Community-based Corrections

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  • Edition: 7th
  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 2/21/2007
  • Publisher: Wadsworth Publishing
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Up-to-date, comprehensive, and objective, COMMUNITY-BASED CORRECTIONS gives you essential information on the wide array of punishment and treatment programs that constitute alternatives to incarceration. You'll be introduced into a number of programs--such as probation, parole, electronic monitoring, house arrest, day-treatment centers, boot camps, restitution, and fines-designed to meet the needs and levels of risk posed by the individual offender. Additionally, you will learn about the practical and legal matters involved in running these programs, and you'll gain insight into their historical, philosophical, social, and legal underpinnings.

Table of Contents

Prefacep. xvii
About the Authorsp. xxi
Overview of Community Correctionsp. 1
The State of Corrections Today: Why Community Corrections Is Importantp. 2
The Correctional Dilemmap. 3
Change in Sentencing Lawsp. 3
The Toughening of Juvenile Justicep. 6
The Paradoxp. 6
Public Perceptions of Community Correctionsp. 7
Correctional Budgetsp. 8
The Role of Corrections at Three Major Decision Pointsp. 9
Pretrial and the Bail Decisionp. 12
Sentencing Decisionp. 12
Reentry Decisionp. 13
How Community Corrections Fits Correctional Goalsp. 13
Protection of the Publicp. 13
Rehabilitationp. 14
Community Reintegrationp. 15
Restorative or Community Justicep. 15
Public Shaming as Punishmentp. 16
What You Should Know about Evaluations of Community-Based Correctionsp. 17
What Works?p. 17
How Is Effectiveness Measured?p. 18
Other Outcome Measures for Evaluationp. 19
Top Things You Should Knowp. 19
Discussion Questionsp. 20
Websitesp. 20
Pretrial Release and Diversionp. 21
Introductionp. 22
Pretrial Servicesp. 22
The Pretrial Release Decisionp. 22
History of Pretrial Releasep. 22
The Least Restrictive Optionp. 23
Types of Bondsp. 24
Characteristics of Pretrial Releaseesp. 25
Pretrial Supervisionp. 26
Failure to Appearp. 26
Reducing Failure to Appear Ratesp. 26
Diversionp. 28
Candidates for Diversionp. 28
Drug Courtsp. 29
Assumptions of Drug Courtsp. 29
Gender and Drug Court Treatment Strategiesp. 31
Evaluating Drug Courtsp. 32
Mental Health Courtsp. 34
Criticisms of Diversion Programsp. 35
Top Things You Should Knowp. 35
Discussion Questionsp. 35
Websitesp. 36
Case Study Exercisep. 37
Sentencing and the Presentence Investigation Reportp. 39
Introductionp. 40
Factors That Affect Granting a Community Sentencep. 40
Eligibility for Community Correctionsp. 40
Conditions of Probation Fixed by Statutep. 40
Availability and Quality of Intermediate Sanctions and Other Community-based Servicesp. 41
Other Factorsp. 41
Sentencing Guidelinesp. 41
Voluntary Sentencing Guidelinesp. 42
Punishment Unitsp. 42
Sentencing Commissionsp. 44
Conditions of Community Correctionsp. 44
Standard Conditionsp. 44
Special Conditionsp. 44
Limitations of Special Conditionsp. 45
Supervision Conditions Must Be Constitutionalp. 45
First Amendment Rightsp. 45
Searches and Seizuresp. 46
The Privilege Against Self-Incriminationp. 47
The Presentence Investigation Reportp. 48
Purposes of the PSI Reportp. 48
Contents of the PSI Reportp. 49
Offender-Based PSI Reportsp. 49
Offense-Based PSI Reportsp. 50
Preparing the PSI Reportp. 52
The Initial Interviewp. 53
Investigation and Verificationp. 54
The Evaluative Summaryp. 54
The Sentence Recommendationp. 55
Legal Issues Concerning the Presentence Reportp. 56
Disclosure of the PSI Reportp. 56
Inaccuracies in the PSI Reportp. 57
Hearsay in the PSI Reportp. 57
Does the Exclusionary Rule Apply?p. 58
Miranda Warnings and the PSI Interviewp. 58
Right to a Lawyer during the PSI Interviewp. 58
Top Things You Should Knowp. 59
Discussion Questionsp. 59
Websitesp. 60
Probation Conditionsp. 60
p. 62
p. 64
Probationp. 75
History of Probationp. 76
Introductionp. 77
Precursors to American Probationp. 77
Recognizance and Suspended Sentencep. 78
Two Kinds of Suspended Sentencep. 78
The Power to Suspend Sentencep. 78
Early Probationp. 79
The Role of Volunteers and the Settlement Movementp. 82
Development of Federal Probationp. 82
History of Juvenile Probation and Female Probation Officersp. 83
Early Probation Legislation in Other Statesp. 84
Changing Concepts of Supervisionp. 85
The Casework Era: 1900-1970p. 85
Brokerage of Services Era: 1970-1980p. 85
Community Resource Management Teamp. 86
Justice Model of Supervision: 1980-1995p. 86
Top Things You Should Knowp. 87
Discussion Questionsp. 88
Websitesp. 88
Probation Officer Issuesp. 89
Introductionp. 90
Organization of Probation Servicesp. 90
Arguments for and Against State or Executive Branch Administrationp. 92
Community Corrections Actsp. 93
A Typology of Probation Officer Work Stylesp. 94
Selection and Appointment of Probation Officersp. 95
Appointment Systemp. 96
Merit Systemp. 97
Combined Systemp. 97
Officer Qualifications, Training, and Salaryp. 98
Education and Experiencep. 98
Adult Preservice Trainingp. 98
Juvenile Preservice and Orientation Trainingp. 98
In-Service Trainingp. 100
Officer Salaryp. 100
Firearms Policies for Probation and Parole Officersp. 101
Probation Officer Job Stressp. 102
Sources of Stressp. 103
Decreasing Stress: Types of Immunityp. 104
Absolute Immunityp. 105
Oualified Immunityp. 105
Private Probationp. 106
Top Things You Should Knowp. 107
Discussion Questionsp. 107
Websitesp. 107
Classification and Supervision in Probation and Parolep. 109
Introductionp. 110
Neighborhood-Based Probation Supervisionp. 110
The Surveillance Function in Supervisionp. 116
Developing Prosocial Behaviorsp. 117
Building on Assets and Strengthsp. 117
Employment Servicesp. 117
Using Informal Social Controlsp. 118
Classification: The First Step in Supervisionp. 118
Actuarial Risk Assessmentp. 121
Identifying Treatment Needsp. 121
Developing the Case Planp. 124
Levels of Supervisionp. 124
Caseload and Workload Standardsp. 126
Specialized Caseloadsp. 126
Supervising Offenders Who Are Mentally Illp. 127
Supervising Offenders Who Have Abused Drugs and Alcoholp. 128
Gender-Responsive Strategiesp. 129
Supervising Sex Offendersp. 130
Polygraph Testsp. 130
Global Positioning Systemsp. 130
Interstate Compacts on Probationp. 131
New Interstate Compact for Adult Offender Supervisionp. 132
Revocation and the Interstate Compactp. 132
Top Things You Should Knowp. 132
Discussion Questionsp. 133
Websitesp. 133
Case Study Exercisep. 135
Probation Modification and Terminationp. 138
Introductionp. 139
Modifying Probation Conditionsp. 140
Early Termination of Probationp. 140
Modifying Conditions before the Revocation Decisionp. 141
The Decision to Revokep. 141
Types of Probation Violationsp. 143
Law Violationsp. 143
Technical Violationsp. 144
Probation Abscondersp. 145
Revocation Procedurep. 145
The Power to Arrest Probationersp. 146
Time on Probation or Parole Is Usually Not Credited if Revokedp. 146
Revocation Rights of Probationers and Paroleesp. 147
Gagnon v. Scarpelli-The Factsp. 148
The Right to a Hearingp. 148
The Right to a Lawyerp. 149
Level of Proof and Evidence Requiredp. 149
Other Revocation Situationsp. 150
Revocation for an Inability to Pay?p. 150
Juvenile Probation Revocationp. 150
Revocation After Probation Term Expiresp. 150
Probation Effectivenessp. 151
Probation Recidivism Ratesp. 151
Who Is More Likely to Succeed or Fail on Probation?p. 152
Probationers Compared with Paroleesp. 153
Top Things You Should Knowp. 154
Discussion Questionsp. 154
Websitesp. 154
Case Study Exercisep. 156
Intermediate Sanctionsp. 159
Residential Intermediate Sanctionsp. 160
Introductionp. 161
Residential Community Corrections Facilitiesp. 162
Halfway Housesp. 162
History of Halfway Houses in the United Statesp. 164
Program Componentsp. 166
Levels System: A Form of Behavior Modificationp. 166
Worker Perspectives and Role Orientationp. 167
Punishment and Treatment Role Orientationsp. 168
Evaluations of RCCFsp. 168
Shock Incarcerationp. 169
Correctional Boot Campsp. 170
Prison Boot Camps: The Case of New York Statep. 171
Probation Boot Campsp. 172
Offender Perspectivesp. 173
Criticisms of Boot Campsp. 176
Evaluations of Boot Camp Programsp. 176
Eight Site Studyp. 176
Attitude and Behavoral Changep. 177
Reduction of Crowding and Costsp. 177
The Future of Shock Incarceration Programsp. 177
Other Types of Residential Community Corrections Facilitiesp. 177
Restitution Centersp. 178
Minnesota Restitutionp. 178
Georgia Community Diversion Centerp. 178
Therapeutic Communitiesp. 178
The Therapeutic Community Environmentp. 178
Challenges of the TCp. 180
Types and Uses of Therapeutic Communitiesp. 180
Evaluations of Therapeutic Communitiesp. 181
Work Release and Work Ethic Campsp. 181
Work Ethic Campp. 182
Combined Work Release and Therapeutic Communityp. 182
Women Offenders Living with Their Childrenp. 182
John P. Craine Housep. 183
Top Things You Should Knowp. 184
Discussion Questionsp. 184
Websitesp. 185
Case Study Exercisep. 186
Nonresidential Intermediate Sanctionsp. 187
Introductionp. 188
Intensive Supervision Probationp. 188
ISP Caseloadsp. 189
Attitudes toward ISPp. 189
Evaluations of ISPp. 189
Reduction of Prison Bedsp. 190
Cost-Benefit Analysesp. 190
Treatment Participationp. 190
Summary of ISP Evaluationsp. 190
House Arrestp. 191
Purposes of Home Detentionp. 191
Criticisms of House Arrestp. 191
Effectiveness of House Arrestp. 192
House Arrest Versus Residential Community Corrections Facilitiesp. 192
Pretrial Detaineesp. 193
Electronic Monitoring and Global Positioning Systemsp. 193
History of Electronic Monitoringp. 194
Problems of Early EM Programsp. 194
Remote Location Monitoringp. 195
Officer Carries a Portable Receiverp. 196
Global Positioning Systemsp. 196
Frequency of Usep. 197
Attitudes toward EMp. 198
Attitudes of EM Participantsp. 198
Citizen Attitudesp. 199
Empirical Evaluations of Home-Based Electronic Monitoringp. 200
Long-Term Effectsp. 200
Completion Ratesp. 200
Gender Differencesp. 200
Day Reporting Centersp. 201
Purposes of DRCsp. 202
Treatment-Oriented versus Supervision-Oriented DRCsp. 202
Evaluations of DRCsp. 205
Completion Ratesp. 205
Rate of Rearrestp. 205
Predictors of DRC Failurep. 206
Top Things You Should Knowp. 206
Discussion Questionsp. 207
Websitesp. 207
Case Study Exercisep. 209
Economic and Restorative Justice Reparationsp. 210
Introductionp. 211
Restorative Justice Principlesp. 211
Forms of Restorative Justicep. 212
Victim-Offender Mediationp. 213
Reparation Boardsp. 213
Family Group Conferencingp. 214
Circle Sentencingp. 214
Effectiveness of Restorative Justice Methodsp. 214
Restitutionp. 216
Restitution in Historyp. 216
Losses Eligible for Compensationp. 218
Problems Associated with Restitutionp. 218
Indigent Offendersp. 219
Determining the Restitution Amountp. 219
Collecting Restitutionp. 219
Increasing Restitution Collection Ratesp. 220
Effectiveness of Restitutionp. 220
Victim and Public Views Toward Restitutionp. 220
Community Servicep. 221
History of Community Servicep. 221
The English Modelp. 221
Purpose of Community Servicep. 221
Prevalence of Community Servicep. 222
Effectiveness of Community Servicep. 222
Finesp. 224
Prevalence of Finesp. 224
Revoking Probation for Fine Nonpaymentp. 225
Forfeituresp. 225
Day Finesp. 226
Evaluation of Day Finesp. 226
Fees and Costsp. 227
Top Things You Should Knowp. 228
Discussion Questionsp. 229
Websitesp. 229
Case Study Exercisep. 230
Prisoner Reentryp. 231
The History of Parole: From Its Origin to the Presentp. 232
Introductionp. 233
The Origins of Parolep. 233
Manuel Montesinosp. 234
Georg Michael Obermaierp. 235
Alexander Maconochiep. 235
Transportation of English Prisoners to Americap. 235
Transportation of English Prisoners to Australiap. 236
Marks Systemp. 236
Norfolk Islandp. 236
Sir Walter Crofton and the Irish Systemp. 237
Development of Parole in the United Statesp. 237
Reward for Good Conductp. 237
Postrelease Supervisionp. 238
Zebulon R. Brockway and the Indeterminate Sentencep. 238
Reducing the Cost of Incarcerationp. 238
The Medical Model: 1930-1960p. 239
Changing Public Opinionp. 239
A Philosophical Changep. 240
Origins of Modern Determinate Sentencingp. 240
The Justice Modelp. 241
Changing of the Guard: From Discretionary Parole to Mandatory Releasep. 242
Parole Todayp. 244
Characteristics of Paroleesp. 246
Functions of Parolep. 248
Prison Population Controlp. 249
Medical Parolep. 250
Top Things You Should Knowp. 251
Discussion Questionsp. 252
Websitesp. 252
Case Study Exercisep. 254
Preparing for Prisoner Reentry: Discretionary Parole and Mandatory Releasep. 258
Introductionp. 259
Issues in Reentryp. 259
The Prisoner's Familyp. 260
The Victim's Role in Reentryp. 261
Reentry and the Communityp. 261
Community-Based Reentry Initiativesp. 262
Reentry Courtsp. 262
Types of Reentryp. 263
Eligibility for Parolep. 263
Time Sheets and Eligibility Datesp. 264
Prerelease Preparation within the Institutionp. 265
The Parole Boardp. 266
Term and Qualifications of the Parole Boardp. 268
The Parole Hearingp. 268
Number of Parole Board Membersp. 268
Recommendations and Attendeesp. 269
Victim Participation in Parole Hearingsp. 270
Models of Parole Release Decisionsp. 271
The Surveillance Modelp. 271
The Procedural Justice Modelp. 271
The Risk Prediction Modelp. 271
Due Process During Discretionary Parole Hearingsp. 274
Menechino v. Oswaldp. 274
Greenholtz v. Inmates of the Nebraska Penal and Correctional Complexp. 274
State-Created Liberty Interestp. 275
Extending the Time Intervals between Parole Hearingsp. 275
Prisoners' Perceptions of Parole Selectionp. 276
Top Things You Should Knowp. 276
Discussion Questionsp. 277
Websitesp. 277
Case Study Exercisep. 279
Parole Conditions and Revocationp. 281
Introductionp. 282
Prisoner Perspectives on Getting Outp. 282
California Studyp. 283
Iowa Studyp. 284
The Field Parole Officerp. 285
The Officer's Perspectivep. 285
Conditions of Parolep. 286
Legal Issues in Parole Conditionsp. 286
Limited Parolee Rightsp. 288
First Amendment Rightsp. 288
Fourth Amendment Rightsp. 288
Violating Parolep. 289
Warrants and Citationsp. 289
Due Process Rights under "Preparole"p. 291
Characteristics of Parole Violatorsp. 291
Parole Revocation Ratep. 291
Reasons for Revocationp. 292
Why Have Revocation Rates Increased?p. 293
Attitudes on Revocationp. 294
Parole Abscondersp. 295
Why Do Parolees Leave?p. 295
Type I Absconders: Benignp. 295
Type II Absconders: Menace to Societyp. 295
Locating and Apprehending Fugitivesp. 296
Predicting Absconding Behaviorp. 297
Parole Effectivenessp. 298
Recidivism Studiesp. 299
Predicting Parole Outcomesp. 300
Gender Differencesp. 300
Number of Prior Arrestsp. 300
Supervision Versus No Supervisionp. 300
Top Things You Should Knowp. 302
Discussion Questionsp. 303
Websitesp. 303
Case Study Exercisep. 304
Special Issues in Community Correctionsp. 307
Juvenile Justice, Probation, and Parolep. 308
Introductionp. 309
Background and Historyp. 309
Mens Rea and Juvenilesp. 309
Parens Patriae and Its Declinep. 310
Juvenile Justice and Adult Justice Systems Comparedp. 310
Differencesp. 310
Realityp. 311
Juvenile Courtsp. 311
Created in the U.S.A.p. 311
Jurisdiction of Juvenile Courtsp. 312
Based on Agep. 312
Based on Acts Committedp. 314
Differences from Adult Courtsp. 314
Transfer from Juvenile Courts to Adult Courtsp. 315
An Overview of the Juvenile Justice Processp. 316
Procedure before Adjudicationp. 317
The Intake Stagep. 318
The Adjudication Stagep. 318
The Disposition Stagep. 319
Blended Sentencesp. 320
Release from an Institutionp. 320
In Re Gault: The Most Important Juvenile Justice Casep. 320
Juvenile Probationp. 322
Originp. 322
Conditions of Probationp. 323
Judges Have Much Discretionp. 323
Types of Conditionsp. 323
Supervisionp. 323
Juvenile Probation Officersp. 323
Intensive Supervision Probationp. 325
School-Based Probationp. 325
Fare v. Michael C.: An Important Case in Juvenile Probation Supervisionp. 326
The Probation Record of Juvenilesp. 327
Juvenile Parole (Or Aftercare)p. 328
Backgroundp. 328
Similarities with Probationp. 328
Differences from Probationp. 329
Parole Boardsp. 329
Responsibilities of Juvenile Parole Officersp. 329
Evaluating Juvenile Parole Programsp. 330
Revocation of Juvenile Probation or Parolep. 330
No Standards for Revocationp. 331
Result of Revocationp. 331
Top Things You Should Knowp. 331
Discussion Questionsp. 332
Websitesp. 332
Case Study Exercisep. 334
Collateral Consequences of Conviction, Pardon, and Restoration of Rightsp. 336
Introductionp. 337
Civil and Political Rights Definedp. 338
Background of Civil Disabilitiesp. 338
Civil Disabilities Todayp. 339
Differences by Statep. 339
Other Differencesp. 340
Civil and Political Rights Affected By Convictionp. 340
Loss of Right to Votep. 341
Loss of Right to Serve on a Juryp. 342
Loss of Credibility As a Witness 343 Loss of the Right to Hold Public Officep. 343
Employment-Related Rightsp. 343
Public Employmentp. 343
Private Employmentp. 344
Right to an Occupational Licensep. 344
Loss of Capacity to be Bondedp. 345
Loss of Good Moral Characterp. 346
Loss of Right to Own or Possess a Firearmp. 346
Loss of Welfare Benefitsp. 347
Loss of Parental Rightsp. 347
Problems with Civil Disability Lawsp. 347
Other Effects of Convictionp. 348
Sex Offender Registration Lawsp. 348
Sex Offender Notification Lawsp. 349
Involuntary Commitment of Sexual Predatorsp. 351
Social Stigmatizationp. 353
Pardonp. 353
Definition and Purposep. 353
The Power to Pardonp. 354
Kinds of Pardonp. 354
Procedure for Obtaining a Pardonp. 355
Legal Effects of a Pardonp. 355
Effects of a Pardon on Occupational Licensingp. 355
Restoration of Rightsp. 356
Restoration upon Applicationp. 356
Automatic Restorationp. 356
Restoring the Right to Votep. 357
Restoring Good Moral Characterp. 357
Expungement of Criminal Recordsp. 359
Sealing of Criminal Recordsp. 360
Top Things You Should Knowp. 361
Discussion Questionsp. 362
Websitesp. 362
Case Studyp. 364
Glossaryp. 367
Referencesp. 373
Table of Casesp. 389
Name Indexp. 391
Subject Indexp. 395
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