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Cognitive Psychology, 4th Edition,9780471458203
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Cognitive Psychology, 4th Edition

by ; ;
Edition:
4th
ISBN13:

9780471458203

ISBN10:
0471458201
Format:
Hardcover
Pub. Date:
4/1/2004
Publisher(s):
WILEY
List Price: $205.90

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Summary

This coherent overview of cognitive psychology is organized in terms of themes that cut across topic areas. Written by well-known researchers, the book is completely current in describing ongoing controversies in research; it provides summaries of key experiments that distinguish between them; and it encourages the reader to think critically about current research and theories. The focus on the importance of physical and computational constraints on cognition is preserved throughout the book.

Author Biography

Douglas Medin (Ph.D., University of South Dakota) taught at the Rockefeller University, University of Illinois, and the University of Michigan before assuming his current position as CAS Visiting Committee Research and Teaching Professor at Northwestern University. Best known for his research on concepts and categorization, his recent research interests have extended to decision making, cross-cultural studies of reasoning and categorization, and cognitive dimensions of resource use. He teaches courses in cognitive psychology, psychology of thinking and reasoning, decision making, and culture and cognition. He is the editor of the journal Cognitive Psychology and is a past editor of the Academic Press series, Psychology of Learning and Motivation.

Brian Ross received his Sc.B. in Psychology from Brown University and his M.A. from Yale University before receiving his Ph.D. from Stanford University. He teaches at the University of Illinois, where he is Professor of Psychology and also in the Beckman Institute. He teaches courses in cognitive psychology, the psychology of thinking, introductory statistics, problem solving, and mathematical models of memory. His research has examined issues in categorization, problem solving, learning and memory. He is series editor for The psychology of learning and motivation, as well as associate editor of the journal Psychonomic Bulletin & Review.

Arthur Markman received his M.A. and Ph.D. in Psychology from the University of Illinois after completing his Sc.B. in Cognitive Science at Brown University. He worked at Northwestern University and Columbia University before moving to the University of Texas at Austin, where he is now Professor of Psychology and Marketing. He teaches courses in cognitive psychology, research methods and statistics, reasoning, and decision making and knowledge representation, and he supervises the honors program. His research has explored similarity, categorization, and decision making. He served as Executive Officer of the Cognitive Science Society from 2001-2003.

Table of Contents

PART I OVERVIEW
1(37)
Possibilities, Information, and Approaches to the Study of the Mind
3(34)
Introduction
4(7)
Domain of Cognitive Psychology
4(1)
Intuition
4(1)
Puzzles
5(3)
Possibilities
8(1)
A Framework
9(1)
A Closer Look
9(2)
Themes and Implications
11(1)
Experience and Experimentation
11(5)
Empiricism
12(1)
Scientific Observation
13(1)
Experimentation
14(1)
The Challenge of Cognitive Psychology
14(1)
Summary
14(2)
Roots of Cognitive Psychology
16(4)
Introspectionism
16(1)
Behaviorism
17(1)
Critique of Behaviorism
18(2)
Summary
20(1)
Cognitive Psychology
20(2)
Summary
22(1)
The Emergence of Cognitive Science
22(2)
Summary
23(1)
Cognitive Neuroscience Techniques
24(5)
Event-Related Potentials
24(1)
Positron Emission Tomography
25(1)
Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI)
26(2)
Summary
28(1)
Levels and Types of Explanations
29(3)
Summary
31(1)
Ecological Validity
32(1)
Summary
33(1)
Chapter Summary
33(1)
Key Terms
34(1)
Recommended Readings
34(3)
PART II ACQUIRING INFORMATION
37(98)
Learning
39(30)
Introduction
40(1)
The Challenge of Learning
40(1)
The Biological Backdrop of Learning
41(8)
Fixed-Action Patterns and Releasers
43(1)
Critical Periods and Imprinting
43(5)
Constraints on Learning
48(1)
Summary
49(1)
Basic Learning
49(12)
Habituation
49(1)
Classical Conditioning
50(6)
Summary
56(1)
Trial-and-Error Learning or Instrumental Learning
57(2)
Paired-Associate Learning
59(2)
Implications
61(5)
The Learning-Performance Distinction
62(1)
Contingency Learning and Illusory Correlation
63(2)
Contingency Learning and Casual Learning
65(1)
Summary
65(1)
Content and Meaningful Learning
66(1)
Chapter Summary
67(1)
Key Terms
68(1)
Recommended Readings
68(1)
Perception
69(34)
The Problem of Perception
69(2)
Visual Perception
71(13)
Low-Level Vision
72(3)
Localization
75(9)
Summary
84(1)
High-Level Vision
84(12)
Feature Detection Theories
85(2)
Structural Theories
87(4)
Template Matching and Alignment
91(3)
Face Recognition and Visual Subsystems
94(1)
Summary
95(1)
Levels and the Integration of Information in Perceptual Context Effects
96(4)
The Word Superiority Effect
96(4)
Summary
100(1)
Chapter Summary
100(1)
Key Terms
101(1)
Recommended Readings
101(2)
Attention
103(32)
Introduction
104(1)
What Is Attention For?
105(3)
Why Are There Limits?
105(1)
Five Functions of Attention
106(2)
Perceptual Attention
108(15)
Focusing I: Sensory Stores
108(2)
Focusing II: Selecting Channels
110(2)
Perceptual Enhancement
112(1)
Location of Attentional Limits
113(2)
Bottleneck Theories
115(2)
Late Selection
117(1)
Capacity Theories
117(2)
Summary
119(1)
Binding
119(4)
Attention in Complex Tasks
123(7)
Capacity and Automaticity
125(5)
Central Executive Functions and Action
130(2)
Attention and Action Selection
130(2)
Chapter Summary
132(1)
Key Terms
133(1)
Recommended Readings
133(2)
PART III MEMORY
135(146)
Memory: Remembering New Information
137(36)
Introduction
138(2)
Uses of Memory
138(1)
Centrality of Memory
139(1)
Processes of Memory
140(1)
Short-Term Memory
140(10)
Introduction
140(1)
Characteristics of Short-Term Memory
141(3)
Working Memory
144(6)
Summary
150(1)
Long-Term Memory
150(21)
Introduction
150(2)
Encoding
152(5)
Retrieval
157(1)
Encoding-Retrieval Interactions
158(8)
Forgetting
166(5)
Summary
171(1)
Chapter Summary
171(1)
Key Terms
172(1)
Recommended Readings
172(1)
Memory Systems and Knowledge
173(36)
Introduction
174(1)
Semantic Knowledge
174(4)
Characteristics of Semantic Memory
174(1)
The Hierarchical Model
175(2)
Evaluation of the Hierarchical Model
177(1)
Episodic Memory
178(6)
Are Episodic and Semantic Memory Distinct Memory Systems?
179(4)
Amnesia, Episodic, and Semantic Memory
183(1)
Procedural and Declarative Memory
184(1)
Implicit and Explicit Memory
185(8)
Implicit and Explicit Memory with Normal-Memory Adults
186(5)
Evaluation of the Implicit-Explicit Distinction
191(2)
Two Models of Memory
193(13)
Introduction
193(1)
The ACT Theory
193(8)
A Parallel Distributed Processing Model of Memory
201(5)
Summary
206(1)
Chapter Summary
206(1)
Key Terms
207(1)
Recommended Readings
207(2)
Remembering New Information: Beyond Basic Effects
209(43)
Introduction
209(2)
Schemas: Understanding and Remembering Complex Situations
211(12)
Introduction and Motivation
211(3)
Understanding
214(1)
Schemas
215(4)
Scripts
219(3)
Schema Activation
222(1)
Problems with Schemas
222(1)
Summary
223(1)
Reconstructive Memory
223(4)
Encoding-Retrieval Interactions Revisited
223(1)
Schemas and Stereotypes
224(3)
Summary
227(1)
Memory in the World
227(14)
Introduction
227(1)
Eyewitness Testimony
227(5)
Flashbulb Memories
232(4)
Recovered Memories
236(5)
Summary
241(1)
Knowing Your Memory
241(8)
Introduction
241(1)
Strategies and Knowledge
241(6)
Metamemory
247(2)
Summary
249(1)
Chapter Summary
249(1)
Key Terms
250(1)
Recommended Readings
250(2)
Spatial Knowledge, Imagery, and Visual Memory
252(29)
Introduction
253(1)
Representations
254(3)
Relations Between Representations and Referents
254(1)
Analog Representations
255(2)
Summary
257(1)
Spatial Knowledge
257(5)
Maps and Navigation
257(2)
Hierarchical Representations of Space
259(2)
The Brain and Spatial Cognition
261(1)
Summary
261(1)
Imagery
262(9)
Evidence for Use of Visual Imagery
262(4)
Representation of Images
266(5)
Summary
271(1)
Visual Memory
271(7)
Remembering Details
272(3)
Memory for Pictures
275(1)
The Picture-Superiority Effect
276(2)
Memory for Faces
278(1)
Summary
278(1)
Chapter Summary
278(1)
Key Terms
279(1)
Recommended Readings
279(2)
PART IV LANGUAGE AND UNDERSTANDING
281(70)
Language
283(34)
Introduction
284(1)
Language and Communication
284(5)
Principles of Communication
286(1)
The Given-New Strategy
286(1)
Presupposition and Assertion
286(1)
Conversational Maxims
287(2)
Summary
289(1)
The Productivity of Human Language
289(2)
Productivity and Novelty
289(1)
Ambiguity
290(1)
Phonology
291(10)
Phonological Rules
294(2)
Speech Perception
296(5)
Summary
301(1)
Syntax
301(5)
The Need for Structure
301(1)
Structure
302(1)
Phrase Structure
303(1)
The Psychological Reality of Syntax
304(2)
Summary
306(1)
Understanding Language
306(4)
Heuristics and Strategies
307(1)
Minimal Attachment
308(2)
Text Comprehension
310(5)
Chapter Summary
315(1)
Key Terms
316(1)
Recommended Readings
316(1)
Concepts and Categories: Representation and Use
317(34)
Introduction
318(5)
Why Categorize?
318(1)
Computational Complexity
318(1)
Functions of Concepts
319(1)
Summary
320(1)
Concepts and Misconceptions
320(2)
Summary
322(1)
Structure of Natural Object Concepts
323(22)
The Classical View
323(1)
The Probabilistic View
324(8)
Summary
332(1)
Between-Category Structure
333(3)
Summary
336(1)
Does Similarity Explain Categorization?
336(3)
Summary
339(1)
Concepts as Organized by Theories
340(1)
Putting Similarity in Its Place
341(1)
Do Different Principles Apply for Different Kinds of Concepts?
342(2)
Summary
344(1)
Use of Categories in Reasoning
345(4)
Goals and Ad Hoc Categories
345(1)
Conceptual Combination
345(1)
Categories and Induction
346(3)
Chapter Summary
349(1)
Key Terms
350(1)
Recommended Readings
350(1)
PART V THINKING
351(126)
Reasoning
353(37)
Introduction
354(1)
Logic and Reasoning
354(4)
Validity and Truth
356(1)
Deductive Versus Inductive Reasoning
357(1)
Summary
358(1)
The Psychology of Deduction
358(8)
Conditional Reasoning
358(3)
Conditional Reasoning in Hypothesis Testing: The Selection Task
361(4)
Summary
365(1)
The Psychology of Inductive Reasoning
366(4)
Probabilistic Reasoning
366(1)
Test Quality: A Case Study of Base Rates
367(2)
Base Rate Neglect
369(1)
Confusing Conditional Probabilities
370(1)
Summary
370(1)
The Importance of Content
370(7)
Analogy and Similarity
372(3)
An Example of Mapping
375(1)
A Return to Similarity
375(2)
Summary
377(1)
Mental Models and Intuitive Theories
377(6)
Intuitive Theories
381(2)
Hypothesis Testing and Scientific Reasoning
383(5)
Chapter Summary
388(1)
Key Terms
388(1)
Recommended Readings
388(2)
Problem Solving
390(30)
Introduction
391(4)
Problems, Problems, Problems
391(1)
What Is a Problem?
391(1)
Types of Problems
391(1)
Methods for Studying Problem Solving
392(3)
Summary
395(1)
Problem Solving as Representation and Search
395(16)
Introduction
395(1)
The Problem Space Analysis
396(3)
Problem Solving as Search
399(4)
Problem Solving as Representation
403(8)
Summary
411(1)
Reliance on Specific Relevant Knowledge
411(7)
Introduction
411(1)
The Influence of Related Problems
411(7)
Summary
418(1)
Chapter Summary
418(1)
Key Terms
418(1)
Recommended Readings
418(2)
Expertise and Creativity
420(30)
Introduction
420(1)
Expertise
421(17)
Introduction
421(1)
Comparing Experts and Novices
421(8)
Developing Expertise
429(7)
Adaptive Expertise
436(1)
Summary
437(1)
Creativity
438(10)
Introduction
438(2)
The Traditional View
440(3)
Some Recent Views of Creativity
443(5)
Summary
448(1)
Chapter Summary
448(1)
Key Terms
449(1)
Recommended Readings
449(1)
Judgment and Decision Making
450(27)
Introduction
451(1)
Rational and Normative Models
452(3)
Expected Value Theory
453(1)
Expected Utility Theory
454(1)
Limitations of Expected Utility and Alternatives to It
455(10)
Violations of Expected Utility
455(6)
Prospect Theory
461(1)
Regret Theory
462(2)
Decision Making over Time
464(1)
Summary
464(1)
Dealing with Complexity
465(2)
Strategies for Dealing with Complexity
465(1)
Adaptive Decision Making
466(1)
Further Heuristics and Biases
467(6)
Availability Heuristic
467(2)
Representativeness Heuristic
469(1)
Anchoring and Adjustment
470(1)
Causal Schemas
470(1)
Hindsight Bias
471(1)
Overconfidence
471(1)
Relativity of Judgment and Use of Norms
472(1)
Summary
473(1)
Are There Kinds of Decisions?
473(2)
Mental Accounting
474(1)
Chapter Summary
475(1)
Key Terms
476(1)
Recommended Readings
476(1)
Glossary 477(10)
References 487(46)
Credits 533(6)
Author Index 539(12)
Subject Index 551


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