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An ideal combination of communication theory and practical advice, Communicating About Health: Current Issues and Perspectives, Fourth Edition, is an indispensable resource for readers looking to improve their communication abilities in the health care field. Written by Athena du Pré--an experienced researcher and noted scholar--the text offers an excellent balance of theory and practice; research and pedagogy; coverage of patient/caregiver issues; and material on the current, historical, and philosophical backgrounds of communication in health care. In addition to enhancing features found in the previous edition, this new edition includes a greater emphasis on theory, narrative, and technology in order to reflect changes in the health industry.
What's New to the Fourth Edition? * A new chapter--eHealth, mHealth, and Telemedicine--describes the global impact of smartphone and tablet technology, tailored health messages, and the Internet on the health industry * A new chapter, Health Care Administration, Human Resources, Marketing, and PR, provides in-depth coverage of the contributions and communication strategies involved in leadership, morale, service excellence, community engagement, and more * An expanded discussion of communication not only involves physicians and nurses but also pharmacists, allied health personnel, dentists, therapists, and others * New features--"Can You Guess?," "What Do You Think?," "Check It Out!," and "In Your Experience"--offer a higher level of engagement with students and stimulate critical thinking and discussion
Support Package (contact your Oxford sales representative or call 800-280-0280 to request these resources) * An interactive website, known as a Prezi, is available for each chapter at www.oup.com/us/dupre and includes videos, activities, discussion questions, key points, and more. Suitable for use in class or online.
* An Instructor's Manual and Test Bank, available both in print and online at www.oup.com/us/dupre, features sample syllabi, test questions, self-assessment activities, background reading, and more.
Table of Contents
All chapters end with a summary, key terms and theories, discussion questions, and answers to Can You Guess? Preface Part I. Establishing a Context for Health Communication 1. Introduction The Philosophy Behind This Book What Is Health? What is Health Communication? --Defining Communication --Process --Personal Goals --Interdependence --Sensitivity --Shared Meaning --Defining Health Communication --History of Health Communication Medical Models --Biomedical Model --Biopsychosocial Model Importance of Health Communication --Six Important Issues Current Issues in Health Communication --Emphasis on Efficiency --Prevention --Patient Empowerment --Global Health Needs and Intercultural Competence --Changing Populations --Technology Box 1.1 Career Opportunities: Profiles of More Than 125 Health-Related Jobs Box 1.2 Learn While You Make a Difference Box 1.3 Perspectives: True Stories About Health Communication Experiences Box 1.4 Theoretical Foundations: The Basis for Health Communication Box 1.5 Resources: Health Communication Organizations and Resources Box 1.6 Perspectives: A Memorable Hospital Experience Box 1.7 Ethical Considerations: An Essential Component of Heath Communication Box 1.8 Perspectives: Down, But Not Out Chapter 2. History and Current Issues Medicine in Ancient Times --Imhotep --Hippocrates Medieval Religion and Health Care --Medical Spiritualism --Barber Surgeons --Science and Magic --End of an Era Renaissance Philosophy and Health Care --Principle of Verification --Cartesian Dualism Health Care in the New World --Health Conditions --Hippocrates' Influence --Women's Role The Rise of Orthodox Medicine --Population Shifts --Germ Theory --Research and Technology --Campaign of Orthodox Medicine --Flexner Report --Decline of Sectarian Medicine Twentieth-Century Health Care --Specialization --Medicine and Free Enterprise Putting the Brakes on Health Care Costs --Health and Wealth --Problems --Reform Efforts --Managed Care --Conventional Insurance --Health Maintenance Organization (HMO) --Preferred Provider Organization (PPO) --Point of Service (POS) --High-Deductible Health Plan (HDHP) --Organizations' Perspective --Advantages of Managed Care --Disadvantages of Managed Care --Managed Care Around the World Box 2.1 The Hippocratic Oath Box 2.2 Perspectives: Sick in the Head? Box 2.3 Managed Care at a Glance Box 2.4 Ethical Considerations: Classroom Debate on Managed Care Box 2.5 Resources: Before You Select a Managed Care Plan Part Two. The Roles of Patients and Caregivers Chapter 3. Patient-Caregiver Communication Medical Talk and Power Differentials --Knowledge and Power --Assertive and Nonassertive Behavior --Questions and Directives --Blocking --Patronizing Behavior --Why Do We Do It --Shifting Paradigm Collaborative Communication --Theoretical Foundations --The Emerging Model Communication Skill Builders --Motivational Interviewing --Cultivating Dialogue --Nonverbal Encouragement --Verbal Encouragement --Narrative Medicine --Tips for Patients Healing Environments --Soothing Surroundings --Easy Communication with Loved Ones Box 3.1 Resources: Journals That Feature Health Communication Research Box 3.2 Ethical Considerations: Therapeutic Privilege Box 3.3 Doorknob Disclosures Box 3.4 Stepping Over the Line Box 3.5 Ouch! Box 3.6 Perspectives: A Mother's Experience at the Dentist Box 3.7 Theoretical Foundations: Integrative Health Theory Box 3.8 Career Opportunities: Health Communication Research Chapter 4. Patient Perspectives Patient Socialization Voice of Lifeworld --Feelings Versus Evidence --Specific Versus Diffuse Patient Characteristics --Nature of the Illness --Patient Disposition --Communication Skills Satisfaction --Attentiveness and Respect --Convenience --A Sense of Control --Genuine Warmth and Honesty Cooperation and Consent --Reasons for Noncooperation --Caregivers' Investment --Informed Consent Illness and Personal Identity --Reactions to Illness Box 4.1 Perspectives: The Agony of Uncertainty Box 4.2 Career Opportunities: Patient Advocacy Box 4.3 Is Satisfaction Overrated? Box 4.4 Cash for Cooperation? Box 4.5 Ethical Considerations: Patients' Right to Informed Consent Chapter 5. Caregiver Perspective Gaining Entrance --Science-Based Curriculum --Communication Training --Socialization --Hidden Curriculum --Isolation --Identity in Limbo --Privileges --Withdrawal and Resentment --Implications Systems-Level Influences on Caregivers --Theoretical Foundations --Time Constraints --Autonomy Psychological Influences on Caregivers --Maturity --Confidence --Satisfaction Stress and Burnout --Causes of Stress --Conflict --Emotions --Communication Deficits --Workload --Other Factors --Effects of Stress --Healthy Strategies Medical Mistakes --Why Mistakes Happen --What Happens After a Mistake? --Communication Skill Builder: Managing Medical Mistakes --From the Beginning --If an Error Does Occur Interdisciplinary Teamwork --Advantages --Difficulties and Drawbacks --Communication Skill Builders: Working in Teams Box 5.1. Medical School Reform Box 5.2. Sleep Deprivation: Necessary or Not? Box 5.3. Ethical Considerations: Privacy Regulations Incite Controversy Box 5.4. Perspectives: Blowing the Whistle on an Impaired Physician Box 5.5. Communication Skill Builder: Dealing with Difficult Patients Part III. Social and Cultural Issues Chapter 6. Diversity in Health Care Theoretical Foundations Status Differences Health Literacy --Communication Skill Builders: Surmounting Status and Literacy Barriers Gender Differences --Women in Medicine --Sex Differences and Communication Sexual Orientation Race --Different Care and Outcomes --Explanations --Distrust --High Risk, Low Knowledge --Access --Patient-Caregiver Communication --Racial Diversity Among Health Professionals ---Historic Patterns of Acceptance ---Communication Effects Language Differences Disabilities --Communication Skill Builders: Interacting with Persons Who Have Disabilities Age --Children --Communication Skill Builders: Talking with Children About Illness --Older Adults --Theoretical Foundations: Effects of Ageism --Implications of Ageism and Overaccommodation --Communication Patterns --Promising Options --Communication Technology and Older Adults Communication Skill Builders: Reaching Marginalized Populations Box 6.1 Ethical Considerations: Who Gets What Care? Box 6.2 Genetic Profiling: A View Into Your Health Future Box 6.3. Ethical Considerations: Affirmative Action Justified or Not? Box 6.4 Perspectives: Language Barriers in a Health Care Emergency Box 6.5 Career Opportunities: Diversity Awareness Box 6.6 Perspectives: My Disability Doesn't Show Chapter 7. Cultural Conceptions of Health and Illness Eastern and Western Perspectives --West --East A Profile of Cultures --Asian and Pacific Island --Hispanic --Arab The Nature of Health and Illness --Health as Organic --Health as Harmony Social Implications of Disease --Disease as a Curse --Stigma of Disease --The Morality of Prevention --Victimization Patient and Caregiver Roles --Mechanics and Machines --Parents and Children --Spiritualists and Believers --Providers and Consumers --Partners --Implications Communication Skill Builders: Developing Cultural Competence Holistic Care --Definitions --Popularity --Advantages --Drawbacks Viagra: A Case Study in Health-Culture Overlap --Implication 1: To Be a Man You Have to Get It Up --Implication 2: To a Physical Ailment Let There Be a Physical Remedy --Implication 3: Women Are Passive but Grateful Recipients of Male Attention --Implication 4: Real Men are White and Straight --Implication 5: Intimacy Equals Vaginal Penetration Box 7.1 Resources: More About Culture and Health Box 7.2 Theoretical Foundations: Theory of Health as Expanded Consciousness Box 7.3 Perspectives: Thai Customs and a Son's Duty Box 7.4 Ethical Considerations: Physician as Parent or Partner? Box 7.5. Holistic Medicine at a Glance Box 7.6. Career Opportunities: Holistic Medicine Part IV: Coping and Health Resources Chapter 8. Social Support, Family Caregiving, and End of Life Conceptual Overview --Theoretical Perspectives --Coping --Sense of Control --Dialetics --Crisis --Normalcy Coping and Communication --Action-Facilitating Support --Nurturing Support --Communication Skill Builders: Supportive Listening --Communication Skill Builders: Allowing Emotional Expression --Social Networks When Support Goes Wrong --Friends Disappear --Hurtful Jests --Too Much Support --A Note of Encouragement Animals As Companions Transformative Experiences Friends and Family as Caregivers --Profile of the Family Caregiver --The Economics of Family Caregiving --Stress and Burnout --Caring for Caregivers End-of-Life Experiences --Life at All Costs --Death with Dignity Slow Medicine Advance-Care Directives Communication Skill Builders: Delivering Bad News Communication Skill Builders: Coping with Death Box 8.1 When Communication Ability is Compromised Box 8.2 Theory of Problematic Integration Box 8.3 Organ Donations: The Nicholas Effect Box 8.4 Perspectives: A Long Goodbye to Grandmother Box 8.5 Ethical Considerations: Do People Have a Right to Die? Box 8.6 Career Opportunities: Social Services and Mental Health Chapter 9. eHealth, mHealth, and Telemedicine eHealth --Theoretical Foundations --The Three Spheres --Weak and Strong Ties Why And When Do We Seek Electronic Health Information? Is Online Health Information Useful? --Communication Skill Builders: Using the Internet How Does Ehealth Communication Compare? mHealth Telemedicine --A Doctor's Visit, Telemedicine Style --Telemedicine in the Future --Telemedicine as Medical Outsourcing --Advantages for Consumers --Advantages for Caregivers --Disadvantages Box 9.1: Profile of an ePatient Box 9.2 - Career Opportunities: Health Information Technology Part V: Communication in Health Organizations Chapter 10. Health Care Administration, Human Resources, Marketing, And PR Health Care Administration --Changing Market --Consumerism --Consolidation --Efficiency And Six Sigma --Communication Skill Builders: Shared Vision And Dispersed Leadership Human Resources --Theoretical Foundations --Communication Skill Builders: Building Great Teams --Hire Carefully --Teach the Culture and Values --Continually Recruit Internal Talent Marketing And Public Relations --Foundations For Theory And Practice --Focus on Relationships --Integrate --Develop Reputation, Not Only Image --Communication Skill Builders: Two-Way Communication and Social Media Crisis Management Service Excellence Is Everyone's Job Box 10.1 Resources: Six Sigma and Other Efficiency Process Models Box 10.2 "We Hate the Rules" Box 10.3 Career Opportunities: Box 10.4 Staffing Shortages in Health Care Box 10.5 A Model for Innovative Leadership Box 10.6 Ethical Considerations: Should Health Organizations Advertise? Box 10.7 Resources: Journals in the Field Part VI: Media, Public Policy, and Health Promotion Chapter 11. Health Images in the Media Theoretical Foundations Advertising --Direct-to-Consumer (DTC) Advertising --Advantages of DCT Advertising --Disadvantages of DCT Advertising --Communication Skill Builders: Evaluating Medical Claims --Nutrition --Obesity --Effects on Children --Activity Levels --Alcohol --Body Images --Health Effects --Eternal Hope News Coverage --Accuracy and Fairness --Sensationalism --Advantages of Health News --Communication Skill Builders: Presenting Health News Entertainment --Portrayals of Health-Related Behaviors --Mental Illness and Dementia --Disabilities --Sex --Violence --Portrays of Health Care Situations --Entertainment and Commercialism --Entertainomercials --Product Placement --Entertainment-Education and Programming --Impact of Persuasive Entertainment Media Literacy --Teaching Media Literacy Box 11.1 Career Opportunities: Health Journalism Box 11.2 Ethical Considerations: Is the Entertainment Industry Responsible for Health Images? Chapter 12. Public Health Crises and Health Care Reform Mad Cow Disease What Is Public Health? Risk and Crisis Communication --Managing Perceptions --How Scared Is Scared Enough? --In the Heat of the Moment Case Studies: A Global Perspective --AIDS --SARS --Anthrax --Avian Flu --Wrapping It Up Health Care Reform --Spending --Waste --Inequities and Oversights --Less Costs More --Out of Pocket, Out of Luck --Hope --The American Model --Multi-Payer Vs. Single-Payer --Universal Coverage Models --Massachusetts and Vermont --National Health Care Reform --Public Discourse About the Legislation --Advantages --Challenges and Disadvantages Box 12.1 Career Opportunities: Public Health Box 12.2 Theoretical Perspectives: Risk Management/Communication Framework Box 12.3 Typhoid Mary and TB Andy Chapter 13. Planning Health Promotion Campaigns Background on Health Campaigns --Motivating Factors --Exemplary Campaigns --Go to the Audience --Take Action --Measure Your Success --Encourage Social Support Step 1: Defining the Situation and Potential Benefits --Benefits --Current Situation --Diverse Motivations Step 2: Analyzing and Segmenting the Audience --Data Collection --Ethical Commitments --Data-Gathering Options --Choosing a Target Audience --Theoretical Foundations --Choosing a Target Audience --Reaching Under-Informed Audiences --Segmenting the Audience --Audience as a Person --Young Audiences --Sensation-Seekers Step 3: Establishing Campaign Goals and Objectives Step 4: Selecting Channels of Communication --Channel Characteristics --Communication Technology: Using Computers to Narrowcast Messages --Multichannel Campaigns Box 13.1 Career Opportunities: Health Promotion and Education Box 13.2 Ethical Considerations: The Politics of Prevention Chapter 14. Designing and Implementing Health Campaigns Theories of Behaviors Change --Health Belief Model --Social Cognitive Theory --Embedded Behaviors Model --Theory of Reasoned Action --Transtheoretical Model --Wrapping It Up Critical-Cultural Perspective Step 5: Designing Campaign Messages --Choosing a Voice --Designing the Message --Theoretical Foundations: Message Framing --Community Expectations --Logical and Emotional Appeals Step 6: Piloting and Implementing the Campaign Step 7: Evaluating and Maintaining the Campaign --Evaluation --Maintenance Box 14.1. Theoretical Foundations: Synopsis of Campaign-Related Theories Box 14.2. Ethical Considerations: Three Issues for Health Promoters to Keep in Mind Box 14.3. Career Opportunities: Health Campaign Design and Management Box 14.4. Theoretical Foundations: What Does Science Say About Peer Pressure? References Credits Author Index Subject Index