sensory Memory?
145(7)
Early Span of Apprehension Studies
145(2)
Sperling's Partial Report Procedure
147(2)
Characteristics of Iconic Memory
149(2)
Echoic Memory
151(1)
What Are the Characteristics of Primary Memory?
152(10)
Impetus to Study Primary Memory
152(2)
How Forgetting Occurs
154(1)
Representation
155(4)
Capacity
159(3)
How Does Primary Work?
162(10)
Models of Primary Memory
163(1)
Working Memory
164(4)
Neural Basis of Working Memory
168(1)
Working Memory as a Workspace
169(3)
Memory Encoding
172(29)
What Determines What We Encode in Memory?
174(17)
Factors That Help Memory: Depth and Emotion
174(10)
Factors That Don't Help Memory: Intention to Learn and Repetition
184(3)
Match Between Encoding and Retrieval: Transfer Appropriate Processing
187(4)
Why Do We Encode Information As We Do?
191(10)
Prior Knowledge Reduces What We Must Remember
192(2)
Prior Knowledge Guides the Interpretation of Details
194(2)
Prior Knowledge Makes Unusual Things Stand Out
196(5)
Memory Retrieval
201(32)
Why is Memory Retrieval Unreliable?
202(16)
Measures of Memory
203(1)
Differences in Cues
204(2)
Encoding and Retrieval Redux
206(1)
Retrieval Cues and Memory Test Sensitivity
207(1)
Retrieval Cues and the Physical Environment
208(1)
Retrieval and Prior Knowledge
209(4)
False Memory
213(5)
Why Do We Forget?
218(15)
Occlusion
219(1)
Unlearning
220(1)
Decay
221(1)
Changes to Target Memories
222(3)
Repression
225(1)
The Permanence of Memory
226(7)
Memory Storage
233(38)
What is in the Storehouse?
234(12)
The Classical View of Categorization
235(3)
The Probabilistic View of Categorization
238(5)
The Multiple Systems View of Categorization
243(3)
How is Memory Organized?
246(14)
Addressing Systems
247(1)
Content-Addressable Storage
247(1)
Hierarchical Theory
247(3)
Spreading Activation Theories
250(2)
Spreading Activation Models: An Example
252(4)
Distributed Representation (Parallel Distributed Processing)
256(4)
What Else is in Memory?
260(11)
What Are Separate Memory Systems?
261(2)
Five Separate Memory Systems
263(5)
Cognitive Differences Among Memory Systems
268(3)
Visual Imagery
271(31)
What Purpose Does Visual Imagery Serve?
273(6)
Imagery in Early Psychology
274(1)
Imagery Reenters Psychology
274(2)
Imagery and Perception
276(3)
Are Visual Images Supported by a Separate Representation System?
279(9)
Propositional Versus Analog Representation
279(6)
The Metaphor is Misleading
285(1)
Demand Characteristics and Tacit Knowledge
285(1)
The Brain and the End of the Imagery Debate
286(2)
How Does Visual Imagery Work?
288(14)
Image Generation
288(4)
Image Maintenance
292(1)
Image Inspection
293(2)
Image Transformation
295(7)
Motor Control
302(33)
How Do We Select a Movement?
304(8)
Efficiency Theories
305(1)
Synergy Theories
306(3)
The Mass Spring Model
309(3)
How Are Movements Sequenced?
312(7)
Motor Program Theories
313(1)
Heirarchical Control in Motor Programs
314(3)
Sequencing in the Brain
317(2)
How is Perceptual Information Integrated Into Ongoing Movements?
319(6)
Vision
319(2)
Proprioception
321(4)
How Are Motor Skills Learned?
325(10)
Three Properties of Motor Skill Learning
325(3)
Two Approaches to Motor Skill Learning
328(7)
Decision Making and Deductive Reasoning
335(37)
Do People Consistently Make Optimal Decisions?
337(7)
Normative or Rational Models
337(2)
Demonstrations of Human Irrationality
339(5)
What Shortcuts Do People Use to Make Decisions?
344(10)
Representativeness
344(2)
Availability
346(1)
Anchoring and Adjustment
347(1)
Information We Ignore
347(4)
Probabilities Versus Frequencies
351(3)
Do People Reason Logically?
354(18)
Formal Logic
354(4)
Human Success and Failure in Reasoning: Conditional Statements
358(4)
Human Success and Failure in Reasoning: Syllogisms
362(3)
General Models of Reasoning
365(7)
Problem Solving
372(38)
How Do People Solve Novel Problems?
374(7)
Problem Spaces
374(2)
Selecting Operators
376(5)
How Do People Apply Experience to New Problems?
381(15)
Background Knowledge
382(1)
Analogy
383(5)
Functional Fixedness
388(8)
What Makes People Good at Solving Problems?
396(14)
How Do Experts Differ from Novices?
397(3)
How Do People Become Experts?
400(4)
What Makes Nonexperts Good at Solving Problems?
404(6)
Language Structure
410(31)
What is Language?
411(11)
The Definition of Language
411(1)
Levels of Language
412(4)
Grammar
416(6)
Is Language Special?
422(19)
Is Language Developmentally Special?
423(5)
Is Language Particularly Human?
428(5)
Is Language Cognitively Special?
433(8)
Language Processing
441(30)
What Makes Language Processing Difficult?
443(5)
Phonemes
443(1)
Words
444(2)
Sentences
446(1)
Texts
447(1)
How are Ambiguities Resolved?
448(23)
Phonemes
449(3)
Words
452(7)
Sentences
459(4)
Texts
463(8)
Afterward 471(3)
Appendix 474(10)
Answers 484(22)
Glossary 506(17)
References 523(36)
Credits 559(2)
Author Index 561(12)
Subject Index 573

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