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Corrections : A Comprehensive View

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Edition:
1st
ISBN13:

9780314045751

ISBN10:
0314045759
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
1/1/1996
Publisher(s):
Wadsworth Publishing
List Price: $94.00

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Summary

Lively and comprehensive, this book presents a history of prisons, the history of corrections programs, and theories of punishment and corrections. It includes sections on prisoner rights, probation, juvenile corrections, and international corrections systems, Real-life examples and Close-Up features illuminate events or places.

Table of Contents

Part One: Corrections and Criminal Justice 1(44)
The Correctional Process
2(17)
Corrections Faces Many Problems
3(3)
Corrections is Responsible for the Accused and the Convicted
3(1)
Much of Corrections Is Hidden from Public View
4(1)
Correctional Facilities Receive Attention Only When Problems Arise
4(1)
Public Fears Influence Policy
4(1)
Close Up: The Pitfalls of Early Release
5(1)
Public Fears Influence Policy
5(1)
Many of Today's Problems in Corrections Have a Long History
6(1)
The Criminal Justice Process Is Complicated
6(2)
Organization of Corrections in the United States
7(1)
Criminal Justice Has Four Major Components
8(1)
Each Criminal Justice Sub-System Has Some Correctional Role
8(6)
The Police Play Various Roles in Corrections
8(1)
Police Agencies Usually Operate Jails and Detention Facilities
8(1)
Police Operate Some Correctional Programs
9(1)
Police Perform a ``Gatekeeper'' Function
9(1)
Police Provide Information on Offenders to Correctional Personnel
9(1)
Prosecutors Play Several Roles in Corrections
10(1)
Prosecutorial Discretion Can Limit the Number and Types of Offenders Entering the System
10(1)
Prosecutors Serve as Correctional Agents
11(1)
The Courts Play Several Roles in Corrections
11(1)
Sentencing Is a Key Court Correctional Function
12(1)
Judges Serve as Monitors of Conditions in the Correctional System
13(1)
The Courts Also Operate Correctional Programs
13(1)
Different Views Regarding the Objectives of Corrections
14(2)
The Rehabilitative Model Focuses on Treating the Offender
15(1)
The Justice Model Stresses That Offenders Should Be Punished But in a just and Humane Way
15(1)
The Utilitarian Model Emphasizes Punishment as a Crime Deterrent
15(1)
Effectiveness of Models Should Determine Which of Them Are Implemented
16(1)
The Text Views Contemporary Corrections from a Historical Perspective
16(1)
Chapter Recap
17(1)
Review Questions
17(1)
Test Your Knowledge
17(2)
Sentencing: The Imposition of Correctional Sanctions
19(26)
Justifications for Punishment of Offenders
20(3)
Retribution: The Infliction of Deserved Punishment and Its Painful Consequences on the Criminal
20(1)
Deterrence: Pain or Other Consequences Will Inhibit Criminal Behavior
20(1)
The Deterrent Value of Punishment Is Inconclusive
21(1)
Speed, Severity, and Certainty of Punishment Affect Deterrence
21(1)
Incapacitation: The Prevention of Future Crime
22(1)
Three Types of Incapacitation Strategies Have Been Proposed
22(1)
An Alternative to Incapacitation Is More Severe Sentences for Violent Offenders
23(1)
A Continuing Purpose of Incarceration Has Been to Reform or Rehabilitate the Offender
23(1)
Reintegration Is Maintaining or Integrating Offenders into the Community
23(1)
Types of Dispositions
23(11)
Monetary Sanctions: Getting Hit in the Wallet
23(1)
Day Fines Are Imposed on the Basis of the Gravity of the Offense and Offender Income
24(1)
Restitution Requires That the Offender Make Amends to the Victim or the Community
24(1)
Community Programs Can Be Residential or Non-residential
24(1)
Probation Is Serving A Sentence under Supervision in the Community
24(1)
Residential Community Programs Provide the Most Intense Supervision Short of Prison
25(1)
Incarceration is Confinement of an Offender in a Prison or Jail
25(1)
Capital Punishment Is the Ultimate Sanction
26(3)
The Death Penalty Has Supporters and Detractors
29(4)
Close Up: Indigents Don't Usually Get The ``Dream Team'' in Capital Cases
33(1)
Life without Parole Represents an Alternative to Execution
34(1)
Sentencing Strategies
34(8)
Indeterminate Sentences Have Been Tied to Rehabilitation
34(1)
A Determinate Sentence Represents a Fixed Term
35(1)
Mandatory Sentences are Blamed for Prison Crowding
35(1)
Some Judges Impose Creative Sentences
36(1)
Sentencing Reform Focuses on Proportionality, Equity, and Social Debt
36(1)
Close Up: Three Strikes and You're Out
37(1)
Close Up: Judges Who Create Sentences
38(1)
Sentencing Guidelines Are Designed to Create Uniformity
38(2)
Close Up: ACA President Speaks Out on Sentencing
40(1)
Sentencing Review Procedures Are Designed to Reduce Disparities
41(1)
Conclusion
42(1)
Chapter Recap
42(1)
Review Questions
42(1)
Test Your Knowledge
42(3)
Part Two: Historical Perspective 45(94)
The Evolution of Punishment
46(26)
Punishment of Early Criminal Behavior
47(10)
Early Societies Had Two Classes of Crimes
47(1)
Public Wrongs Were Equated with Sin
47(1)
Private Wrongs Initially Required Individual Retaliation But Later Some Responsibility Shifted to the Group
47(1)
Compensation Provided a Bridge between Private Vengeance and the State
48(1)
Crimes Become Acts of Revolt against the King
49(1)
Historically, Offenders Were Punished in Various Ways
49(1)
Magic and Curses Were Used as Punishments
49(1)
Some Punishments Were Designed to Humiliate the Offender
49(1)
Gags Were Used to Both Shame and Constrain Verbal Abuse
49(1)
The Stocks and Pillories Served to Confine and Display Offenders
50(1)
Consider This: Should the Stocks be Resurrected?
51(1)
Branding Marked a Person as an Offender
51(1)
Corporal Punishments Inflicted Pain on the Offender
52(1)
Whipping Has a Long and Extensive History
52(2)
The Ducking Stool Was Generally Used for Scolds and Gossips
54(1)
Capital Punishment Rids the Community of the Offender
54(1)
Capital Punishment Has a Long History
55(1)
The Methods of Execution Were Limited Only by the Imagination
55(1)
Mutilation and Dismemberment Were Employed for Retribution, Deterrence, and Incapacitation
56(1)
Banishment Was a Means of Exiling or Enslaving Undesirables
57(2)
Outlawry: Robin Hood, Fact or Fiction?
57(1)
Enslavement of Criminals Amounted to Banishment
57(1)
Maritime Nations Subjected Offenders to Penal Slavery at the Oars
58(1)
Some Convicts Were Housed in Facilities Called Bagnes
58(1)
The French Bagnes Were Forerunners of Industrial-Type Prisons
58(1)
Transportation Was an Intermediate Punishment
59(6)
The English System of Transportation
59(1)
Increased Crime Produced by Social and Economic Conditions Caused a Public Outcry for Solutions
59(1)
The Indenture System: White Servitude in Colonial America
59(2)
The Revolution Caused a Crisis in England's Punishment System
61(1)
Confinement at Hard Labor Was Substituted for Transportation: Floating Prisons Emerged as a Temporary Expedient
61(1)
England Searches for Alternatives to the Prison Hulks
61(1)
Transportation to Australia: The Search for a New Dumping Ground
61(1)
Close Up: Lemain: The Historical Antecedant of ``Escape from New York''
62(2)
The French Transportation System Was More Harsh Than the English System
64(1)
The Russian Transportation System Was Considered the Most Brutal
64(1)
People Continue to Advocate the Use of Transportation
65(1)
Forerunners of Long-Term Imprisonment
65(5)
Close Up: Indian Youths Banished as Punishment for Their Crimes
66(1)
The Roots of Imprisonment Can Be Traced to Monasteries and Asylums
66(1)
Workhouses and Houses of Correction Were Early Forms of Imprisonment
66(1)
Bridewells Were the First Institutions to Attempt Reform
67(1)
European Countries Established Workhouses with Many Modeled after One in Amsterdam
67(1)
Close Up: The World of Early Workhouses Had Many Facets
68(1)
The Hospice of San Michele Was an Early Juvenile Reformatory
68(1)
The Maison de Force Had Many Innovative Features
69(1)
Chapter Recap
70(1)
Review Questions
71(1)
Test Your Knowledge
71(1)
The Development of Prisons in the United States
72(20)
Methods of Punishment during the Colonial Period
73(1)
The Search for New Methods of Social Control after the Revolution
73(1)
Penitentiaries Were Developed as Places to Reform Criminals
73(1)
The Pennsylvania and Auburn Systems
74(7)
The Pennsylvania Reformers Experimented with Several Different Systems
74(1)
The Walnut Street Jail Was the Birthplace of the U.S. Prison System
74(1)
Eastern Penitentiary Had a Program of Solitary Confinement, Work, and Penitence
75(1)
The System Devised at Auburn Became the Model for U.S. Prisons
76(1)
Close Up: Two Views on the Success of the Pennsylvania Model
77(1)
Auburn Experimented with Three Alternatives
78(1)
The Auburn Plan of Congregate Work, Silence, and Separate-Cell Confinement Was Adopted as an Acceptable Confinement Method
79(1)
The Auburn-Pennsylvania Controversy Involved a Debate over Which System Was Superior
79(1)
The Pennsylvania Model Was Only Used by a Few U.S. Jurisdictions
80(1)
The Auburn Model Prevailed for Economic Reasons
80(1)
Auburn-Type Prisons Were Built in Many Jurisdictions
80(1)
Many States Built Auburn-Type Prisons But Failed to Adhere to Its Rigid Standards
81(1)
The Auburn Approach Followed a Quasimilitary Model
81(1)
Antecedents of the Reformatory Movement
81(6)
Close Up: The Real Versus Ideal Pennsylvania System
82(2)
Alexander Maconochie's Mark System
84(1)
The Major Objective of Prison Should Be Reform
84(1)
The Mark System Enabled Inmates to Work Their Way Out of Prison
84(1)
The Mark System Was First Applied at Norfolk Island Prison
85(1)
Punitive Public Views Resulted in Maconochie's Recall
85(1)
The System Was Also Implemented at Birmingham Borough Prison
86(1)
Sir Walter Crofton's Irish System Also Influenced the Reformatory
86(1)
The Irish System Involved Increasing Privileges and Phased Release
86(1)
The Irish System Reduced Recidivism
86(1)
The Reformatory System
87(3)
At the National Congress on Penitentiary and Reformatory Discipline, Prominent Reformers Proposed a New System
87(1)
Elmira Was the First Reformatory
88(1)
Inmates Could Progress through a ``Grade'' System, Which Resulted in Early Release
88(1)
Elmira Had a Number of Innovative Programs
88(1)
Elmira Had the First Parole System in the United States
88(1)
Warden Brockway Used Regressive Methods of Discipline
88(1)
Reformatory Goals Were Never Achieved
89(1)
Chapter Recap
90(1)
Review Questions
91(1)
Test Your Knowledge
91(1)
Southern Penal Systems
92(24)
The Pre-Civil War South
93(1)
Black Codes Were Designed to Control Slaves
93(1)
Some Southern States Adopted Auburn-Type Prisons
93(1)
Characteristics of the Prison Population
93(1)
States Resorted to the Lease System for Economic Reasons
93(1)
The Post-Civil War Period
94(6)
The Lease System Solved Various Problems
94(1)
The Convict Lease System Turned Offenders into Penal Slaves
95(1)
Close Up: The American Siberia: Life under the Florida Lease System
96(1)
Chain Gangs Were Used by Some Jurisdictions to Manage Prisoners
97(2)
Close Up: Life on the Chain Gang: Even Circus Animals Lived Better
99(1)
Prison Farms and Plantation Prisons
100(14)
In Mississippi, the Parchman Penal Farm Became the Main Prison
100(1)
Farm Organization Followed a Plantation Model
100(1)
The Prison Farm Complex Evolved Over Time and Was Founded on the Twin Goals of Profit and Reformation
101(2)
The Courts Step in to Propel the System into the Twentieth Century
103(1)
Arkansas Was Considered the Worst of the Southern Systems
103(1)
Conditions When Murton Assumed Control Were Horrendous
103(2)
Close Up: Corporal Punishment Arkansas Style
105(1)
Murton Tried to Bring the System Nearer to Contemporary Standards
105(1)
The Totality of Conditions at the Prisons Were Found Constitutionally Unacceptable
106(1)
Close Up: The Arkansas Prison System in the 1990s
107(1)
The Texas System Was the Last Major System to Change
107(1)
The Lessee Period: Inmates Were Assigned to Contractors
107(1)
The Contract-Lease Period: The State Controlled Inmates and Their Labor Was Contracted to Businesses
108(1)
The Plantation Farm Period: The State Assumed Total Control of Inmates
108(1)
The Period of Reform and Stability: TDC Goes from the Worst to the Best System
109(1)
While Work Continued to Be Stressed, Improvements Were Made in Programming
109(1)
Close Up: Texas Inmates Learn Marketable Skills
110(1)
Control and Stability Were Achieved through an Authoritarian System
110(1)
Inmate-Guards Played an Important Role in the Control System
111(1)
Control of the BTs Was Lost during a Major Population Increase
112(1)
The Era of Ruiz v. Estelle Converted Texas into a Modern System
112(1)
Work Camps and Prison Farms Can be Valuable Components of a Corrections System
113(1)
Chapter Recap
114(1)
Review Questions
115(1)
Test Your Knowledge
115(1)
The Big House
116(23)
Big House Prisons Were Harsh and Idle Places
117(2)
The Big House Era Saw the Demise of the Industrial Prison
117(2)
The Social World of Inmates
119(11)
The Big House Population Contained Those Who Were Unsuccessful in Both Their Legal and Illegal Pursuits
119(1)
The Inmate Subculture Was Influenced by Internal and External Factors
120(1)
Thief Values Influenced the Convict Code
120(1)
As Total Institutions, Prisons Limit Freedom and Inflict Deprivations
120(1)
Life Activities in Prisons Are Not Separated
121(1)
Inmates Are Deprived of Their Autonomy
121(1)
Inmates Are Deprived of Privacy
121(1)
Inmates Are Deprived of Security
121(1)
Prisons Restrict Contact with the Outside World
122(1)
Inmates Are Deprived of Many Goods and Services
122(1)
Inmates Are Deprived of the Opportunity for Meaningful Work
122(1)
Inmates Are Deprived of Heterosexual Relationships
123(1)
Inmates Are Relegated to a Subservient Status
123(1)
Prisonization Is the Socialization of Inmates
124(1)
Adjustments to Changes in Status Begin at Admission
125(1)
Ability to Adapt to Prison Varies
125(1)
The Inmate Status System in the Big House Had Four Levels
125(1)
Close Up: The Admission Process
126(1)
The Upper Class Was the Elite
127(1)
Merchants, Politicians, and Gamblers were Major Figures in the Upper Middle Class
127(1)
Most Inmates Were in the Middle Class
127(1)
The Lower Classes Included a Variety of Inmates
127(1)
Three Common Adaptations to Prison Life
128(1)
``Doing Time'' Involved Avoiding Trouble and Getting Out Fast
128(1)
Jailing Involved Becoming Immersed in the Prison World
128(1)
Gleaners Focused on Self-Improvement
128(1)
Coping with Prison Deprivation Often Required Improvisation
128(1)
Food, Drink, and Weapons Made Prison Life Easier
129(1)
Inmates Developed Adaptations to Their Single-Sex World
129(1)
Some Inmates Managed to Have Heterosexual Relations
129(1)
Prison Stupor Was a Form of Psychological Escape
130(1)
Inmates Suffering from Prison Stupor Were Out of Touch with Reality
130(1)
Big House Prison Guards
130(3)
Close Up: The Hole
132(1)
Guards Used Several Methods of Discipline to Control Inmates
132(1)
Guards Developed Several Informal Methods of Controlling Inmates
132(1)
Conditions That Precipitated Disturbances and Riots
133(1)
Close Up: Prison Riots during the Big House Era
134(1)
Conflicts Faced by Prison Administrators Regarding the Treatment of Inmates
134(2)
Pressures Toward Harsh Treatment Came from External and Internal Sources
134(1)
Pressures Toward Human Practices Came from Reformers
135(1)
Prison Specialization and Classification Paved the Way for the Development of Treatment Programs
135(1)
This Era Saw Changes in the Treatment of Inmates
136(1)
Chapter Recap
136(1)
Review Questions
137(1)
Test Your Knowledge
137(2)
Part Three: Modern Prisons 139(84)
The Rise and Fall of the Rehabilitative Institution
140(17)
Social Changes Shaped Rehabilitative Institution
141(1)
Slum Conditions Restricted Social Mobility
141(1)
Limited Social Mobility in Urban Slums Had an Impact on the Prison System
142(1)
The Manner of Dealing with Problems Began to Change
142(1)
Correctionalists Sought to Change Prisons to Rehabilitation Facilities
142(1)
Prison Focus Changed from Punishment to Rehabilitation
142(1)
Several Factors Gave Rise to the Shift to Rehabilitation
142(1)
Some Changes Were Substantive But Others Were Only Cosmetic
143(1)
Three Components Characterized the Rehabilitative Institution
143(7)
Indeterminate Sentencing Made Release Contingent Upon Rehabilitation
143(1)
Indeterminate Sentences Gave Rise to Several Problems
144(1)
Classification Was Intended to Diagnose the Causes of an Inmate's Criminal Behavior
145(1)
The Classification Process Had Several Shortcomings
145(1)
The Correctional Treatment Program Was to Encompass All Aspects of the Institutional Milieu
145(1)
Therapeutic Programs Were to Be the Primary Agent for Behavioral and Attitudinal Change
145(2)
Close Up: An Inmate's Perspective on Group Counseling
147(1)
Correctional Institutions Had Better Academic and Vocational Programs
147(1)
Close Up: Synanon at the Nevada State Prison
148(1)
Different Objectives for Treatment and Custody Staff Caused Conflict
148(2)
California Made the Best Effort to Develop Rehabilitative Institutions
150(4)
Soledad Was an Exemplary Rehabilitative Institution
150(1)
The Physical Plant Made It Different Than Other Prisons
150(1)
The Routine and Programs Were Designed to Be Conducive to Rehabilitation
151(1)
The Population Included More Nonwhites
151(1)
The Social Structure Was Complex
152(1)
Several Factors Contributed to a Prison Atmosphere That Was Calm and Orderly
153(1)
Close Up: Patuxent: A Failed Treatment Experiment
154(1)
The Failure of Rehabilitative Institutions
154(1)
The Paradox: Better Education Produced System Critics
155(1)
Chapter Recap
155(1)
Review Questions
156(1)
Test Your Knowledge
156(1)
Ethnic/Racial Division and the Prisoner Movement
157(19)
The Impact of the Three Social Changes on Prisons
158(1)
The Authority Revolution Eroded Respect for Authority
158(1)
The Civil Rights Movement Changed the Relationships between Racial/Ethnic Groups
158(1)
Protests against Inequities Turned Violent
158(1)
The Vietnam War Engendered Protest by Significant Segments of the Population
159(1)
The Ongoing Social Movements Had a Profound Effect on the Prisons
159(1)
Factors That Caused the Demise of the Traditional Prison Stratification System
159(4)
A New Self-Image Led Blacks to Develop Racial Pride
159(1)
The Black Muslim Movement Attracted Many Black Inmates
159(1)
Initially Muslims Were Viewed as a Threat to Prison Order But Eventually They Became a Stabilizing Force
160(1)
Race Relations within Prisons Changed
161(1)
Black Inmates Viewed Both White Inmates and Correctional Officers as a Threat
161(1)
There Was Some Racial Integration in Prison But Little Interaction
161(1)
Interracial Tension Increased Prison Violence
161(1)
State-Raised Youth Cliques Achieved Prominence
161(1)
Mexican-Americans Also Developed Cliques
162(1)
The Prisoner Movement: The Politicization of Inmates
163(2)
The New Left's Focus on Prisons and a New Breed of Inmate Were Primary Factors in the Development of the Prisoner Movement
163(1)
Inmate Groups Critically Examined Their Circumstances
163(1)
Black Inmates Moved in a More Radical Direction
163(1)
Puerto Rican Inmates Embraced the Objectives of the Civil Rights Movement
163(1)
Chicano Inmates Developed a Sense of Racial Pride
164(1)
A New Breed of White Inmates Entered the Prisons
164(1)
Inmates Redefined Their Status to That of Political Prisoners
164(1)
Some Inmates Adopted a More Radical Position
164(1)
Prisoner Movement Organizations
165(3)
Self-Help Groups Focused on Individual Improvement
165(1)
Prisoner Rights Groups Focused on Improving the Offenders' Constitutional Rights and Social Position
166(1)
Radical Groups Advocated Changing Society
166(1)
The Black Panthers Attracted Black Inmates
166(1)
The Young Lords Were Similar to the Black Panthers
166(1)
Close Up: The Legacy of the Black Panthers: Fugitive Surfaces Thirteen Years Later
167(1)
The National Lawyers Guild Provided Legal Assistance as a Means of Furthering the Revolution
167(1)
Radical Groups Only Had a Few True Inmate Members
168(1)
Prisoner Movement Activities
168(6)
Inmate Strikes Were Organized to Focus Public Attention on Prison Conditions
168(1)
The Attica Revolt: A Riot and a Political Demonstration
169(1)
A Chaotic Rampage Became an Organized Demonstration
169(2)
The Retaking of the Prison Was Like a Turkey Shoot
171(1)
The State Covered Up the Use of Excessive Force and Infliction of Unnecessary Injury
171(1)
Increasing Defiance and Violence Led to a Crisis in Control
172(1)
Close Up: Attica Update and Its Legacy
173(1)
Activities That Occurred Outside the Prison
174(1)
Chapter Recap
174(1)
Review Questions
175(1)
Test Your Knowledge
175(1)
The Environment of Prisons in the Last Quarter of the Twentieth Century
176(23)
Factors That Changed the Character of Contemporary Prisons
177(4)
Overcrowding Became a Chronic Problem
177(1)
The Causes of Prison Crowding Were Rooted in Social Changes
177(1)
Crowding Had Several Consequences
178(1)
A Major Proportion of Prison Population Growth Consisted of Minorities
179(1)
Several Factors Led to Increases in the Proportion of African-American Inmates
179(1)
Staff Reactions to the Prisoner Movement Affected Contemporary Prisons
180(1)
The Prisoner Movement Increased Court Oversight of Prisons
180(1)
Not All Groups That Were Abolished Threatened Prison Security
180(1)
The Social Environment of the Prison
181(10)
Ethnic/Racial Relations Changed in Modern Prisons
181(1)
Black Inmates Appear to Dominate Whites in Many Prisons
181(1)
Other Factors Contributed to Racial Tensions
182(1)
One Effect of Racial Tension Has Been Informal Segregation
182(1)
Effects of Inmates' Ethnic Backgrounds on Prison Adaptation
182(1)
Prisons Have Many Prosocial Organizations
183(1)
Prisoner Organizations: An Important Determinant of Social Structure in Contemporary Prisons
184(2)
Prisoner Organizations Can Be a Positive Force in the Prison
186(1)
Close Up: A Jaycee Executive Director Looks at Prison Jaycees
187(1)
The Social World of the Inmate Has Changed
187(1)
The Convict Code Has Been Transformed
187(1)
Close Up: The Unlimited Gavel Club: Inmates Learn Oratorical Skills
188(1)
The Prison's Social Organization Has a New Tough Inmate Role
188(1)
Close Up: Twenty Years of Scared Straight
189(1)
Independents Try to Avoid Entanglements
190(1)
Withdrawal Is a Way of Avoiding Tension and Violence
191(1)
The Prison Economy Includes Legal and Illegal Aspects
191(4)
The Legal Economic System Does Not Meet All Inmate Needs
191(1)
The Illegal Economy Attempts to Fill the Void
192(1)
Contraband Fuels the Illegal Economy
193(2)
Satisfaction of Inmates' Sexual Needs
195(2)
Various Inmate Sexual Roles
195(2)
Chapter Recap
197(1)
Review Questions
197(1)
Test Your Knowledge
197(2)
Security Threat Groups and Inmate Gangs
199(24)
Inmate Gangs Became a Problem in the 1970s and 1980s
200(1)
Conditions That Permit Gangs to Operate in Prisons
200(1)
Different Terms Have Been Used to Describe Inmate Groups
200(1)
The NIC Has Developed Criteria to Identify Disruptive Groups
201(1)
Organization and Development of STGs and Inmate Gangs
201(1)
The Proportion of Gang Members is Increasing
202(1)
Prison Gangs Have Developed According to Five General Patterns
202(10)
The Development of the Mexican Mafia Reflects a Homeboy Pattern
202(1)
Conflict between Groups and the Need for Self-Protection Can Spawn Gangs
202(2)
Outside Gang Members in Illinois Prisons Formed Gangs on the Inside
204(1)
Prison Gang Members Entering New Institutions Formed Gang Chapters
204(1)
Copy Cat Groups Emerged in Some Prisons
205(1)
The Level of Organization of Prison Gangs Varies
205(1)
Membership Is Based on One or More Factors
206(1)
Gang Structure Can Follow Various Patterns
206(1)
Gang Members Can Fall Into One of Several Categories
206(1)
Gang Codes of Conduct Help to Control Member Behavior
206(2)
The Recruitment Process Varies from Gang to Gang
208(1)
Gang Initiations May Require Violence
208(1)
Group Operations Are Defined by Symbols, Power, Activities, and Communication
208(1)
Gang Membership Entails a Lifetime Commitment
208(1)
Gang Identification Includes a Variety of Symbols
209(1)
Gangs Have Methods for Perpetuating Their Existence and Power
209(1)
Gang Membership Has Several Benefits
210(1)
Close Up: How Gangs Use Mail to Communicate
211(1)
Some Gangs Have Street Affiliates, With a Few Meeting the Criteria for Organized Crime Groups
212(1)
Prison Gangs Cause a Number of Problems
212(1)
Problems Occur as a Result of Gangs' ``Business'' Activities
213(1)
Prison Administrators May Be Ambivalent about Recognizing the Existence of Gangs
213(1)
Inmate-to-Inmate Problems Are Also Created by Gangs
213(1)
Control of Prison Gangs Is Achieved in Various Ways
213(7)
Two Views Characterize How Gangs Are Dealt with by the Prison Administration
214(1)
One Basis for Gang Policy Is Membership
214(1)
Another Basis for Gang Policy Is Behavior
214(1)
The Reaction to Gangs and STGs Often Follows Three Stages
215(1)
Several Factors Dictate Strategies for Controlling Gangs
215(1)
The First Priority Is to Establish a Policy and Strategy
215(1)
Good Intelligence Provides Necessary Information
216(1)
Jurisdictions Following an STG Specific Management Approach Restrict the Activities of STG Members
217(1)
Programs and Activities Can Reduce Time Devoted to Gang Activities
218(1)
Changes in Housing Arrangements Can Also Help
219(1)
Close Supervision and Staffing of Housing Units Is Essential
219(1)
Alternatives for Nongang Members
220(1)
Chapter Recap
220(1)
Review Questions
221(1)
Test Your Knowledge
221(2)
Part Four: Correctional Clientele 223(46)
Male and Special Category Offenders
224(23)
U.S. Prison Population Differs from the General U.S. Population
225(5)
The Prison Population Is Not Representative of the General Population
225(1)
The Proportions of Female, Older, Hispanic, and Unmarried Inmates Have Been Increasing
225(1)
Inmates Are Disproportionately Young, Male, and from Minority Groups
226(1)
Most Persons Arrested for Criminal Behavior Are Male
227(1)
Younger People More Often Commit Crimes
227(1)
Minority Groups Are Disproportionately Incarcerated
228(1)
Inmates Often Have Histories of Family Disorganization and Are at the Lower End of the Economic Scale
229(1)
Many Inmates Have Committed Violent Crimes
229(1)
Extensive Prior Arrest Histories Increase the Likelihood of Future Recidivism
230(1)
Special Category Offenders
230(14)
Inmates with Psychological or Behavioral Disorders Can Be Management Problems
230(1)
Public Policy Regarding the Mentally Disordered Has Changed over the Years
230(1)
Some Inmates Suffer from a Variety of Serious Mental Disorders
231(1)
Prisons Have Some Mentally Handicapped Inmates Who Require Special Programming
231(1)
There Are Different Levels of Retardation
231(1)
Mentally Retarded Individuals Tend to Be Overrepresented in the Prison Population
232(1)
Prisons Have Typically Failed to Consider the Needs of Retarded Inmates
232(1)
Sex Offenders Are Problems for Community and Corrections
232(1)
Some States Have Passed Laws Targeting Sex Offenders after Their Release from Prison
232(1)
Close Up: A Retarded Inmate's Dilemma
233(1)
There Are a Substantial Number of Sex Offenders in U.S. Prisons
234(1)
Various Approaches Are Available for Treating Sex Offenders
234(1)
Inmates Treat Child Molesters Differently Than Rapists
235(1)
Mature Inmates Differ from Their Younger Counterparts
235(1)
Close Up: The Vermont Treatment Program for Sexual Aggressors
236(1)
Older Inmates Often Have More Physical Problems Than Outsiders of Comparable Age
237(1)
Offense Patterns of Mature Offenders Differ from Those of Younger Inmates
237(1)
There Are Three Types of Older Offenders
237(1)
A Major Question Is Whether to Segregate Mature Inmates or Place Them in the General Prison Population
238(1)
The Youthful Offender Has Been Treated Differently Than Other Inmates
239(2)
Physically or Medically Handicapped Offenders Require More Resources Than Other Inmates
241(1)
The Number of Long-Term Offenders in Prisons Is Increasing
241(1)
LTOs Are Different from Other Inmates
242(1)
LTOs Face Different Problems Than Other Inmates
242(1)
Most LTOs Go Through Phases of Adjustment to Prison Life
243(1)
Special Services Are Required for LTOs
243(1)
LTOs Can Benefit from Program Planning That Considers Their Extended Prison Terms
244(1)
Understanding the Diversity of the Male Inmate Population
244(1)
Chapter Recap
245(1)
Review Questions
245(1)
Test Your Knowledge
246(1)
The Female Offender
247(22)
Female Offenders and the Criminal Justice System
248(1)
Current Female Criminality Is Low But Increasing Faster Than for Men
248(1)
Different Factors Affect the Sentencing of Women and Men
248(1)
Women and the Correctional System
249(17)
Historical Overview Shows a Familiar Pattern
249(1)
Women Took the Lead in Reforming Programs for Incarcerated Females
250(1)
Reforms Created Separate Prisons for Women
251(1)
The Reformatory Movement Brought Changes for Female Corrections
251(1)
Parole Was First Applied to Women
251(1)
The Cottage Plan Was Used in the Construction of Women's Prisons
251(1)
Legal Challenges by Inmates Have Improved Female Prisons
252(1)
Female Inmates in Jails and Prisons Differ from Their Male Counterparts
252(1)
Most Women Are Now Being Incarcerated for Drug and Violent Crimes
253(1)
Female Inmates Have More Serious Drug Use Histories Than Males
254(1)
Contemporary Prisons for Women Provide Better Conditions Than in the Past
254(1)
Tighter Security Is Becoming a Concern for Modern Women's Prisons
254(1)
Females Adapt to Imprisonment in Different Ways
255(1)
Involvement in Pseudofamilies Represents One Form of Adaptation
255(1)
Three Adaptive Roles Are Imported from Outside the Prison
255(1)
Contemporary Pseudofamilies Are Becoming More Gang-Like
256(1)
The Nature and Amount of Homosexual Activity is Uncertain
256(1)
Services and Programs at Women's Prisons Often Lack Parity with Male Facilities
256(1)
Most Women's Prisons Offer Education Programs
256(1)
Vocational Training Programs Still Offer Mainly ``Women's Work''
257(1)
Inmate Work Programs Serve Various Purposes
258(1)
Recreational Activities Are Often Passive and Nonphysical
258(1)
Medical Services Are Generally Inadequate
258(1)
Pregnancy Represents a Dilemma for Both Incarcerated Women and the Corrections System
259(1)
Most Inmate Mothers Are Separated from Their Newborn Babies
259(1)
Close Up: Pregnant in Prison: An Inmate's Experience
260(1)
Visitation Enables Women to Maintain Ties with Children and Other Family Members
260(1)
Parent/Child Programs Are Designed to Foster Mother/Child Relations
261(1)
Transition from Prison to Society Can Be Difficult for Inmate Mothers
262(1)
Co-Correctional Institutions House Men and Women in the Same Prison
262(1)
Programs Are Shared, But Sleeping Arrangements Are Separate
262(1)
These Programs Have Advantages and Disadvantages for Both Sexes
262(1)
Community Correctional Programs for Both Sexes Are Similar
263(1)
Community Programs Serve Pre-Prison and Post-Prison Functions and Can Be Residential or Nonresidential
263(1)
Post-Prison Release Programs Focus on Relapse Prevention
264(1)
Future Correctional Programming for Women Should Consider Their Special Needs
264(1)
Reduced Incarceration of Women Is Recommended
265(1)
Chapter Recap
266(1)
Review Questions
266(1)
Test Your Knowledge
266(3)
Part Five: Institutional Administration and Management 269(114)
Correctional Administration
270(26)
U.S. Correctional Systems Operate on Three Levels
271(1)
The Federal Correctional System Houses Offenders Convicted of Federal Crimes
271(1)
Each State Has Its Own Correctional System
271(1)
Local Correctional Systems House Pretrial Detainees and Misdemeanants
272(1)
Most Correctional Organizations Are in the Public Domain
272(4)
The Government Is Responsible for the Punishment of Convicted Offenders
274(1)
Ambiguous Correctional Goals Have Caused Problems
274(1)
The Private Sector Has Again Become Involved in Corrections
274(2)
Administrative and Managerial Personnel
276(3)
System-Wide Administrators Create Policy and Programs
277(1)
Institutional Administrators Implement Policies and Programs
277(1)
Middle-Level Managers Oversee Specific Programs
278(1)
First-Line Supervisors Oversee Line Personnel
279(1)
Various Approaches to Correctional Administration
279(8)
Close Up: Joe Ragen-The Ultimate Authoritarian
280(1)
Structural Concepts Help to Identify the Administrative Hierarchy
280(1)
Close Up: George Beto and the Texas System
281(1)
There Are Three Major Organizational Models
281(1)
The Authoritarian Model Is Characterized by a Strong Autocratic Leader
282(1)
Under the Bureaucratic Model Control Is Maintained by the Book
282(1)
The Participative Model Allows Staff to Contribute to Problem Solving
283(1)
Close Up: Washington State Penitentiary-An Example of Inmate Participation That Did Not Work
284(1)
Proactive Corrections Management Is Analogous to Preventive Maintenance
285(1)
Characteristics of Successful Correctional Administrators
286(1)
Disorder in the Prison: A Sign of Poor Management
287(7)
The New Mexico Riot Was One of the Most Savage in U.S. History
288(2)
The Riot at Camp Hill Was Precipitated by Policy Changes
290(1)
The Lucasville Riot May Have Been Curtailed If Staff Had Responded Sooner
291(1)
The Control of Group Violence Requires a Plan
291(2)
A Well-Run Prison: Oak Park Heights
293(1)
The Mecklenburg Design Was Similar to That at Oak Park Heights But Its Management Style Was Not
294(1)
Sound Management Principles Improve Correctional Systems
294(1)
Chapter Recap
294(1)
Review Questions
295(1)
Test Your Knowledge
295(1)
Custodial Personnel
296(20)
Status of Correctional Officers
297(1)
Most Correctional Officers Are White Males in Their Mid-Thirties
297(1)
Recruiting Qualified Correctional Officers Has Become Easier
297(1)
Training of Correctional Officers
298(3)
Formal Training Involves Classroom Instruction
299(2)
Informal Training Provides a Different Orientation
301(1)
The Various Roles of Correctional Officers
301(8)
Relationships between Correctional Officers and Inmates Have Changed
301(1)
Correctional Officers, Lacking a Role in Policy Making, Often Feel Unsupported by Administration
302(1)
Correctional Officer Subcultures Tend to Vary from System to System
303(1)
Close Up: The Prison: A Paramilitary Versus Human Services Organization
304(1)
Correctional Officers Perform Many Different Jobs
304(2)
Custodial Procedures and Disciplinary Actions Are the Mechanisms by Which COs Maintain Order
306(1)
Custodial Procedures Control Inmate Movement and Contraband
307(1)
Disciplinary Procedures Are Used to Deal with Rule Violators
308(1)
The Acid Test of Staff Training Involves the Ability of COs to Control Inmates
308(1)
Female and Minority Correctional Officers
309(3)
Increasing Numbers of Female Correctional Officers Are Working in Male Prisons
309(3)
The Work Environment of Correctional Officers
312(2)
COs Have Joined Unions to Obtain Representation in Matters Affecting Them
312(1)
Concerns of Unionized COs Focus on a Wide Range of Issues
313(1)
Prison Work Is Stressful
313(1)
Chapter Recap
314(1)
Review Questions
315(1)
Test Your Knowledge
315(1)
History of Prisoner Rights, Court Access, and Remedies
316(19)
The Evolution of Prisoner Rights
317(5)
Under the Hands-Off Doctrine, the Courts Refused to Consider Inmate Claims of Unconstitutional Prison Conditions
317(1)
The Hands-Off Doctrine Was Discarded in the 1960s
318(1)
The Warren Court Extended Constitutional Rights to Minority Groups
318(1)
Provisions of the Bill of Rights Were Selectively Incorporated into the Due Process Clause Making Them Binding on the States
319(1)
By the Mid-1970s the Courts Were Reluctant to Further Expand Inmate Rights
319(1)
The Pivotal Decisions Signaled the Court's New Direction
320(1)
The Court Took a More Restrained Hands-On Approach
321(1)
Constitutional Challenges May Now Be Taken to State Courts
322(1)
Court Access Provides a Basis for Inmates to Secure Their Rights
322(3)
Various Issues Surround the Adequacy Of and Access to Law Libraries
322(2)
It Is Questionable Whether Inmates Can Prepare Their Own Cases
324(1)
Prison Officials May Not Unreasonably Restrict Access to Attorneys
324(1)
The Courts Upheld Access to Inmate Assistance in Filing Cases
324(1)
Jailhouse Lawyers Assist Inmates in Filing Their Cases
324(1)
There are Two Types of JHLs
325(1)
JHLs Serve a Number of Functions
325(1)
Inmates Become JHLs for a Variety of Reasons
325(1)
Postconviction Actions
325(5)
Tort Actions Are One Form of Legal Relief
326(1)
Inmates Can Bring Cases to the Federal Courts Under Section 1983 of the Civil Rights Act
326(1)
An Injunction Requires Acts to Be Performed or Terminated
326(2)
Inmates Can Be Awarded Damages in Some Legal Actions
328(1)
Fees Are Awarded to Plaintiff Attorneys But Rarely Are They Assessed against Inmates
328(1)
Consent Decrees Are Agreements That Settle Disputes
328(1)
Habeas Corpus Actions Are Used to Challenge Convictions and Confinement Conditions
328(1)
There Are Many Misconceptions Regarding Prisoner Litigation
329(1)
The Relative Number of Habeas Corpus Complaints Has Been Declining
329(1)
A Rise in Civil Rights Actions Indicates Greater Concern with Prison Conditions
329(1)
Enforcement of Judicial Orders
330(3)
The Enforcement of Judicial Orders Is Not Easy
330(1)
Court Orders against Resistant Defendants Are Enforced by Two Methods
331(1)
Resistant Defendants Can Be Held in Contempt
331(1)
Judges Can Supervise Compliance or Appoint Agents To Do So
331(1)
Special Masters Assist the Courts in Certain Legal Actions
331(1)
Masters Have Played Three Roles in Correctional Cases
331(1)
Courts Appoint Masters for Several Reasons
332(1)
Several Types of Actions Are Possible against Resisters
332(1)
Chapter Recap
333(1)
Review Questions
334(1)
Test Your Knowledge
334(1)
Prisoner Substantive and Procedural Rights
335(22)
Restrictions on First Amendment Rights
336(1)
Inmates Have Certain Rights Relating to the Use of Mail
336(1)
Some Restrictions on Publications and Literature Have Been Justified
337(1)
Eighth Amendment Prohibition against Cruel and Unusual Punishment
337(13)
Isolated Confinement Has Been Used for a Long Time
338(1)
Solitary Confinement Is Not Usually Considered Unconstitutional
338(1)
Isolation of Inmates May Have Adverse Psychological Effects
339(1)
The Courts Approve Use of Force in a Correctional Setting under Certain Circumstances
339(1)
The Use of Force by COs Ranges from Justified to Unjustified
339(1)
The Staff Subculture Can Influence the Use of Force
340(1)
Circumstances and Amount Employed Govern the Acceptable Use of Force
341(1)
Close Up: When Is Force Repugnant: The Hudson v. McMillian Case
342(1)
The Various Levels of Control are Determined by the Type of Resistance
342(4)
Inmates Have a Right to Protection against Assault
346(1)
Deliberate Indifference Is Required to Hold Prison Officials Responsible for Failure to Protect Inmates from Harm
346(2)
Officials Who Encourage or Passively Observe Inmate Assaults Can Be Held Responsible for the Resulting Harm to an Inmate
348(1)
Certain Conditions Caused by Overcrowding May Be Unconstitutional
348(1)
Consider This...: Do Some People Who Go to Jail Deserve What They Get?
349(1)
Due Process Procedures in Institutions
350(2)
Rules and Regulations Must Be Clearly Stated and Be Related to Legitimate Penal Objectives
350(1)
Inmates Retain the Right to Procedural Due Process
351(1)
Due Process Procedures Are Required to Deprive an Inmate of Certain Types of Interests
351(1)
Due Process in Prison Does Not Require Any Specific Procedures
352(1)
Fourth Amendment Rights to Privacy
352(3)
Cell Searches Are Conducted to Search for Contraband
353(1)
Pat-Down or Frisk Searches of Inmates and Urine Tests to Determine Illegal Drug Use Are Permitted in Prisons
353(1)
The Courts Recognize Strip Searches Are Needed to Control Contraband
353(1)
Body Cavity Probes Must Be Conducted by Trained Medical Staff
354(1)
The Courts Have Restricted the Items That Can Be Taken from Inmates
354(1)
Chapter Recap
355(1)
Review Questions
356(1)
Test Your Knowledge
356(1)
Classification and Custody
357(26)
Reception and Orientation
358(1)
Classification Procedures
359(3)
Basic Forms of Classifications Have a Long History
359(1)
Modern Classification Systems Analyze and Organize the Diverse Inmate Population
360(1)
Objective Systems Began to Be Developed in the 1970s
360(1)
Classification Protects Inmates from Each Other
360(1)
Classification Protects the Public
361(1)
Classification Increases the Efficient Use of Prison Resources
361(1)
Classification Is Used for Inmate Control
362(1)
Classification Is a Source of Planning Information
362(1)
Elements of the Classification Process
362(10)
Distinctions between Security and Custody Are Not Always Clear
362(1)
Security Focuses on Protecting Society from Inmates
363(1)
Maximum Security Restricts Inmate Activity and Closely Controls Them
363(2)
Close Security Facilitates House Inmates with Different Custody Designations
365(1)
Medium Security Prisons Provide a Wide Variety of Programs
365(1)
Level II Minimum Security Prisons Are Open Institutions
365(1)
Level I Community Security Facilities Are Open Programs
365(1)
Custody Deals with Levels of Supervision
366(1)
Maximum Custody Inmates Are Closely Supervised and Have Limited Freedom and Movement
366(1)
Close Custody Inmates Can Participate in Programs under Supervision
366(1)
Medium Custody Inmates Can Participate in Institutional Programs and Do Not Require Direct Supervision
366(1)
Minimum Custody Inmates Can Move about the Institution Unsupervised
366(1)
Community Custody Inmates Are Allowed to Be Unsupervised in Community Facilities
366(1)
Close Up: Marion, A Federal Super-Maximum Security Facility
367(1)
There Are Several Issues Related to Minimum Security Facilities
368(1)
Can Minimum Security Facilities Accommodate Long-Term Inmates?
368(1)
Minimum Security Facilities Must Deal with Community Opposition
369(1)
Can Minimum Security Facilities Provide Adequate Programs?
369(1)
Segregation of Some Inmates Helps Protect Them and Others
369(1)
Needs Assessment Determines an Inmate's Program and Service Requirements
370(1)
Determining Inmate Needs Leads to Proper Program Placement
370(1)
Close Up: Conditions of PC Confinement
371(1)
Finding the Right Programs to Meet Inmate Needs Is Important
372(1)
Classification Models
372(7)
The National Institute of Corrections Model Is a Management Tool
372(1)
Inmates Are Rated on Predictive Variables
372(3)
Inmates' Medical Needs and Intellectual Levels Can Affect Facility Placement
375(1)
Inmate Progress Is Monitored through the Reclassification Process
375(1)
The Federal Prison System Classification Model Contains Objective Criteria with Staff Overrides
375(1)
Initial Classification Is Based on Security Considerations
376(3)
The Federal System Has Received Positive Evaluations
379(1)
Objective Classification Systems Had a Positive Impact
379(1)
Future of Classification
379(2)
Conclusion
380(1)
Chapter Recap
381(1)
Review Questions
382(1)
Test Your Knowledge
382(1)
Part Six: Institutional Programs and Services 383(88)
Basic Prison Programs: Educational and Work
384(25)
Provision of Basic Inmate Needs
385(1)
There Are Important Reasons for Providing Basic Services
385(1)
Improving Inmates' Skills Can Reduce Crime
385(1)
Courts Have Required Basic Services
385(1)
Programs Increase the Efficiency and Security of the Prison
386(1)
Educational Programs
386(11)
Prison Education Programs Have a Long History
386(1)
After the Civil War Education Came to Be Viewed as an Important Element in the Reformation of Offenders
386(1)
In the 1960s Correctional Education Began to Receive Greater Emphasis
387(1)
In the 1980s Several Factors Furthered the Development of Correctional Education
387(1)
There Are Several Types of Correctional Education Programs
387(1)
Close Up: Literacy in Prison
388(1)
Many Jurisdictions Require Inmates below a Certain Literacy Level to Enroll in Education Programs
389(1)
Both Adult Basic Education and Literacy Program Focus on Developing Elementary Academic Skills
389(1)
Close Up: Inmates Teaching Inmates
390(1)
GED Programs Provide Inmates with an Opportunity to Obtain a High School Diploma
390(1)
Life Skill Programs Focus on Providing Inmates with the Skills to ``Make It'' in Society
391(1)
Vocational Education Programs Are Designed to Provide Inmates with Job Skills
392(2)
Close Up: Project Rio
394(1)
Various Postsecondary Programs Are Open to Inmates
394(2)
Mandatory Participation and Provision of Incentives Are Two Issues in Correctional Education
396(1)
Voluntary or Coerced Entry into Basic Education Programs Is a Debated Issue
396(1)
Should Inmates Receive Incentives for Participation in Education Programs?
396(1)
Prison Work Programs
397(10)
The Use of Inmate Labor Has a Long History
397(1)
Inmate Workers Help to Maintain the Institution
397(1)
Many Maintenance/Service Tasks Are Available
397(1)
Employment of Inmates in Agricultural, Forestry, and Road Work Activities Is Also Common
398(1)
Over Time Attitudes toward Prison Industries Have Changed
398(1)
Historically There Were Two Main Types of Prison Industry Systems
398(2)
Restrictive Legislation Suppressed Prison Industries
400(1)
Reintegration, Overcrowding, and Emphasis on the Private Sector Have Revitalized Prison Industries
400(1)
Contemporary Prison Industries Have Three Goals
401(1)
The Offender Benefits by Developing Working Skills and Saving Money
401(1)
The Institution Can Benefit from Prison Industries
401(1)
Society Can Benefit from Prison Industries
401(1)
Attaining Offender, Institutional, and Societal Goals for Work Programs Can Create Problems
401(1)
The Prison Environment Imposes Constraints on Work Programs
402(1)
Inmate Workers Can Pose Some Problems
402(1)
Security Needs Can Disrupt Production
402(1)
The Inmate Work Experience Must Include Reasonable Pay and Incentives
402(1)
The Quality of Prison Goods and Services Has Been a Problem
403(1)
Attempts Are Being Made to Revitalize Prison Industries
403(1)
Private Sector Involvement in Prison Industry Includes Several Models
403(1)
The Future of Prison Work and Industry Programs Involves the Private Sector
404(2)
Close Up: PRIDE: An Example of the Corporate Model
406(1)
Chapter Recap
407(1)
Review Questions
408(1)
Test Your Knowledge
408(1)
Basic Prison Services: Physical and Mental Health and Treatment
409(18)
Provision of Health Services
410(2)
Prison Health Care Did Not Improve Until the 1970s
410(1)
Inmates Have a Constitutional Right to Adequate Medical and Mental Health Care
410(2)
Close Up: Florida's Correctional Mental Health Facilities Use Different Approaches
412(1)
Correctional Mental Health Treatment Programs
412(1)
A Variety of Treatment Modalities Have Been Used in Prisons
412(1)
The Main Goal of Behavior Modification Is Behavior Change
412(1)
Cognitive Approaches Are Often Learning Based
413(1)
Issues Surrounding the Provision of Inmate Health Care
413(5)
Inmates Have More Health Problems Than the General Population
413(1)
Close Up: The Lifestyle Approach to Correctional Treatment
414(1)
Prison Medical Facilities Vary According to Institution Size
415(1)
There Are Many Facets to the Treatment of Inmate Medical Problems
415(2)
Close Up: Billing for Medical Care
417(1)
Adequate Medical Assessment Is the Key to a Good Health Care System
417(1)
Several Factors Have Made It More Attractive for Physicians to Work in Prisons
417(1)
Private Companies Are Now Providing More Prison Health Care
417(1)
National Accreditation Can Improve Medical Services
418(1)
Many Inmates Are Drug Offenders
418(1)
Drug Treatment Programs
418(1)
Offenders Enter Treatment Programs in Different Ways
419(1)
Drug Treatment Aims to Reduce Drug Use and Criminal Behavior
419(1)
The Therapeutic Community Model Is Effective in Treating Serious Drug Problems
419(1)
Infectious Diseases Are Increasing Among Inmates
419(6)
Close Up: The Stay'n Out and 977 Serendipity Programs
420(1)
Tuberculosis Is Reemerging in Jails and Prisons
421(1)
Inmates with Active Tuberculosis Must Be Isolated
421(1)
AIDS Is an Immune System Disease without a Known Cure
421(1)
Inmates Have AIDS at Ten Times the Rate of the General Population
422(1)
AIDS Has Generated Problems and Controversies for Correctional Administrators
422(3)
Chapter Recap
425(1)
Review Questions
426(1)
Test Your Knowledge
426(1)
Basic Prison Services: Food and Religion
427(20)
Prison Food Service
427(5)
Food Has a Critical Role in Prisons
428(1)
Menu Planning Can Be Complex
429(1)
Some Inmates Require Special Diets
429(1)
The Feeding of Inmates Requires Close Scrutiny
430(1)
Inmates Are Fed in Dining Rooms or in Their Units
430(1)
Serving Lines Must Be Controlled
431(1)
Food Service Areas Require Security
431(1)
More Efficient Food Preparation Methods Can Deal with Overcrowding and Prison Emergencies
431(1)
Religious Programs
432(1)
Religious Groups Have Historically Been Concerned with Offenders
432(13)
The Introduction of the Treatment Approach to Corrections Provided a New Incentive for Young, Better Qualified Men to Become Chaplains
433(1)
The Courts Have Dealt with Several Religious Issues
433(1)
The Religious Freedom Restoration Act Will Have a Major Impact on the Regulation of Religious Practices in Prison
434(2)
The Contemporary Chaplain Has a Variety of Functions
436(1)
The Chaplain's Main ``Mission'' Is to Improve the Lot of Inmates
437(1)
Chaplains Coordinate, Supervise, and Run All Religious Activities
437(2)
Black Muslim Clergy Have Increasingly Become Involved in Prison Religious Activities
439(1)
Chaplains Help Regulate and Distribute Religious Items
440(1)
Chaplains Must Be Responsive to a Number of Inmate Needs
440(1)
Counseling Inmates Can Put Chaplains into Difficult Situations
440(1)
Close Up: An Imam Provides Religious Leadership for Muslim Inmates
441(1)
Chaplains Assist Inmates in Dealing with Many Situations
442(1)
Prison Religious Programs Are Vulnerable to Manipulation by Inmates
442(1)
Integration into the Prison Staff Can Be Difficult for Chaplains
443(1)
Chaplains Also Minister to Staff and Their Families
443(1)
Effective Chaplains Must Have Certain Characteristics
444(1)
Chapter Recap
445(1)
Review Questions
446(1)
Test Your Knowledge
446(1)
Family Ties, Visiting, and Recreation
447(24)
Visitation and Inmate Family Ties
448(1)
Family Contacts Positively Impact Inmate Prison and Postrelease Behavior
448(1)
Family Ties Provide Inmates with a Support System and the Motivation to Change
448(1)
Incarceration Creates Crises for Prisoners' Wives
449(1)
Imprisonment for Inmates' Wives Is Like the Death of a Loved One
449(1)
Visitation Programs
449(12)
Visiting Rules Are Based on Security Concerns
450(1)
Most Often Inmates Are Visited by Family Members
450(1)
Wives Commonly Bring the Children When They Visit
450(1)
Prison Visiting Schedules and Visiting Area Capacities Vary Widely
451(1)
Conditions External to the Prison Affect Visitors
451(1)
Getting to the Prison Can Be Difficult
451(1)
Transportation Assistance to Some Prisons Is Provided
451(1)
Visiting Centers and Hospitality Houses Assist Visitation
452(1)
Close Up: An Inmate's View of the Importance of Hospitality Centers
453(1)
Visiting Conditions Relate to Institutional Security and Inmate Custody Level
453(1)
Rules Specify Mode of Dress and the Items Visitors Are Permitted to Bring
453(1)
Visitors Are Frequently Searched
453(1)
There Is a Spectrum of Possible Visiting Conditions
454(1)
The Visiting Room Atmosphere Can Affect the Outcome of the Visit
454(1)
Sexual Intimacy, Although Prohibited, Can Occur During Visitation
455(1)
Some Institutions Allow Private Family/Conjugal Visiting
456(1)
Family Visits Can Benefit Inmates
456(1)
There Are Objections to Conjugal Visiting
457(1)
Family/Conjugal Visiting Programs Have Some Common Characteristics
457(1)
Some Institutions Provide Family Counseling and Parenting Programs to Strengthen Family Ties and Promote Visiting
458(1)
Telephones Are a Vital Link to Family and Friends
458(1)
Close Up: M-2 Sponsored Program Provides Visitors for Isolated Inmates
459(1)
All Systems Place Restrictions on Phone Calls
460(1)
Furloughs Let Some Inmates Temporarily Leave Prison
461(1)
Recreational Programs
461(7)
Prison Recreation Has a Long History
461(1)
Prisons Began to Develop Diversified Recreation Programs in the 1970s
462(1)
Recreation Benefits Both Inmates and Institutions
462(2)
Good Recreational Programming Has Many Facets
464(1)
Recreational Programs Require Adequate Staff and Diverse Activities
465(1)
Community Groups Participate In and Support Recreation Programs
466(1)
Inmates Need to Be Informed about Recreational Activies
466(1)
Overcrowding and Budget Constraints May Adversely Affect Recreation Programs
467(1)
Chapter Recap
468(1)
Review Questions
468(1)
Test Your Knowledge
468(3)
Part Seven: Community Correctional Programs and Facilities 471(65)
Jails and Detention: The American Jail
472(21)
The Diverse Population of Jails
473(2)
The Long History of Jails
475(1)
Jails in England Originated in the Medieval Period
475(1)
Jails in America Date Back to the Colonial Period
476(1)
Early Jails Resembled Homes
476(1)
About Half the Jails in the U.S. Were Built after World War II
476(1)
Basic Jail Designs
476(3)
A Linear Design Results in Intermittent Surveillance
476(1)
One Podular Design Uses Remote Supervision
477(1)
The Newest Podular Design Uses Direct Supervision
478(1)
Security and Control
479(2)
Sound Perimeter Security Is a Primary Line of Control
479(1)
Control Is Easier When the Population Is Divided into Manageable Groups
480(1)
Well-Designed Jails Facilitate the Surveillance of Inmates
480(1)
Jail Admission Process
481(2)
The Design of the Intake Area Affects the Control of Arrestees
481(1)
Many Offenders Spend Only a Few Hours in Jail
481(1)
Medical and Mental Health Screening of Arrestees Is Routine in Many Jails
481(1)
Accurate Identification of the Inmate Involves Several Steps
482(1)
Good Classification and Orientation Facilitate Control
482(1)
Special Problems of Certain Types of Inmates
483(3)
Substance Abusers May Require Special Care
483(1)
Changes in Mental Health Policies Have Increased the Number of Mentally Ill in Jails
484(1)
Some Inmates Are Suicidal
484(1)
Juveniles Are at Risk in Adult Jails
485(1)
Females Have Been the ``Forgotten Inmates'' of the Jail System
486(1)
Jail Staff and Programs
486(3)
Correctional Officers Constitute the Bulk of the Staff
486(1)
In Many Jails Road Deputies Must First Serve as COs
486(1)
Professionalization of COs Requires Substantial Training
487(1)
The Primary Role of Jail Staff Is Supervision
487(1)
Control Is Best Achieved by Having Inmate Behavior Determine Confinement Conditions
487(1)
Jail Management Involves a Variety of Issues
487(1)
Jail Regionalization and Separation from Law Enforcement Are New Trends
487(1)
Good Management Requires Frequent Contact between Command Staff and Inmates
488(1)
Constitutional Jails Provide a Safe Environment for Staff and Inmates
488(1)
Jails Provide Some Programs for Inmates
489(1)
Jails Usually Have Little Recreational Space
489(1)
Some Jails Offer Education and Substance Abuse Programs
489(1)
Some Jails Have Begun Industry Programs
489(1)
It Is Difficult to Institute Jail Programs
490(1)
The Future of the American Jail
490(1)
Chapter Recap
491(1)
Review Questions
492(1)
Test Your Knowledge
492(1)
Probation and Parole
493(21)
Probation as an Alternative to Imprisonment
494(7)
Probation and Its Antecedents Mitigated Harsh Sentences
494(1)
John Augustus Was the Father of Modern Probation
495(1)
Probation Grew Rapidly in the Early Twentieth Century
495(1)
Probation in the Era of Just Deserts
495(1)
Probation Today Is at Record Levels
496(1)
A Sentence to Probation Depends on Several Factors
496(2)
Conditions Are the Limits Placed on Probationers
498(1)
The Organization and Administration of Probation Services
499(1)
Caseload Size Determines the Level of Supervision
499(1)
Caseload Assignments Are Made in Several Ways
499(1)
The Presentence Investigation Is an Important Probation Officer Activity
500(1)
The PSI Helps in Sentencing and Treatment
500(1)
The PSI Requires a Lot of Information
500(1)
Issues Related to PSIs
500(1)
Parole Is Served in the Community
501(2)
Developments in the United States Resulted from Changes in Philosophy
501(1)
The Return to Retribution Reduced Discretionary Parole
502(1)
Today the Number of Parolees Is at an All-Time High
502(1)
There Are Several Types of Release from Prison
502(1)
The Organization and Administration of Parole Services
502(1)
Parole Is an Executive Function
502(1)
The Parole Board Makes the Parole Decision
502(1)
Objective Parole Criteria and Guidelines Help in Making the Decision
503(1)
Supervision and Service Delivery to Probationers and Parolees
503(8)
PO Strategies Balance Surveillance and Service
503(1)
The Probation/Parole Officer as a Law Enforcement Agent
503(1)
Close Up: Should POs Be Armed?
504(1)
The Probation/Parole Officer as a Caseworker
504(1)
The Probation/Parole Officer as a Resource Broker/Advocate
505(1)
Probation or Parole Can Be Revoked for Violations
505(1)
Several Court Decisions Have Affected the Revocation Process
505(1)
Revocation Research Shows a Strong Substance Abuse Influence
506(1)
The Effectiveness of Probation/Parole Supervision
507(1)
Effectiveness Studies Show Relatively High Levels of Recidivism
507(3)
Some Research Compares Probation and Parole Outcomes
510(1)
Parole Studies Also Show High Recidivism
510(1)
Selection of Probation and Parole Officers
511(1)
Stress and Burnout are Problems
511(1)
Conclusion
512(1)
Chapter Recap
512(1)
Review Questions
513(1)
Test Your Knowledge
513(1)
Intermediate Sanctions: Getting Tough in the Community
514(22)
Historical Development of Intermediate Sanctions
515(1)
The Correctional Philosophy Underlying Intermediate Sanctions Has Changed
515(1)
What Are Intermediate Sanctions Suppose to Do?
516(1)
Various Intermediate Sanction Programs Exist
516(17)
Halfway Houses Are Treatment Oriented
516(1)
This Type of Facility Has Existed for a Long Time
517(1)
Guidelines for Opening and Operating a Halfway House
518(1)
The Vast Majority of Halfway Houses Today Are Privately Operated
518(1)
Close Up: Delancy Street Is a Very Unique Halfway House
519(1)
Work/Study Release Programs Provide Prerelease Employment or Education
519(1)
Early Work Release Programs Began in Wisconsin
520(1)
Work Release Has Various Goals and Objectives
520(1)
How Work Release Programs Operate
520(1)
Intensive Probation Supervision Programs Are Designed for Prison-Bound Offenders
521(1)
These Programs Had Antecedents in California
522(1)
Programs Developed in the 1980s Were Designed to Increase Control
523(1)
New IPS Programs Are More Successful in Achieving Some Goals Than Others
523(1)
House Arrest/Home Confinement Programs Make Offenders' Homes Their Jails
524(1)
Many Are Stand-Alone Programs Because They Are Not Associated with Probation Programs
524(1)
Electronic Monitoring Increases Surveillance
524(1)
Historical Development of Electronic Monitoring Programs
524(1)
Close Up: Does IPS Work?
525(1)
There Are Several Types of Electronic Monitors
526(1)
Close Up: Florida's Community Control Program
527(1)
Shock Incarceration and Boot Camp Involve Short-Term Incarceration
528(1)
Shock Incarceration Was the Predecessor of Boot Camps
528(1)
Boot Camps Are Molded after Military Boot Camp Training
528(3)
Close Up: New York's Shock Incarceration Program: A Model for the Future
531(1)
Close Up: The Metropolitan Day Reporting Center, Boston
532(1)
Day Reporting Centers Are an Innovation
533(1)
The Programs Have a British Origin
533(1)
The Goals and Purposes of DRCs Vary
533(1)
Future of Intermediate Sanctions
533(1)
Chapter Recap
534(1)
Review Questions
534(1)
Test Your Knowledge
534(2)
Epilogue: What Can We Expect as the Twentieth Century Comes to a Close? 536(11)
Trends Affecting the Future of Corrections
537(4)
The Public Mood Toward Criminals Is Becoming More Punitive
537(1)
The Public Is Advocating a Reduction in Prevention Programs
538(1)
The Demographic Structure of the Population Is Changing
538(1)
Criminogenic Social Conditions Will Continue to Affect Involvement in Crime
538(1)
Will the Public Continue to Support the Most Expensive Solutions?
539(1)
Will the Courts Continue to Insist on Constitutional Prisons?
540(1)
How Can Corrections Respond?
541(1)
Dilemmas Facing Corrections
541(2)
What Are Some Approaches Corrections Might Take?
543(4)
Strengthening Community Corrections for the Twenty-First Century
543(1)
Creating Tough Prisons
544(1)
Close Up: The Return of Chain Gangs
544(2)
Private Sector Involvement in the Correctional Process May Grow
546(1)
Developing Prisons with a Humane Environment
546(1)
Epilogue Recap
547


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