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Cognitive Psychology : Applying the Science of the Mind,9780205327638
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Cognitive Psychology : Applying the Science of the Mind

by ;
Edition:
2nd
ISBN13:

9780205327638

ISBN10:
020532763X
Format:
Hardcover
Pub. Date:
1/1/2008
Publisher(s):
Allyn & Bacon

Summary

This book brings cognition alive for students by demonstrating the endless application of cognitive psychology to everyday life. While introducing the current research in this rapidly changing field, the text also introduces critical thinking exercises that highlight important phenomena and give students an engaging firsthand view of the everyday relevance of research in cognition.

Table of Contents

Preface xiii
Chapter 1 An Introduction to Cognition 1(32)
What Is Cognition?
2(4)
The Omnipresence of Cognitive Processes
2(3)
An Interdisciplinary Perspective
5(1)
STOP and REVIEW!
6(1)
Psychology B.C. (Before Cognitive psychology)
6(9)
Early Psychophysics
7(2)
Structuralism: The Contents of Mental Experience
9(1)
Functionalism: The Functions of Mental Experience
10(1)
Recurring Research Theme: Cognition and Consciousness
10(4)
Behaviorism: The Rejection of Mental Experience
11(1)
Laying the Foundation for Cognitive Psychology
12(2)
STOP and REVIEW!
14(1)
The Emergence of Cognitive Psychology
15(9)
S-R Explanations: Seriously wRong?
15(7)
Technological Influences
22(1)
STOP and REVIEW!
23(1)
Psychology A.D. (After the Decline of behaviorism)
24(7)
Information Processing: A Computer Metaphor for Cognition
24(2)
Connectionism: A Brain Metaphor for Cognition
26(3)
Recurring Research Theme: Cognition and Neuroscience
29(2)
The Ecological Approach to Cognition
30(1)
Recurring Research Theme: Cognition and Individual Differences
31(1)
STOP and REVIEW!
31(1)
Glossary
32(1)
Chapter 2 Research Methods in Cognition 33(39)
Descriptive Research
34(3)
Naturalistic Observation
35(1)
Case Studies
35(1)
Self Report
36(1)
STOP and REVIEW!
36(1)
Experimental Research
37(3)
The Importance of the Computer
37(1)
What Happens in an Experiment
38(1)
The Advantages and Disadvantages of an Experiment
39(1)
STOP and REVIEW!
40(1)
The Cognitive Psychology Experiment
40(9)
How Can We See Thinking? The Dependent Variable
40(3)
What Variables Influence Thinking?
The Independent Variable
43(2)
Confounding Variables
45(1)
Assigning Participants to Conditions
46(2)
STOP and REVIEW!
48(1)
The Factorial Design
49(7)
Analyzing and Presenting Results
50(4)
A Sample Experiment
54(2)
STOP and REVIEW!
56(1)
Cognitive Neuroscience: Investigating Mind and Brain
56(13)
An Overview of the Nervous System
57(7)
The Tools of Cognitive Neuroscience
64(5)
STOP and REVIEW!
69(1)
Glossary
69(3)
Chapter 3 Early Perceptual Processing 72(42)
Basic Perceptual Processes
73(13)
Vision and Audition
74(6)
Somesthesis
80(3)
Chemosenses
83(2)
Cognition and Individual Differences: Nonvisual Sensory Acuity in the Blind
85(1)
STOP and REVIEW!
86(1)
Interactive Effects in Perception
86(17)
Interactions between Sensory Systems
86(4)
Interactions with Experience and Context
90(1)
Cognition and Consciousness: Gestalt Grouping and Illusory Percepts
91(4)
Interactions with Consciousness
94(1)
Cognition and Neuroscience: Blindsight
95(7)
STOP and REVIEW!
102(1)
Sensory Memory
103(8)
Visual Sensory Memory
103(4)
Auditory Sensory Memory
107(2)
Perceptual Memory
109(1)
STOP and REVIEW!
110(1)
Glossary
111(3)
Chapter 4 Attending to and Manipulating Information 114(46)
Attention
115(11)
Theories of Attention
117(2)
Cognition and Consciousness: A Shocking Failure of Early-Selection Theory
119(6)
STOP and REVIEW!
125(1)
Automaticity
126(8)
The Stroop Effect
126(2)
Automaticity with Practice
128(2)
Reevaluating Automaticity
130(1)
Costs of Automaticity
131(2)
STOP and REVIEW!
133(1)
Short-Term Memory
134(14)
Limited Duration
136(1)
Limited Capacity
137(2)
Coding in STM
139(3)
Cognition and Individual Differences: Sex Differences in Visual STM
142(6)
Forgetting in STM
144(4)
STOP and REVIEW!
148(1)
A Modular Approach to STM: Working Memory
148(10)
The Articulatory Loop
149(3)
Cognition and Neuroscience: PET Scanning the Articulatory Loop
152(5)
Visuo-Spatial Sketchpad
153(2)
The Central Executive
155(1)
Evaluation of Working Memory
156(1)
STOP and REVIEW!
157(1)
Glossary
158(2)
Chapter 5 Identifying and Classifying Concepts 160(48)
Bottom-Up Views of Pattern Recognition
162(12)
Structural-Description-Based Approaches
163(7)
View-Based Approaches
170(2)
Object Recognition: Views or Structural Descriptions?
172(1)
STOP and REVIEW!
173(1)
Top-Down Processing in Pattern Recognition
174(11)
The Word-Superiority Effect
174(2)
A Scene-Superiority Effect
176(3)
Two-System Views of Object Recognition
179(3)
Cognition and Consciousness: Subliminal Visual Priming
182(2)
STOP and REVIEW!
184(1)
Recognizing Faces
185(6)
The Face-Inversion Effect
185(2)
Wholistic Processing of Faces
187(1)
Dissociations and Associations in Face Recognition
188(1)
Cognition and Neuroscience: The Right Hemisphere and Self Recognition
189(2)
STOP and REVIEW!
191(1)
Concepts and Categories
191(15)
Types of Categories
192(2)
Approaches to Concept Representation
194(10)
Cognition and Individual Differences: Causal Similarity, Perceptual Similarity, and Children's Categorization
204(2)
STOP and REVIEW!
206(1)
Glossary
206(2)
Chapter 6 Encoding and Retrieval Processes in Long-Term Memory 208(45)
Fundamental Distinctions
210(4)
Short-Term and Long-Term Memory (Revisited)
210(1)
Episodic Memory and Semantic Memory
211(1)
A Descriptive Framework: Encoding, Storage, and Retrieval
212(2)
STOP and REVIEW!
214(1)
Encoding Processes in Explicit Long-Term Remembering
214(11)
Attention
215(1)
Repetition
215(1)
Rehearsal
216(3)
Levels of Processing
219(2)
Organization
221(2)
Distinctive Encoding
223(1)
Self Reference
223(1)
Visual Encoding
224(1)
STOP and REVIEW!
225(1)
Retrieval Processes in Long-Term Memory
225(10)
Availability and Accessibility
226(1)
Encoding Specificity
227(5)
Retrieval: An Effective Encoding Strategy?
232(1)
Cognition and Neuroscience: Encoding, Retrieval, and Brain Hemispheres
233(1)
STOP and REVIEW!
234(1)
Implicit Memory
235(10)
Retrieval Dissociations
237(6)
Cognition and Consciousness: Conscious and Nonconscious Access to the Past
243(1)
STOP and REVIEW!
244(1)
Memory Improvement
245(6)
Internal Memory Aids
245(3)
External Memory Aids
248(1)
Cognition and Individual Differences: Aging and Prospective Memory
249(1)
STOP and REVIEW!
250(1)
Glossary
251(2)
Chapter 7 Memory Distortions 253(42)
The Sins of Memory
255(3)
STOP and REVIEW!
258(1)
Eyewitness Memory
258(14)
Encoding, Retrieval, and Eyewitness Recollection
258(11)
An Applied Triumph
269(1)
Cognition and Individual Differences: Children's Suggestibility
270(1)
STOP and REVIEW!
271(1)
Illusory Memories
272(7)
The Laboratory Approach
272(2)
The Everyday Memory Approach
274(2)
Cognition and Neuroscience: Distinguishing between True and False Memories
276(2)
STOP and REVIEW!
278(1)
Sources of Memory Error
279(6)
A Constructive Memory Framework
279(1)
Source Monitoring and Misattribution
280(2)
Social Influences and Constructive Remembering
282(1)
Cognition and Consciousness: Unconscious Plagiarism
283(1)
STOP and REVIEW!
284(1)
The Recovered Memory Controversy
285(8)
Repression
285(6)
Finding a Middle Ground
291(1)
STOP and REVIEW!
292(1)
Glossary
293(2)
Chapter 8 Remembering the Personal Past 295(39)
Everyday Memory
296(3)
Neisser's Challenge: Ecological Validity and Memory Research
296(2)
STOP and REVIEW!
298(1)
Autobiographical Memory: Basic Issues and Methodology
299(4)
Memories versus Facts
299(3)
Methods of Investigation
302(1)
STOP and REVIEW!
303(1)
The Autobiographical Memory Retention Function
303(12)
Childhood Amnesia
305(4)
Cognition and Individual Differences: Cross-Cultural and Sex Differences in Childhood Amnesia
309(5)
The Reminiscence Bump
310(2)
Forgetting
312(1)
Odors and the Autobiographical Memory Retention Function
313(1)
STOP and REVIEW!
314(1)
Factors Affecting Retrieval of Autobiographical Memories
315(9)
Encoding Specificity in Autobiographical Memory
316(2)
Retrieval Cues for Autobiographical Memory
318(1)
A Constructivist Model of Autobiographical Memory Organization and Retrieval
319(2)
Cognition and Neuroscience: PET Scanning Autobiographical Memories
321(1)
Cognition and Consciousness: Involuntary Retrieval of Autobiographical Memories
322(2)
STOP and REVIEW!
324(1)
Emotion and Autobiographical Memory
324(7)
Flashbulb Memories
325(4)
Effects of Mood on Remembered Events
329(1)
STOP and REVIEW!
330(1)
Conclusion: Functions of Autobiographical Memory
331(2)
Communicative Function
331(1)
Emotional Function
332(1)
Directive Function
332(1)
STOP and REVIEW!
333(1)
Glossary
333(1)
Chapter 9 Knowledge Representation and Retrieval 334(47)
Representing and Retrieving Categorical Knowledge
336(13)
Basic Methodology
336(1)
The Hierarchical Network Model
336(5)
The Feature Comparison Model
341(3)
The Spreading Activation Model
344(2)
Cognition and Consciousness: Conscious and Nonconscious Factors in Semantic Priming
346(2)
STOP and REVIEW!
348(1)
Representing and Retrieving Propositions
349(6)
Mediated Priming
351(2)
The Fan Effect
353(1)
STOP and REVIEW!
354(1)
Representing and Retrieving Other Types of Knowledge
355(11)
Knowledge Learned through Formal Instruction
356(5)
People's Names
361(1)
Songs
362(3)
STOP and REVIEW!
365(1)
Forgetting in Semantic Memory
366(6)
The Tip-of-the-Tongue Phenomenon
366(4)
Cognition and Individual Differences: Age Differences in the TOT Experience
370(1)
STOP and REVIEW!
371(1)
Analog Representation
372(7)
The Study of Visual Imagery
372(4)
The Imagery Debate
376(2)
Cognition and Neuroscience: Brain Mechanisms in Visual Imagery and Perception
378(1)
STOP and REVIEW!
379(1)
Glossary
379(2)
Chapter 10 Language: General Principles and Speech Processing 381(47)
What Is Language?
382(11)
Words and Rules
382(1)
Design Features of Language
383(2)
Animal Language?
385(5)
Is Language Modular?
390(1)
Cognition and Neuroscience: Modularity of Lyrics and Tunes
390(2)
Linguists and Psycholinguists
391(1)
Language: Levels of Analysis
392(1)
STOP and REVIEW!
392(1)
Phonology: The Basic Elements of Spoken Language
393(11)
The Components of Speech: Phones and Phonemes
393(7)
Cognition and Individual Differences: Perception of Click Consonants
400(3)
STOP and REVIEW!
403(1)
From Sounds to Words
404(6)
The Mental Lexicon
404(1)
Morphology
405(1)
Word Boundaries
406(3)
STOP and REVIEW!
409(1)
Syntax and Semantics: Putting Words Together
410(6)
Transformational Grammar
410(3)
The Constraint-Based Approach
413(2)
STOP and REVIEW!
415(1)
Sentence Planning and Production
416(10)
Stages in Language Production
416(4)
Cognition and Consciousness: Slips of the Tongue: Unconscious Motivation?
420(5)
Conversation
422(3)
STOP and REVIEW!
425(1)
Glossary
426(2)
Chapter 11 Language: Processing the Written Word 428(51)
Reading
429(7)
Top-Down and Bottom-Up Processes in Reading
429(1)
Eye Movements
430(3)
Speed Reading?
433(1)
STOP and REVIEW!
434(2)
Word Recognition
436(10)
Dyslexia
437(4)
Cognition and Neuroscience: Left-Hemisphere Connectivity and Dyslexia
441(4)
How Should Reading Be Taught?
444(1)
STOP and REVIEW!
445(1)
Sentence-Level Processing
446(7)
Sentence Parsing
446(3)
Sentence Comprehension
449(2)
Cognition and Individual Differences: Cross-Linguistic Differences in Cues for Sentence Comprehension
451(1)
STOP and REVIEW!
452(1)
Discourse Comprehension
453(8)
Levels of Representation
453(1)
Structure and Coherence
453(8)
STOP and REVIEW!
461(1)
Discourse Memory and Representation
461(12)
Memory for Discourse
461(3)
Models of Discourse Comprehension
464(6)
Metacomprehension
470(1)
Cognition and Consciousness: Priming of Associations in Text Rereading
470(2)
STOP and REVIEW!
472(1)
Writing
473(4)
Collecting and Planning
474(1)
Translating and Reviewing
474(2)
STOP and REVIEW!
476(1)
Glossary
477(2)
Chapter 12 Problem Solving 479(44)
What Is a Problem?
480(5)
Well-Defined and Ill-Defined Problems
480(1)
Routine and Nonroutine Problems
481(1)
Problem-Solving Research: Some Methodological Challenges
481(3)
STOP and REVIEW!
484(1)
Approaches to the Study of Problem Solving
485(4)
Thorndike and the Behaviorists: Problem Solving as Associative Learning
485(1)
Kohler and the Gestalt Psychologists: Problem Solving as Insight
486(2)
Newell, Simon, and the Cognitive Psychologists: Problem Solving as Information Processing
488(1)
STOP and REVIEW!
489(1)
Problem Representation
489(7)
Cognition and Individual Differences: Stereotype Threat Can Hinder Problem Representation
491(5)
Rigidity in Representation
493(3)
STOP and REVIEW!
496(1)
Problem Solution
496(8)
Algorithms
496(1)
Heuristics
497(6)
STOP and REVIEW!
503(1)
Experts: Masters of Representation and Solution
504(4)
Expert Advantages
505(1)
Expert Disadvantages: Costs of Expertise
506(2)
STOP and REVIEW!
508(1)
Insight and Creativity
508(13)
Insight
509(4)
Cognition and Consciousness: Insight and Intuition
513(5)
Creativity
516(2)
Cognition and Neuroscience: Creativity and the Right Hemisphere
518(2)
STOP and REVIEW!
520(1)
Glossary
521(2)
Chapter 13 Reasoning, Judgment, and Decision Making 523(44)
Complex Thinking: Reasoning, Judgment, and Decision Making
524(3)
Research Focus on Errors
525(1)
STOP and REVIEW!
526(1)
Reasoning
527(11)
Deductive Reasoning
527(3)
Cognition and Neuroscience: The Brain and Syllogistic Reasoning
530(8)
Inductive Reasoning
535(3)
STOP and REVIEW!
538(1)
Judgment
538(19)
Basing Judgments on Memory: The Availability Heuristic
539(4)
Cognition and Consciousness: Comparing Intuitive and Analytic Judgments
543(13)
Basing Judgments on Similarity: The Representativeness Heuristic
545(4)
Basing Judgments on Initial Estimates: The Anchoring and-Adjustment Heuristic
549(3)
Biased Evaluation of Our Judgments
552(4)
STOP and REVIEW!
556(1)
Decision Making
557(7)
Cognition and Individual Differences. Cultural Differences in Decision-Making Overconfidence
557(7)
Expected Utility: A Normative Approach
558(2)
Prospect Theory: A Descriptive Approach
560(3)
Epilogue
563(1)
STOP and REVIEW!
564(1)
Glossary
564(3)
References 567(30)
Name Index 597(6)
Subject Index 603


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