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The study of comparative public policy reveals the intensely political nature of policy choices. While policy analysts often look to policy successes and failures outside their borders to draw valuable lessons and insights, cultural, economic, political, and institutional conditions vary from country to country and strongly affect how policy analysis is ultimately used. By combining a conceptual discussion of policy making with an examination of seven specific policy areas, Jessica Adolino and Charles Blake show how politics-in the realm of the environment, education, taxation, economics, immigration, health care, and social welfare-shapes policy choices. The second edition of Comparing Public Policies has been revised and updated to reflect the most recent political and policy developments. This new edition expands coverage of the internationalization of domestic policy making by including a European Union case study in each issue area, along with further discussion of the role of international interest groups in the policy process. The seven policy chapters have been revised and updated to examine current issues in the United States, Japan, Germany, France, the United Kingdom, Italy, and the European Union, such as: - the heightened calls for immigration policy reform - the return to higher budget deficits in several countries - the efforts to lower tax rates in countries with falling expenditures and in countries with rising spending levels - the often unsuccessful attempts to control increasing health care costs in countries with aging populations - the spirited debate over the future role of the welfare state in an increasingly globalized economy - the, at times, divergent education reform debates regarding the role of assessment and calls for decentralization - the uneven environmental performance in the reduction of carbon dioxide emissions Chapters include analyses of crossnational trends-past and present-and a final chapter reexamines the internationalization of public policy in industrialized countries. Useful pedagogical features have been incorporated throughout the text, including "In Depth" boxes that offer detailed discussion of the political process or analytical techniques, and "Country At-a-Glance" boxes that provide quick reference to political institutions. A wealth of recent data is displayed in numerous tables and a glossary gives students a practical guide to terminology.
Jessica R. Adolino is professor of political science at James Madison University in Harrisonburg, Virginia, where she teaches courses on comparative politics, European politics, and international affairs. She also serves as associate dean of the College of Arts and Letters. Her research interests primarily lie in the areas of British politics and comparative public policy. She published an extensive study of immigration and ethnic politics, Ethnic Minorities, Electoral Politics and Political Integration in Britain, in 1998. Charles H. Blake is professor and chair of political science at James Madison University in Harrisonburg, Virginia, where he teaches comparative politics, comparative public policy, and research methods. His research on the political economy of upper-income and middle-income societies has been published in a variety of journals, including Comparative Political Studies, Democratization, and the Journal of Health Politics, Policy and Law, among others. He is also the author of Politics in Latin America: The Quests for Development, Liberty, and Governance and coeditor (with Stephen D. Morris) of Corruption and Democracy in Latin America.
Table of Contents
|Tables, Figures, and Boxes||p. ix|
|An Introduction to Comparative Public Policy||p. 1|
|The Increasing Internationalization of Public Policy||p. 4|
|The Organization of This Book||p. 6|
|The Policy Process||p. 1|
|The Study of the Policy Process||p. 8|
|The Policy Process Revisited||p. 28|
|Theories of Policy Making||p. 31|
|The Cultural School||p. 31|
|The Economic School||p. 34|
|The Political School||p. 38|
|The Institutional School||p. 41|
|An Eclectic Approach to Examining Policy Theories||p. 45|
|Political and Economic Dynamics in Industrialized Countries||p. 47|
|Social Cleavage||p. 47|
|Interest Groups||p. 48|
|Political Parties and Party Systems||p. 51|
|Voting Behavior||p. 55|
|Electoral Systems||p. 59|
|Executive-Legislative Relations||p. 63|
|Intergovernmental Relations||p. 67|
|The Bureaucracy||p. 69|
|The Judiciary||p. 70|
|Economic Dynamics||p. 71|
|The Policy-making Context||p. 77|
|The United States||p. 77|
|The United Kingdom||p. 89|
|European Union||p. 95|
|Immigration Policy||p. 100|
|Common Policy Problems||p. 100|
|Major Policy Options||p. 103|
|Explaining Policy Dynamics||p. 104|
|International Policy Making||p. 109|
|United States||p. 111|
|United Kingdom||p. 134|
|European Union||p. 146|
|Cross-national Trends||p. 150|
|Fiscal Policy||p. 159|
|Common Policy Problems||p. 159|
|Major Policy Options||p. 161|
|Explaining Policy Dynamics||p. 163|
|Internafional Policy Making||p. 167|
|United States||p. 169|
|United Kingdom||p. 183|
|European Union||p. 189|
|Cross-national Trends||p. 192|
|Taxation Policy||p. 198|
|Common Policy Problems||p. 198|
|Major Policy Options||p. 200|
|Explaining Policy Dynamics||p. 203|
|International Policy Making||p. 206|
|United States||p. 207|
|United Kingdom||p. 219|
|European Union||p. 225|
|Cross-national Trends||p. 229|
|Health Care Policy||p. 234|
|Common Policy Problems||p. 234|
|Major Policy Options||p. 235|
|Explaining Policy Dynamics||p. 239|
|International Policy Making||p. 242|
|United States||p. 243|
|United Kingdom||p. 262|
|European Union||p. 270|
|Cross-national Trends||p. 273|
|Social Policy||p. 278|
|Common Policy Problems||p. 278|
|Major Policy Options||p. 281|
|Explaining Policy Dynamics||p. 283|
|International Policy Making||p. 287|
|United States||p. 287|
|United Kingdom||p. 305|
|European Union||p. 313|
|Cross-national Trends||p. 315|
|Education Policy||p. 321|
|Common Policy Problems||p. 321|
|Major Policy Options||p. 322|
|Explaining Policy Dynamics||p. 326|
|International Policy Making||p. 329|
|United States||p. 329|
|United Kingdom||p. 346|
|European Union||p. 355|
|Cross-national Trends||p. 358|
|Environmental Policy||p. 364|
|Common Policy Problems||p. 364|
|Major Policy Options||p. 366|
|Explaining Policy Dynamics||p. 369|
|International Policy Making||p. 372|
|United States||p. 373|
|United Kingdom||p. 392|
|European Union||p. 401|
|Cross-national Trends||p. 405|
|Contemporary Trends||p. 412|
|Learning Lessons by Comparing Policies||p. 417|
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