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Contemporary Linguistics: An Introduction,9780312419363
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Contemporary Linguistics: An Introduction

by ; ;
Edition:
5th
ISBN13:

9780312419363

ISBN10:
0312419368
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
12/20/2004
Publisher(s):
Bedford/St. Martin's
List Price: $106.66
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Summary

Contemporary Linguisticsis the gold standard of introductory linguistics textbooks. Meticulously prepared, it is one of the most comprehensive, authoritative, up-to-date introductory resources on the market. The book's extensive examples and exercises help students master the course material, and its lucid writing style makes complex concepts easy to understand.

Author Biography

WILLIAM O'GRADY teaches linguistics at the University of Hawaii at Manoa and is the author of several scholarly books. His research focuses on syntactic theory, language acquisition, and Korean.

JOHN ARCHIBALD, in addition to teaching linguistics at the University of Calgary, studies the acquisition of phonology and has written several books on the subject.

MARK ARONOFF is professor of linguistics at Stony Brook University and President of the Linguistic Society of America for 2005. He has written numerous articles and several books on aspects of linguistic morphology, as well as on orthography and the teaching of linguistics.

JANIE REES-MILLER is director of international programs at Marietta College, Ohio. In research and teaching, she is concerned with the interface between theory and practice and with making linguistics accessible to nonlinguists. She is coeditor with Mark Aronoff of ~The Handbook of Linguistics~.

Table of Contents

Preface vii
Preface to the First Edition xi
List of Technical Abbreviations
xxv
Language: A Preview
1(14)
Specialization for Language
1(1)
A Creative System
2(3)
Grammar and Linguistic Competence
5(10)
Generality: All Languages Have a Grammar
6(1)
Parity: All Grammars Are Equal
7(1)
Universality: Grammars Are Alike in Basic Ways
8(1)
Mutability: Grammars Change over Time
9(1)
Inaccessibility: Grammatical Knowledge Is Subconscious
10(1)
Summing Up
11(1)
Key Terms
11(1)
Recommended Reading
11(1)
Exercises
12(3)
Phonetics: The Sounds of Language
15(42)
Phonetic Transcription
16(2)
Units of Representation
17(1)
Segments
17(1)
The Sound-Producing System
18(2)
Glottal States
19(1)
Sound Classes
20(1)
Vowels, Consonants, and Glides (Syllabic and Nonsyllabic Elements)
20(1)
Consonant Articulation
21(3)
The Tongue
22(1)
Places of Articulation
22(2)
Manners of Articulation
24(8)
Oral versus Nasal Phones
24(1)
Stops
24(2)
Fricatives
26(1)
Affricates
27(1)
Voice Lag and Aspiration
28(1)
Liquids
29(1)
Syllabic Liquids and Nasals
30(1)
Glides
31(1)
Vowels
32(3)
Simple Vowels and Diphthongs
32(1)
Basic Parameters for Describing Vowels
33(1)
Tense and Lax Vowels
34(1)
Phonetic Transcription of American English Consonants and Vowels
35(2)
Suprasegmentals
37(6)
Pitch: Tone and Intonation
37(4)
Length
41(1)
Stress
42(1)
Speech Production
43(5)
Coarticulation
43(1)
Articulatory Processes
43(1)
Some Common Articulatory Processes
44(4)
Other Vowels and Consonants
48(9)
Summing Up
49(1)
Key Terms
50(2)
Recommended Reading
52(1)
Exercises
52(3)
For the Student Linguist: ``Don't Worry about Spelling''
55(2)
Phonology: The Function and Patterning of Sounds
57(54)
Segments in Contrast
59(3)
Minimal Pairs
59(2)
Language-Specific Contrasts
61(1)
Phonetically Conditioned Variation: Phonemes and Allophones
62(7)
Complementary Distribution
62(1)
Phonemes and Allophones
63(1)
Classes and Generalization in Phonology
64(1)
Canadian Raising
65(2)
English Mid Vowels and Glides
67(1)
Language-Specific Patterns
68(1)
Phonetic and Phonemic Transcription
69(3)
Phonetic and Phonemic Inventories
71(1)
Features
72(11)
Why We Use Features
72(4)
Feature Representations
76(7)
Above the Segment: Syllables
83(8)
Defining the Syllable
83(2)
Onset Constraints and Phonotactics
85(1)
Language-Specific Phonotactics
86(1)
Setting Up Syllables
87(2)
Syllabic Phonology
89(2)
Derivations and Rules
91(20)
The Form and Notation of Rules
92(3)
Derivations
95(1)
Rule Application
96(1)
Processes and Rules: A Last Word
97(1)
Summing Up
97(1)
Key Terms
98(1)
Recommended Reading
99(1)
Appendix: Hints for Solving Phonology Problems
99(2)
Exercises
101(7)
For the Student Linguist: ``The Feature Presentation''
108(3)
Morphology: The Analysis of Word Structure
111(40)
Words and Word Structure
112(6)
Morphemes
113(1)
Analyzing Word Structure
114(4)
Derivation
118(5)
Some English Derivational Affixes
119(3)
Two Classes of Derivational Affixes
122(1)
Compounding
123(4)
Properties of Compounds
124(1)
Endocentric and Exocentric Compounds
125(1)
Compounds in Other Languages
125(2)
Inflection
127(6)
Inflection in English
127(1)
Inflection versus Derivation
128(2)
How Inflection Is Marked
130(3)
Other Inflectional Phenomena
133(1)
Other Morphological Phenomena
133(5)
Cliticization
134(1)
Conversion
134(1)
Clipping
135(1)
Blends
135(1)
Backformation
136(1)
Acronyms
137(1)
Onomatopoeia
137(1)
Other Sources of New Words
137(1)
Morphophonemics
138(13)
Summing Up
139(1)
Key Terms
139(1)
Recommended Reading
140(1)
Appendix: How to Identify Morphemes in Unfamiliar Languages
140(2)
Exercises
142(5)
For the Student Linguist: ``Bambification''
147(4)
Syntax: The Analysis of Sentence Structure
151(50)
Categories and Structure
152(10)
Categories of Words
152(3)
Phrase Structure
155(5)
Sentences
160(1)
Tests for Phrase Structure
161(1)
Complement Options
162(5)
Complement Options for Verbs
163(1)
Complement Options for Other Categories
164(1)
Complement Clauses
165(2)
Move
167(10)
Yes-No Questions
167(4)
Deep Structure and Surface Structure
171(1)
Do Insertion
172(1)
Wh Movement
173(4)
Universal Grammar and Parametric Variation
177(5)
Verb Raising
178(4)
Some Additional Structures
182(19)
Coordination
182(2)
Relative Clauses
184(2)
Passives
186(2)
Summing Up
188(1)
Key Terms
188(2)
Recommended Reading
190(1)
Appendix: How to Build Tree Structures
190(5)
Exercises
195(3)
For the Student Linguist: ``Backwards''
198(3)
Semantics: The Analysis of Meaning
201(44)
The Nature of Meaning
202(7)
Semantic Relations among Words
202(2)
Semantic Relations Involving Sentences
204(2)
What Is Meaning?
206(3)
The Conceptual System
209(8)
Fuzzy Concepts
210(1)
Metaphor
211(1)
The Lexicalization of Concepts
212(4)
Grammaticization
216(1)
Syntax and Sentence Interpretation
217(11)
Constructional Meaning
217(2)
Structural Ambiguity
219(2)
Thematic Roles
221(4)
The Interpretation of Pronouns
225(3)
Other Factors in Sentence Interpretation
228(17)
The Role of Beliefs and Attitudes
228(1)
Setting
229(1)
Discourse
230(2)
Conversational Maxims
232(2)
Summing Up
234(1)
Key Terms
235(1)
Recommended Reading
236(1)
Exercises
236(5)
For the Student Linguist: ``Elvis's Biggest Fan Cleans Out Bank--Accomplice Launders the Dough''
241(4)
Historical Linguistics: The Study of Language Change
245(46)
The Nature of Language Change
246(3)
Systematicity of Language Change
247(1)
Causes of Language Change
247(2)
Sound Change
249(11)
Sequential Change
249(7)
Segmental Change
256(1)
Auditorily Based Change
257(1)
Phonetic versus Phonological Change
257(3)
Morphological Change
260(5)
Addition of Affixes
260(1)
Loss of Affixes
261(2)
From Synthetic to Analytic to Synthetic
263(1)
Analogy
263(1)
Reanalysis
264(1)
Syntactic Change
265(3)
Word Order
265(2)
Inversion in the History of English
267(1)
Lexical and Semantic Change
268(4)
Addition of Lexical Items
268(4)
Loss of Lexical Items
272(1)
Language Reconstruction
272(19)
Comparative Reconstruction
273(1)
Techniques of Reconstruction
274(5)
The Discovery of Indo-European
279(3)
Summing Up
282(1)
Key Terms
283(1)
Recommended Reading
284(1)
Exercises
284(7)
The Classification of Languages
291(34)
Some Preliminaries
291(4)
Dialect and Language
292(2)
Types of Classification
294(1)
Typological Classification
295(18)
Phonology
296(7)
Morphology
303(3)
Syntax
306(4)
Explaining Universals
310(3)
Genetic Classification
313(12)
The Indo-European Family
314(4)
Some Other Families
318(3)
Language Phyla
321(1)
Summing Up
321(1)
Key Terms
321(1)
Recommended Reading
322(1)
Exercises
322(3)
Indigenous Languages of North America
325(18)
Origin and Classification
326(3)
Ultimate Origins
326(1)
Historical Relationships in North America
327(2)
Phonetics and Phonology
329(2)
Velar, Uvular, and Pharyngeal Articulations
329(1)
Lateral Fricatives
329(1)
Glottalized Stops and Affricates (Ejectives)
330(1)
Vowels and Suprasegmental Features
330(1)
Sounds Not Frequently Found
331(1)
Morphology and Syntax
331(9)
The Structure of Words
331(3)
Grammatical Categories
334(3)
Noun Classification
337(3)
The Future of Indigenous North American Languages
340(3)
Summing Up
341(1)
Key Terms
341(1)
Recommended Reading
342(1)
Natural Sign Languages
343(18)
Phonology
344(4)
Formational Elements
345(1)
Combining Formational Elements
346(1)
Prosody
346(2)
Morphology
348(5)
Word Formation
348(1)
Verb Agreement
349(1)
Classified Constructions
350(3)
Syntax
353(5)
Recursion
353(3)
Word Order
356(1)
Sign Language and Universal Grammar
357(1)
Language as an Art Form: Sign Language Poetry
358(3)
Summing Up
359(1)
Key Terms
359(1)
Recommended Reading
360(1)
First Language Acquisition
361(38)
The Study of Language Acquisition
362(2)
Methods
362(2)
Phonological Development
364(5)
Babbling
365(1)
The Developmental Order
365(1)
Early Phonetic Processes
366(3)
Vocabulary Development
369(6)
Strategies for Acquiring Word Meaning
370(1)
Meaning Errors
371(4)
Morphological Development
375(3)
Overgeneralization
375(1)
A Developmental Sequence
376(1)
Word-Formation Processes
377(1)
Syntactic Development
378(7)
The One-Word Stage
378(1)
The Two-Word Stage
379(1)
The Telegraphic Stage
380(1)
Later Development
381(2)
The Interpretation of Sentence Structure
383(2)
What Makes Language Acquisition Possible?
385(14)
The Role of Adult Speech
386(1)
The Role of Feedback
387(2)
The Role of Cognitive Development
389(1)
The Role of Inborn Knowledge
390(2)
Is There a Critical Period?
392(1)
Summing Up
393(1)
Key Terms
393(1)
Recommended Reading
394(1)
Exercises
394(5)
Second Language Acquisition
399(36)
The Study of Second Language Acquisition
400(5)
The Role of the First Language
400(1)
The Nature of an Interlanguage
401(1)
The Final State
402(2)
Variation in Performance
404(1)
Interlanguage Grammars
405(15)
L2 Phonology
406(6)
L2 Syntax
412(3)
L2 Morphology
415(3)
Morphology and Syntax
418(2)
Factors Affecting SLA
420(4)
Age
420(1)
Individual Differences
421(3)
The L2 Classroom
424(11)
Modified Input
425(1)
Modified Interaction
425(1)
Focus on Form
425(2)
Education in a Bilingual Environment
427(4)
Summing Up
431(1)
Key Terms
431(1)
Recommended Reading
432(1)
Exercises
433(2)
Psycholinguistics: The Study of Language Processing
435(28)
Methods of Psycholinguistic Research
436(9)
Slips of the Tongue
436(2)
Experimental Methods: Words in the Mind
438(3)
Experimental Methods: Sentence Processing
441(2)
Brain Activity: Event-Related Potentials
443(2)
Language Processing and Linguistics
445(9)
Phonetics and Phonology
445(3)
Morphological Processing
448(3)
Syntax
451(3)
Putting It All Together: Psycholinguistic Modeling
454(9)
The Use of Metaphors in Psycholinguistic Modeling
456(3)
Which Model Is Right?
459(1)
Summing Up
460(1)
Key Terms
460(1)
Recommended Reading
461(1)
Exercises
461(2)
Brain and Language
463(22)
The Human Brain
464(4)
The Cerebral Cortex
464(1)
The Cerebral Hemispheres
464(3)
The Lobes of the Cortex
467(1)
Investigating the Brain
468(4)
Autopsy Studies
468(1)
Images of the Living Brain
469(2)
Learning from Hemispheric Connections and Disconnections
471(1)
Aphasia
472(4)
Nonfluent Aphasia
473(2)
Fluent Aphasia
475(1)
Acquired Dyslexia and Dysgraphia
476(2)
Reading and Writing Disturbances in Aphasia
476(1)
Acquired Dyslexia as the Dominant Language Deficit
477(1)
Linguistic Theory and Aphasia
478(7)
Features, Rules, and Underlying Forms
478(1)
Agrammatism
479(1)
Function Words
479(1)
The Loss of Syntactic Competence
480(1)
Agrammatism in Other Languages
480(1)
Where Is Language?
481(1)
Summing Up
481(1)
Key Terms
482(1)
Recommended Reading
483(1)
Exercises
483(2)
Language in Social Contexts
485(46)
Sociolinguistics of Language
486(13)
Discourse Analysis
486(6)
Solidarity and Power
492(7)
Sociolinguistics of Society
499(32)
Sociolinguistic Norms
499(6)
Social Influence on Variation
505(13)
Languages in Contact
518(6)
Summing Up
524(1)
Key Terms
525(1)
Recommended Reading
526(1)
Exercises
527(1)
For the Student Linguist: ``When Language Goes Bad''
527(4)
Writing and Language
531(24)
Types of Writing
532(1)
Logographic Writing
532(1)
Phonographic Writing
532(1)
The Early History of Writing
533(2)
Prewriting
533(1)
Pictograms
534(1)
The Development of Writing
535(6)
Rebuses
536(1)
Toward Syllabic Writing
536(1)
Another Middle Eastern Writing System: Hieroglyphs
537(1)
The Emergence of Alphabets
538(3)
Some Non-European Writing Systems
541(5)
Chinese Writing
541(2)
Japanese Writing
543(2)
Korean Writing
545(1)
Cherokee Writing
546(1)
English Orthography
546(4)
Irregularities
547(2)
Obstacles to Reform
549(1)
Writing and Reading
550(5)
Summing Up
551(1)
Key Terms
551(1)
Recommended Reading
552(1)
Exercises
552(3)
Animal Communication
555(32)
Nonvocal Communication
556(1)
Communication Structure: The Study of Signs
556(4)
Signs
557(1)
Types of Signs
558(1)
Sign Structure
559(1)
A View of Animal Communication
559(1)
The Bees
560(3)
The System
561(1)
Bees and Humans
562(1)
The Birds
563(4)
Bird Vocalization
563(2)
Birds and Humans
565(2)
Nonhuman Primates
567(6)
Some Functions of Nonhuman Primate Communication
568(1)
Prosimian Communication
568(1)
Monkeys
569(2)
Gibbons, Orangutans, and Chimpanzees
571(2)
Testing Nonhuman Primates for Linguistic Ability
573(7)
Some Experiments
573(1)
Nonsigning Experiments
574(1)
The Clever Hans Controversy
575(1)
The Great Ape Debate
576(3)
Implications
579(1)
Comparing Communication Systems: Design Features
580(7)
The Features
580(3)
Summing Up
583(1)
Key Terms
584(1)
Recommended Reading
585(1)
Exercises
585(2)
Computational Linguistics
587(40)
Computational Phonetics and Phonology
589(5)
The Talking Machine: Speech Synthesis
589(4)
Speech Recognition
593(1)
Computational Morphology
594(4)
Morphological Processes
594(3)
Some Problems in Computational Morphology
597(1)
Computational Syntax
598(8)
Natural Language Analysis
598(6)
Natural Language Generation
604(2)
Computational Lexicography
606(4)
Computational Semantics
610(3)
Pragmatics
613(2)
Reference Resolution
613(1)
Discourse Markers
614(1)
Spoken Dialogue
615(1)
Applications of Computational Linguistics
615(12)
Indexing and Concordances
616(1)
Information Accessing and Retrieval
617(2)
Automatic Summarization
619(1)
Machine Translation
619(2)
Spoken-Dialogue Systems
621(1)
Summing Up
622(1)
Key Terms
623(1)
Recommended Web Sites
624(1)
Recommended Reading
624(1)
Exercises
625(2)
Glossary 627(38)
Language Index 665(6)
Index 671


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