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Courts, Judges, and Politics

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Edition:
6th
ISBN13:

9780072977059

ISBN10:
0072977051
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
4/19/2005
Publisher(s):
McGraw-Hill Humanities/Social Sciences/Languages
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  • Courts, Judges, and Politics : An Introduction to the Judicial Process
    Courts, Judges, and Politics : An Introduction to the Judicial Process




Summary

This classic reader has been a best selling component of the Judicial Process/Judicial Politics/American Legal System course for years. The sixth edition has been thoroughly updated while retaining the features that made it attractive for so long: its effective structure, thorough coverage, narrative voice, choice of excerpts, and teaching flexibility.

Table of Contents

Part One THE NATURE OF JUDGING
Chapter 1. Political Jurisprudence
3(35)
CIVIL AND COMMON LAW SYSTEMS
4(3)
The Civil Law
5(1)
The Common Law
6(1)
CONCEPTUALIZATION OF LAW: SCHOOL OF JURISPRUDENCE
7(4)
Natural Law
7(1)
Legal Positivism
8(1)
The Debate
8(3)
THE INSTITUTIONALIZATION OF DECLARATORY THEORY
11(2)
EMERGING CHALLENGES: SOCIOLOGICAL JURISPRUDENCE AND LEGAL REALISM
13(3)
CONTEMPORARY SCHOLARSHIP: THE DEBATE CONTINUES
16(3)
Realism's Progeny and Critics
16(2)
Social Science and the Growth of Political Jurisprudence
18(1)
WHAT IS TO COME
19(3)
Selected References
20(2)
READINGS
1.1 Sir William Blackstone, COMMENTARIES ON THE LAWS OF ENGLAND
22(1)
1.2 Alexander Hamilton, The Federalist, No.78
23(1)
1.3 Alexis de Tocqueville, JUDICIAL POWER IN THE UNITED STATES
24(3)
1.4 Oliver Wendell Holmes, Jr., THE PATH OF THE LAW
27(3)
1.5 Benjamin N. Cardozo, THE NATURE OF THE JUDICIAL PROCESS
30(4)
1.6 Mary E. Becker, OBSCURING THE STRUGGLE: SEX DISCRIMINATION, SOCIAL SECURITY, AND STONE, SEIDMAN, SUNSTEIN, AND TUSHNET'S CONSTITUTIONAL LAW
34(4)
Chapter 2. Courts in Constitutional Democracies
38(39)
THE ORIGINS OF COURTS
38(6)
Distinctive Characteristics of Judicial Processes
40(4)
THE ROLES OF COURTS
44(9)
Resolving Disputes
44(1)
Making Policy
45(1)
Monitoring Governmental Action
46(1)
Judicial Review in the United States
47(1)
Judicial Review Abroad
48(3)
To What Extent Does Judical Review Present a Paradox?
51(2)
THE EXPANSION OF JUDICIAL POWER?
53(3)
SELECTED REFERENCES
56(2)
READINGS
2.1 Lynn Mather, THE FIRED FOOTBALL COACH (OR, HOW TRIAL COURTS MAKE POLICY)
58(3)
2.2 Marbury v. Madison (1803)
61(4)
2.3 Eakin v. Raub (1825)
65(2)
2.4 Robert A. Dahl, DECISION MAKING IN A DEMOCRACY: THE SUPREME COURT AS A NATIONAL POLICY MAKER
67(3)
2.5 D. Casper, THE SUPREME COURT AND NATIONAL POLICY MAKING
70(7)
Part Two THE AMERICAN LEGAL SYSTEM
Chapter 3. Judicial Organization
77(64)
ESTABLISHING THE U.S. LEGAL SYSTEM
77(5)
Article III
77(2)
The Judiciary Act of 1789
79(2)
Judicial Federalism
81(1)
TODAY'S SYSTEM OF FEDERAL COURTS
82(8)
The U.S. Supreme Court
86(2)
Reforming the Federal Courts: The Caseload "Problem"
88(2)
STATE COURTS
90(2)
A NEW JUDICIAL FEDERALISM
92(8)
Reviewing the Decisions of State Supreme Courts
92(4)
Issuing Injunctions
96(1)
Restricting Habeas Corpus
97(2)
Limiting Exceptions to the Eleventh Amendment
99(1)
SELECTED REFERENCES
100(3)
READINGS
3.1 Judiciary Act of 1789, section 25
103(1)
3.2 Jonathan Matthew Lohen, INSIDE APPELLATE COURTS
103(6)
3.3 C.K. Rowland and Robert Carp, POLITICS AND JUDGMENT ON THE FEDERAL DISTRICT COURTS
109(4)
3.4 Charles E. Wyzanski, Jr., THE IMPORTANCE OF THE TRIAL JUDGE
113(2)
3.5 J. Woodford Howard, Jr., LITIGATION FLOW IN THREE UNITED STATES COURTS OF APPEALS
115(2)
3.6 Victor Williams, SOLUTIONS TO FEDERAL JUDICIAL GRIDLOCK, versus John O. Newman, 1,000 JUDGES-THE LIMIT FOR AN EFFECTIVE FEDERAL JUDICIARY
117(4)
3.7 Robert A. Kagan, Bliss Cartwright, Lawrence M. Friedman, and Stanton Wheeler, THE EVOLUTION OF STATE SUPREME COURTS
121(8)
3.8 William J. Brennan, GUARDIANS OF OUR LIBERTIES-STATE COURTS NO LESS THAN FEDERAL
129(3)
3.9 Goodrich v. Department of Public Health
132(9)
Chapter 4. Judicial Selection and Retention
141(71)
SELECTION OF FEDERAL JUDGES
142(10)
Presidential Considerations
144(2)
Professional Qualifications
146(1)
Confirmation
147(4)
The Behavior of Judicial Appointees
151(1)
JUDICIAL SELECTION IN THE STATES
152(3)
Debates over States Selection Systems
154(1)
DISCIPLINING JUDGES
155(4)
Federal Judges
156(1)
State Judges
157(2)
SELECTED REFERENCES
159(3)
READINGS
4.1 Sheldon Goldman, Elliot Slotnick, Gerard Gryski, Gary Zuk, and Sara Schiavoni, THE COMPOSITION OF THE FEDERAL JUDICIARY
162(2)
4.2 Sheldon Goldman, PICKING FEDERAL JUDGES (WITH A POSTSCRIPT ON THE GEORGE W. BUSH ADMINISTRATION)
164(8)
4.3 Neil Lewis, PARTISANSHIP AND THE APPOINTMENT OF FEDERAL JUDGES
172(7)
4.4 Jason M. Roberts, PARTIES, PRESIDENTS, AND PROCEDURES
179(7)
4.5 Gregory A. Caldeira and John R. Wright, LOBBYING FOR JUSTICE
186(7)
4.6 Jeffrey A. Segal, Richard J Timpone, Robert M. Howard, BUYER BEWARE? PRESIDENTIAL SUCCESS THROUGH SUPREME COURT APPOINTMENTS
193(5)
4.7 Thomas G. Walker and Deborah J. Barrow, THE DIVERSIFICATION OF THE FEDERAL BENCH: POLICY AND PROCESS RAMIFICATIONS
198(7)
4.8 Thurgood Marshall, COMMENTS ON THE MISSOURI PLAN
205(4)
4.9 John T. Wold and John H. Culver, THE DEFEAT OF THE CALIFORNIA JUSTICES
209(3)
Chapter 5. The Bar
212(41)
BECOMING AN ATTORNEY
212(3)
Admission to the Bar
213(2)
THE LAWYER'S WORK
215(3)
Development of the Bar
215(1)
The Contemporary Practice of Law
216(2)
CHALLENGES CONFRONTING THE LEGAL PROFESSION
218(1)
SELECTED REFERENCES
219(2)
READINGS
5.1 Scott Turow, ONE L: AN INSIDE ACCOUNT OF LIFE IN THE FIRST YEAR AT HARVARD LAW SCHOOL
221(8)
5.2 Austin Sarat and William L F. Felstiner, LAW AND STRATEGY IN THE DIVORCE LAWYER'S OFFICE
229(7)
5.3 Abraham S. Blumberg, THE PRACTICE OF LAW AS A CONFIDENCE GAME
236(4)
5.4 F. Lee Bailey, THE DEFENSE NEVER RESTS
240(5)
5.5 Sandra Day O'Connor, PROFESSIONALISM
245(8)
Part Three JUDICIAL POWER
Chapter 6. Access to Judicial Power
253(46)
FORMAL BARRIERS TO ENTRY IN THE AMERICAN LEGAL SYSTEM
253(12)
Jurisdiction
254(2)
Case or Conroversy
256(1)
Advisory Opinions
256(5)
Standing
261(3)
Formal Barriers to Access as Gatekeeping Devices
264(1)
INFORMAL BARRIERS TO ENTRY
265(1)
ACCESSING THE LEGAL SYSTEM: WHO USES THE COURTS?
266(7)
The Strategies of Interest Groups
268(4)
The Influence of Interest Groups
272(1)
SELECTED REFERENCES
273(3)
READINGS
6.1 THE WASHINGTON ADMINISTRATION'S REQUEST FOR AN ADVISORY OPINION AND THE JUSTICES' RESPONSE
276(2)
6.2 Roe v. Wade (1973) VERSUS DeFunis v. Odegaard (1974)
278(3)
6.3 Baker v. Carr (1962)
281(4)
6.4 Marc Galanter, WHY THE "HAVES" COME OUT AHEAD: SPECULATIONS ON THE LIMITS OF SOCIAL CHANGE
285(6)
6.5 Clement E. Vose, LITIGATION AS A FORM OF PRESSURE GROUP ACTIVITY
291(4)
6.6 Gregory A. Caldeira and John R. Wright, ORGANIZED INTERESTS AND AGENDA SETTING IN THE U.S. SUPREME COURT
295(4)
Chapter 7. Instruments of Judicial Power
299(30)
WRITS OF CERTIORARI
300(1)
DECISIONS, OPINIONS, AND ORDERS
301(1)
THE INJUNCTION
302(4)
Injunctions and Positive Action
304(2)
THE CONTEMPT POWER
306(2)
THE WRIT OF HABEAS CORPUS
308(1)
SELECTED REFERENCES
309(2)
READINGS
7.1 Texas v. Hopwood (1996)
311(1)
7.2 Madsen v. Women's Health Center, Inc. (1994)
312(5)
7.3 Wyatt v. Stickney (1971) AND Wyatt v. Stickney (1972)
317(7)
7.4 Illinois v. Allen (1970)
324(5)
Chapter 8. Limitations on Judicial Power
329(52)
INTERNAL CHECKS
329(2)
INSTITUTIONAL CHECKS
331(3)
CHECKS IMPOSED BY THE AMERICAN SYSTEM OF SEPARATED
INSTITUTIONS
334(6)
Political Checks by Executives
335(2)
Legislative Restrictions
337(3)
CHECKS FROM THE STATES
340(2)
CHECKS FROM THE PEOPLE
342(2)
SELECTED REFERENCES
344(2)
READINGS
8.1 Webster v. Reproductive Health Services (1989)
346(3)
8.2 Lee Epstein and Jack Knight, THE CHOICES JUSTICES MAKE
349(5)
8.3 Jeffrey A. Segal, Donald R. Songer, and Charles M. Cameron, DECISION MAKING ON THE U.S. COURTS OF APPEALS
354(4)
8.4 ANDREW JACKSON'S VETO OF THE BANK BILL
358(1)
8.5 ABRAHAM LINCOLN'S FIRST INAUGURAL ADDRESS, MARCH 4, 1861
359(1)
8.6 Franklin D. Roosevelt, REORGANIZING THE FEDERAL JUDICIARY
360(3)
8.7 GEORGE W. BUSH'S STATEMENT ON SAME-SEX MARRIAGES (2004)
363(1)
8.8 Ex Parte McCardle (1869)
364(2)
8.9 James H. Kuklinski and John E. Stanga, POLITICAL PARTICIPATION AND GOVERNMENT RESPONSIVENESS: THE BEHAVIOR OF CALIFORNIA SUPERIOR COURTS
366(4)
8.10 James L. Gibson, Gregory A. Caldeira, and Vanessa Baird, ON THE LEGITIMACY OF NATIONAL HIGH COURTS
370(11)
Part Four JUDICIAL DECISION MAKING
Chapter 9. Fact Finding in the Courts
381(57)
THE ADVERSARIAL PROCESS
382(1)
JURIES
383(13)
Jury Trials
384(4)
The Critics and the Defenders of Juries
388(1)
Standards for Fact Finding
389(1)
Adjudicative Facts
390(1)
Legislative Facts and Public Issues
390(1)
Social and Economic Data
391(3)
Contemporary Use of Social Science Evidence: The Death Penalty Cases
394(2)
SELECTED REFERENCES
396(2)
READINGS
9.1 Marvin E. Frankel, THE ADVERSARY JUDGE: THE EXPERIENCE OF THE TRIAL JUDGE
398(4)
9.2 Hans Zeisel and Harry Kalven, Jr., THE AMERICAN EXPERIMENT
402(4)
9.3 Geoffrey Norman, JUROR FUROR
406(4)
9.4 Clarence Darrow, HOW TO PICK A JURY
410(2)
9.5 Amitai Etzioni, SCIENCE: THREATENING THE JURY TRIAL
412(5)
9.6 Michael Saks, THE LIMITS OF SCIENTIFIC JURY SELECTION
417(2)
9.7 Paul Butler, BLACK JURORS: RIGHT TO ACQUIT?
419(4)
9.8 Tracey Gilstrap Weiss, THE GREAT DEMOCRATIZING PRINCIPLE: THE EFFECT ON SOUTH AFRICA OF PLANNING A DEMOCRACY WITHOUT A JURY SYSTEM
423(4)
9.9 MCCLESKEY V. KEMP (1987)
427(6)
9.10 David C. Baldus, THE DEATH PENALTY DIALOGUE BETWEEN LAW AND SOCIAL SCIENCE
433(3)
9.11 John C. Jeffries, Jr., LEWIS F. POWELL, JR.
436(2)
Chapter 10. Precedents and Legal Reasoning
438(53)
REASONING BY EXAMPLE
439(1)
RATION DECIDENDI VERSUS DICTA
440(3)
Dicta
441(2)
TREATMENT OF PRECEDENT
443(5)
Distinguishing a Precedent
444(1)
Limiting a Precedent
444(1)
Ignoring a Precedent
445(1)
Overruling a Precedent
446(1)
Extending a Precedent
447(1)
PRECEDENTS AND DECISION MAKING
448(1)
SELECTED REFERENCES
449(2)
READINGS
10.1 Edward H. Levi, AN INTRODUCTION TO LEGAL REASONING
451(3)
10.2 Lief H. Carter, REASON IN LAW
454(5)
10.3 MACPHERSON V. BUICK MOTOR Co. (1916)
459(3)
10.4 Briefs Filed in U.S. TERM LIMITS V. THORNTON (1995)
462(5)
10.5 PLANNED PARENTHOOD OF SOUTHEASTERN PENNSYLVANIA V. CASEY (1992)
467(9)
10.6 Jeffrey A. Segal and Harold J. Spaeth, THE INFLUENCE OF STARE DECISIS ON THE VOTES OF UNITED STATES SUPREME COURT JUSTICES, VERSUS Jack Knight and Lee Epstein, THE NORM OF STARE DECISIS
476(8)
10.7 Lewis F. Powell, Jr., STARE DECISIS AND JUDICIAL RESTRAINT
484(3)
10.8 Ronald Kahn, INSTITUTIONAL NORMS AND SUPREME COURT DECISION MAKING: THE REHNQUIST COURT ON PRIVACY AND RELIGION
487(4)
Chapter 11. Statutory Interpretation
491(48)
PLAIN MEANING AND THE PROBLEM OF AMBIGUITY
491(2)
DEALING WITH AMBIGUITY: THEORIES OF STATUTORY INTERPRETATION
493(5)
Legislative Intent
494(1)
Legislative Purpose
495(1)
The New Textualism
496(1)
Dynamic Statutory Interpretation
497(1)
PRACTICAL MATTERS IN STATUTORY INTERPRETATION
498(2)
STATUTORY LAW AND JUDICIAL LAW MAKING
500(1)
SELECTED REFERENCES
501(2)
READINGS
11.1 Felix Frankfurter, SOME REFLECTIONS ON THE READING OF STATUTES
503(4)
11.2 SMITH V. UNITED STATES (1993)
507(3)
11.3 UNITED STEELWORKERS V. WEBER (1979)
510(14)
11.4 Richard A. Posner, THE FEDERAL COURTS
524(3)
11.5 Henry M. Hart, Jr., and Albert M. Sachs, THE LEGAL PROCESS
527(3)
11.6 CONROY V. ANISKOFF (1993)
530(1)
11.7 Frank H. Easterbrook, STATUTES' DOMAINS
531(4)
11.8 William N. Eskridge, Jr., DYNAMIC STATUTORY INTERPRETATION
535(4)
Chapter 12. Constitutional Interpretation
539(78)
CONSTITUTIONAL TEXTS, CONSTITUTIONS, AND CONSTITUTIONALISM
539(2)
WHAT IS TO BE INTERPRETED?
541(1)
WHO SHALL INTERPRET?
542(2)
HOW SHOULD JUDGES INTERPRET THE CONSTITUTION? INTERPRETIVE STYLE IN THE UNITED STATES
544(1)
MODES OF INTERPRETATION
545(12)
The Text
545(1)
Stare Decisis and Doctrinal Analysis
545(2)
Original Intent or Understanding
547(3)
Structural Analysis
550(1)
Purposive Analysis
551(3)
Polls of Other Jurisdictions
554(1)
Polls of Courts Abroad
555(1)
Balancing of Interests
556(1)
Cost-Benefit Analysis
556(1)
CONSTITUTIONAL INTERPRETATION AS A FORM OF STATECRAFT
557(1)
SELECTED REFERENCES
558(3)
READINGS
12.1 UNITED STATES V. NIXON (1974)
561(5)
12.2 Antonin Scalia, ORIGINALISM: THE LESSER EVIL
566(5)
12.3 Robert H. Bork, THE TEMPTING OF AMERICA
571(8)
12.4 Thurgood Marshall, REFLECTIONS ON THE BICENTENNIAL OF THE UNITED STATES CONSTITUTION
579(3)
12.5 THE STATE V. MAKWANYANE (1995)
582(3)
12.6 UNITED STATES V. LEON (1984)
585(6)
12.7 Laurence H. Tribe v. Frank H. Easterbrook, ECONOMIC REASONING AND CONSTITUTIONAL INTERPRETATION
591(9)
12.8 William Rehnquist, THE NOTION OF A LIVING CONSTITUTION
600(5)
12.9 Ronald Dworkin, TAKING RIGHTS SERIOUSLY
605(12)
Chapter 13. The Processes of Judicial Decision Making
617(74)
TRIAL COURTS
617(3)
INTERMEDIATE APPELLATE COURTS
620(2)
STATE SUPREME COURTS
622(1)
THE U.S. SUPREME COURT
623(21)
Case Selection
624(3)
Factors Affecting Selection of Cases
627(3)
Oral Argument
630(2)
The Judicial Conference
632(2)
Writing Opinions
634(2)
Negotiating and Bargaining
636(3)
Voting on the Merits
639(5)
SELECTED REFERENCES
644(4)
READINGS
13.1 Charles Nesson and Associates, CRITICAL ISSUES IN THE COURTROOM: EXPLORING A HYPOTHETICAL CASE
648(9)
13.2 James Eisenstein and Herbert Jacob, FELONY JUSTICE
657(3)
13.3 Frank B. Cross and Emerson H. Tiller, JUDICIAL PARTISANSHIP AND OBEDIENCE TO LEGAL DOCTRINE: WHISTLEBLOWING ON THE FEDERAL COURTS OF APPEALS
660(5)
13.4 Melinda Gann Hall, CONSTITUENT INFLUENCE IN STATE SUPREME COURTS
665(5)
13.5 H.W. Perry, DECIDING TO DECIDE
670(5)
13.6 David J. Danelski, THE INFLUENCE OF THE CHIEF JUSTICE IN THE DECISIONAL PROCESS
675(9)
13.7 Paul J. Wahlbeck, James F. Spriggs, and Forrest Maltzman, MARSHALLING THE COURT: BARGAINING AND ACCOMMODATION ON THE UNITED STATES SUPREME COURT
684(7)
Chapter 14. The Impact of Judicial Decisions
691(68)
COMPLIANCE AND IMPACT
691(3)
ANTICIPATED CONSEQUENCES
694(2)
ACTUAL CONSEQUENCES
696(3)
EXPLAINING AND ASSESSING EFFECTS
699(4)
SELECTED REFERENCES
703(3)
READINGS
14.1 Bradley C. Canon and Charles A. Johnson, JUDICIAL POLICIES: IMPLEMENTATION AND IMPACT
706(8)
14.2 Elliot E. Slotnick and Jennifer A. Segal, TELEVISION NEWS AND THE SUPREME COURT: ALL THE NEWS THAT'S FIT TO AIR?
714(8)
14.3 BAKER V. CARR (1962)
722(3)
14.4 Louis Fisher, LEGISLATIVE VETOES, PHOENIX STYLE
725(2)
14.5 Gerald N. Rosenberg, THE HOLLOW HOPE: CAN COURTS GENERATE SOCIAL CHANGE?
727(16)
14.6 Michael McCann, REFORM LITIGATION ON TRIAL: REVIEW OF THE HOLLOW HOPE
743(8)
14.7 Valerie J. Hoekstra, PUBLIC REACTION TO SUPREME COURT DECISIONS
751(8)
Case Index 759(4)
Subject Index 763


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