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Cognitive Psychology

by
Edition:
4th
ISBN13:

9780534514211

ISBN10:
0534514219
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
8/8/2005
Publisher(s):
Wadsworth Publishing
List Price: $149.33

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  • Outlines and Highlights for Cognitive Psychology by Robert J Sternberg, Isbn : 9780495506294
    Outlines and Highlights for Cognitive Psychology by Robert J Sternberg, Isbn : 9780495506294




Summary

Sternberg's text balances accessible writing, practical applications, and research scholarship, interweaving biology throughout the text. Utilizing the theme that human cognition has evolved over time as a means of adapting to our environment, Sternberg explores the basics of cognitive psychology through its coverage of cognitive neuroscience, attention and consciousness, perception, memory, knowledge representation, language, problem solving and creativity, decision making and reasoning, cognitive development, and intelligence. Sternberg provides the most comprehensive coverage of any cognitive psychology text available; a "from lab to life" approach covering theory, lab and field research, and applications to everyday life (like driving while talking on a cell phone and airport security).

Author Biography

Robert J. Sternberg is currently the IBM Professor of Psychology and Education in the Department of Psychology as well as the Director of the Center for the Psychology of Abilities, Competencies, and Expertise at Yale University

Table of Contents

Introduction to Cognitive Psychology
1(27)
Exploring Cognitive Psychology
2(1)
Cognitive Psychology Defined
2(1)
Philosophical Antecedents of Psychology: Rationalism versus Empiricism
3(2)
Psychological Antecedents of Cognitive Psychology
5(4)
Early Dialectics in the Psychology of Cognition
5(2)
Practical Applications of Cognitive Psychology
7(1)
From Associationism to Behaviorism
7(2)
Gestalt Psychology
9(1)
Emergence of Cognitive Psychology
9(2)
Early Role of Psychobiology
9(1)
Add a Dash of Technology: Engineering and Computation
10(1)
Research Methods in Cognitive Psychology
11(8)
Goals of Research
11(1)
In the Lab of Ludy T. Benjamin, Jr.
12(1)
Distinctive Research Methods
13(5)
Investigating Cognitive Psychology
18(1)
Key Issues and Fields within Cognitive Psychology
19(2)
Underlying Themes in the Study of Cognitive Psychology
20(1)
Key Ideas in Cognitive Psychology
21(4)
Chapter Previews
24(1)
Summary
25(1)
Thinking about Thinking: Factual, Analytical, Creative, and Practical Questions
26(1)
Key Terms
27(1)
Annotated Suggested Reading
27(1)
Cognitive Neuroscience
28(33)
Exploring Cognitive Psychology
29(1)
The Brain
29(7)
Viewing the Structures and Functions of the Brain
30(1)
Postmortem Studies
30(1)
Animal Studies
30(1)
Electrical Recordings
31(1)
Static Imaging Techniques
32(1)
Metabolic Imaging
32(4)
Cognition in the Brain: Cerebral Cortex and Other Structures
36(21)
Gross Anatomy of the Brain: Forebrain, Midbrain, Hindbrain
37(4)
In the Lab of John Gabrieli
41(4)
Cerebral Cortex and Localization of Function
45(10)
Brain Disorders
55(2)
Key Themes
57(1)
Summary
58(1)
Thinking about Thinking: Factual, Analytical, Creative, and Practical Questions
59(1)
Key Terms
59(1)
COGLAB: Brain Asymmetry
Annotated Suggested Reading
60(1)
Attention and Consciousness
61(49)
Exploring Cognitive Psychology
62(1)
The Nature of Attention and Consciousness
62(14)
Preconscious Processing
63(3)
Investigating Cognitive Psychology
66(1)
In the Lab of John F. Kihlstrom
67(1)
Controlled versus Automatic Processes
68(4)
Habituation and Adaptation
72(2)
Practical Applications of Cognitive Psychology
74(2)
Attention
76(12)
Signal Detection
76(1)
The Nature of Signal Detection
76(2)
Vigilance
78(3)
Search
81(7)
Selective and Divided Attention
88(15)
Basic Paradigms for Studying Selective Attention
88(2)
Filter and Bottleneck Theories of Selective Attention
90(4)
Attentional-Resource Theories of Selective Attention
94(2)
Additional Considerations in Selective Attention
96(1)
Divided Attention
97(3)
Consciousness of Complex Mental Processes
100(2)
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder
102(1)
Cognitive Neuroscientific Approaches to Attention and Consciousness
103(3)
Attentional Systems
104(1)
Using Event-Related Potentials to Measure Attention
104(1)
A Psychopharmacological Approach
105(1)
Links among Perception, Attention, and Consciousness
105(1)
Key Themes
106(1)
Summary
107(2)
Thinking about Thinking: Factual, Analytical, Creative, and Practical Questions
109(1)
Key Terms
109(1)
COGLAB: Attentional Blink
COGLAB: Stroop Effect
COGLAB: Simon Effect
COGLAB: Spatial Cueing
Annotated Suggested Reading
109(1)
Perception
110(46)
Exploring Cognitive Psychology
111(4)
From Sensation to Representation
115(16)
Some Basic Concepts
115(1)
Perceptual Constancies
116(2)
Depth Perception
118(4)
Approaches to Object and Form Perception
122(2)
Practical Applications of Cognitive Psychology
124(2)
In the Lab of Stephen Palmer
126(5)
Theoretical Approaches to Perception
131(17)
Bottom-Up Approaches: Direct Perception
131(12)
Top-Down Approaches: Constructive Perception
143(2)
Synthesizing the Two Approaches
145(1)
A Computational Theory of Perception
146(2)
Deficits in Perception
148(4)
Agnosias
148(3)
Anomalies in Color Perception
151(1)
Akinetopsia
151(1)
Key Themes
152(1)
Summary
153(1)
Thinking about Thinking: Factual, Analytical, Creative, and Practical Questions
154(1)
Key Terms
154(1)
COGLAB: Mapping the Blind Spot
COGLAB: Receptive Fields
COGLAB: Apparent Motion
COGLAB: Metacontrast Masking
COGLAB: Muller-Lyer Illusion
COGLAB: Signal Detection
COGLAB: Visual Search
COGLAB: Lexical Decision
Annotated Suggested Reading
155(1)
Memory: Models and Research Methods
156(37)
Exploring Cognitive Psychology
157(1)
Investigating Cognitive Psychology
157(1)
Tasks Used for Measuring Memory
157(3)
Recall versus Recognition Tasks
158(1)
Implicit versus Explicit Memory Tasks
159(1)
Traditional Model of Memory
160(7)
Sensory Store
161(4)
Short-Term Store
165(1)
Long-Term Store
166(1)
The Levels-of-Processing Model
167(2)
Practical Applications of Cognitive Psychology
169(1)
An Integrative Model: Working Memory
169(4)
Multiple-Memory-Systems
173(4)
In the Lab of M. K. Johnson
175(2)
A Connectionist Perspective
177(1)
Memory in the Real World
178(1)
Exceptional Memory and Neuropsychology
179(10)
Outstanding Memory: Mnemonists
179(3)
Deficient Memory
182(4)
Role of the Hippocampus and Other Structures
186(3)
Key Themes
189(1)
Summary
190(1)
Thinking about Thinking: Factual, Analytical, Creative, and Practical Questions
191(1)
Key Terms
191(1)
COGLAB: Memory Span
COGLAB: Partial Report
COGLAB: Absolute Identification
COGLAB: Operation Span
COGLAB: Implicit Learning
COGLAB: Modality Effect
COGLAB: Position Error
COGLAB: Irrelevant Speech
COGLAB: Phonological Similarity
COGLAB: Levels of Processing
Annotated Suggested Reading
192(1)
Memory Processes
193(35)
Exploring Cognitive Psychology
194(1)
Encoding and Transfer of Information
195(9)
Forms of Encoding
195(2)
Transfer of Information from Short-Term Memory to Long-Term Memory
197(3)
Practical Applications of Cognitive Psychology
200(4)
Retrieval
204(3)
Retrieval from Short-Term Memory
204(1)
Investigating Cognitive Psychology
204(2)
Retrieval from Long-Term Memory
206(1)
Processes of Forgetting and Memory Distortion
207(5)
Interference versus Decay Theory
207(2)
Investigating Cognitive Psychology
209(3)
The Constructive Nature of Memory
212(10)
Autobiographical Memory
212(1)
Memory Distortions
213(3)
In the Lab of Elizabeth Loftus
216(2)
Context Effects on Encoding and Retrieval
218(4)
Memory Development
222(2)
Metacognitive Skills and Memory Development
222(2)
Key Themes
224(1)
Summary
225(1)
Thinking about Thinking: Factual, Analytical, Creative, and Practical Questions
226(1)
Key Terms
227(1)
COGLAB: Brown-Peterson
COGLAB: False Memory
COGLAB: Serial Position
COGLAB: Sternberg Search
COGLAB: Von Restorff Effect
COGLAB: Encoding Specificity
COGLAB: Forgot It All Along
COGLAB: Remember/Know
Annotated Suggested Reading
227(1)
Representation and Manipulation of Knowledge in Memory: Images and Propositions
228(46)
Exploring Cognitive Psychology
229(1)
Mental Representation of Knowledge
229(14)
External Representations: Pictures versus Words
231(1)
Investigating Cognitive Psychology
232(1)
Mental Imagery
233(1)
Dual-Code Theory: Analogical Images versus Symbols
234(1)
In the Lab of S. M. Kosslyn
235(1)
Investigating Cognitive Psychology
236(1)
Investigating Cognitive Psychology
236(1)
Propositional Theory
237(6)
Mental Manipulations of Images
243(9)
Mental Rotations
244(3)
Investigating Cognitive Psychology
247(1)
Image Scaling
248(1)
Investigating Cognitive Psychology
249(1)
Investigating Cognitive Psychology
250(1)
Image Scanning
250(2)
Synthesizing Images and Propositions
252(7)
Epiphenomena and Demand Characteristics
253(2)
Johnson-Laird's Mental Models
255(2)
Neuropsychological Evidence for Multiple Codes
257(1)
Visual versus Spatial Images
258(1)
Spatial Cognition and Cognitive Maps
259(10)
Rats, Bees, and Humans
259(2)
Practical Applications of Cognitive Psychology
261(2)
Mental Shortcuts
263(4)
Text Maps
267(1)
Development of Visuospatial Skills
268(1)
Key Themes
269(1)
Summary
270(2)
Thinking about Thinking: Factual, Analytical, Creative, and Practical Questions
272(1)
Key Terms
272(1)
COGLAB: Mental Rotation
COGLAB: Link Word
COGLAB: Mental Scanning
Annotated Suggested Reading
273(1)
Representation and Organization of Knowledge in Memory: Concepts, Categories, Networks, and Schemas
274(36)
Exploring Cognitive Psychology
275(1)
Investigating Cognitive Psychology
275(1)
Organization of Declarative Knowledge
276(15)
Concepts and Categories
277(7)
Semantic Network Models
284(4)
Schematic Representations
288(2)
Investigating Cognitive Psychology
290(1)
Practical Applications of Cognitive Psychology
291(1)
Representations of Procedural Knowledge
291(2)
Integrative Models for Representing Declarative and Nondeclarative Knowledge
293(13)
Combining Representations: ACT-R
293(3)
Models Based on the Human Brain
296(2)
Investigating Cognitive Psychology
298(1)
Parallel Processing: The Connectionist Model
299(5)
In the Lab of James L. McClelland
304(2)
How Domain General or Domain Specific Is Cognition?
306(1)
Key Themes
306(1)
Summary
307(1)
Thinking about Thinking: Factual, Analytical, Creative, and Practical Questions
308(1)
Key Terms
309(1)
COGLAB: Prototypes
COGLAB: Absolute Identification
COGLAB: Implicit Learning
Annotated Suggested Reading
309(1)
Language: Nature and Acquisition
310(36)
Exploring Cognitive Psychology
311(1)
Properties of Language
312(6)
General Description
312(3)
Fundamental Aspects of Language
315(3)
Investigating Cognitive Psychology
318(1)
Processes of Language Comprehension
318(13)
Speech Perception
318(4)
Semantics and Syntax
322(2)
Investigating Cognitive Psychology
324(1)
Investigating Cognitive Psychology
325(5)
Practical Applications of Cognitive Psychology
330(1)
Language Acquisition
331(11)
Stages of Language Acquisition
331(1)
In the Lab of Paul Bloom
332(2)
Nature and Nurture
334(5)
Beyond the First Years
339(1)
Animal Language
340(2)
Common Themes
342(1)
Summary
343(1)
Thinking about Thinking: Factual, Analytical, Creative, and Practical Questions
344(1)
Key Terms
345(1)
COGLAB: Categorical Perception Identification
COGLAB: Discrimination
COGLAB: Suffix Effect
COGLAB: Lexical Decision
Annotated Suggested Reading
345(1)
Language in Context
346(45)
Exploring Cognitive Psychology
347(1)
Reading: Bottom-Up and Top-Down Processes
347(6)
Perceptual Issues in Reading
348(1)
Lexical Processes in Reading
349(4)
Language and Thought
353(14)
Differences among Languages
353(6)
Bilingualism and Dialects
359(5)
Slips of the Tongue
364(2)
Metaphorical Language
366(1)
Language in a Social Context
367(14)
Investigating Cognitive Psychology
367(1)
Speech Acts
368(3)
Conversational Postulates
371(1)
Gender and Language
372(2)
Practical Applications of Cognitive Psychology
374(1)
Discourse and Reading Comprehension
374(1)
Investigating Cognitive Psychology
374(1)
Investigating Cognitive Psychology
375(1)
Investigating Cognitive Psychology
376(1)
In the Lab of Walter Kintsch
377(4)
Neuropsychology of Language
381(6)
Aphasia
381(2)
Autism
383(1)
Lesion Studies and Event-Related Potentials Research
383(3)
Other Methods
386(1)
Common Themes
387(1)
Summary
388(1)
Thinking about Thinking: Factual, Analytical, Creative, and Practical Questions
389(1)
Key Terms
390(1)
COGLAB: Word Superiority
Annotated Suggested Reading
390(1)
Problem Solving and Creativity
391(48)
Exploring Cognitive Psychology
392(1)
The Problem-Solving Cycle
393(4)
Types of Problems
397(14)
Well-Structured Problems
397(1)
Investigating Cognitive Psychology
398(6)
Ill-Structured Problems and the Role of Insight
404(7)
Obstacles and Aids to Problem Solving
411(10)
Mental Sets. Entrenchment, and Fixation
411(2)
Negative and Positive Transfer
413(1)
Investigating Cognitive Psychology
413(1)
In the Lab of Dedre Gentner
414(2)
Investigating Cognitive Psychology
416(3)
Incubation
419(1)
Practical Applications of Cognitive Psychology
420(1)
Expertise: Knowledge and Problem Solving
421(8)
Organization of Knowledge
421(4)
Innate Talent and Acquired Skill
425(4)
Creativity
429(5)
It's How Much You Produce
430(1)
It's What You Know
431(1)
It's Who You Are
432(1)
It's Where You Are
432(1)
All of the Above
433(1)
Types of Creative Contributions
434(1)
Common Themes
435(1)
Summary
436(1)
Thinking about Thinking: Factual, Analytical, Creative, and Practical Questions
437(1)
Key Terms
438(1)
COGLAB: Monty Hall
Annotated Suggested Reading
438(1)
Decision Making and Reasoning
439(45)
Exploring Cognitive Psychology
440(1)
Investigating Cognitive Psychology
440(1)
Judgment and Decision Making
441(15)
Classical Decision Theory
441(2)
Satisficing
443(1)
Elimination by Aspects
444(1)
Heuristics and Biases
445(1)
Investigating Cognitive Psychology
446(6)
Investigating Cognitive Psychology
452(1)
Investigating Cognitive Psychology
452(3)
In the Lab of Gerd Gigerenzer
455(1)
Deductive Reasoning
456(14)
Conditional Reasoning
457(5)
Syllogistic Reasoning
462(1)
Linear Syllogisms
462(1)
Investigating Cognitive Psychology
463(6)
Further Aids and Obstacles to Deductive Reasoning
469(1)
Practical Applications of Cognitive Psychology
470(1)
Inductive Reasoning
470(8)
Reaching Causal Inferences
472(4)
Categorical Inferences
476(1)
Reasoning by Analogy
476(1)
Development of Inductive Reasoning
477(1)
An Alternative View of Reasoning
478(1)
Common Themes
479(2)
Summary
481(1)
Thinking about Thinking: Factual, Analytical, Creative, and Practical Questions
482(1)
Key Terms
483(1)
COGLAB: Risky Decisions
COGLAB: Typical Reasoning
COGLAB: Wason Selection Task
Annotated Suggested Reading
483(1)
Human and Artificial Intelligence
484(47)
Exploring Cognitive Psychology
485(2)
Investigating Cognitive Psychology
485(2)
Measures and Structures of Intelligence
487(8)
Spearman: The ``g'' Factor
492(1)
Thurstone: Primary Mental Abilities
492(2)
Guilford: The Structure of Intellect
494(1)
Cattell, Vernon, and Carroll: Hierarchical Models
494(1)
Information Processing and Intelligence
495(8)
Process-Timing Theories
495(3)
Working Memory
498(1)
Componential Theory and Complex Problem Solving
498(1)
In the Lab of Randall Engle
499(2)
Biological Bases of Intelligence
501(2)
Alternative Approaches to Intelligence
503(9)
Cultural Context and Intelligence
503(4)
Gardner: Multiple Intelligences
507(2)
Sternberg: The Triarchic Theory
509(3)
Practical Applications of Cognitive Psychology
512(1)
Improving Intelligence: Effective, Ineffective, and Questionable Strategies
512(3)
Investigating Cognitive Psychology
513(2)
Development of Intelligence in Adults
515(3)
Artificial Intelligence: Computer Simulations
518(8)
Can a Computer Program Be ``Intelligent''?
518(6)
Questions about the Intelligence of Intelligent Programs
524(2)
Common Themes
526(1)
Practical Applications of Cognitive Psychology
527(1)
Summary
527(2)
Thinking about Thinking: Factual, Analytical, Creative, and Practical Questions
529(1)
Key Terms
529(1)
Annotated Suggested Reading
530(1)
Glossary 531(7)
References 538(41)
Name Index 579(8)
Subject Index 587(8)
Credits 595


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