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How did ideas about crime and criminals change in Europe from around 1750 to 1940? How did European states respond to these changes with the development of police and penal institutions? Clive Emsley addresses these questions using recent research on the history of crime and criminal justice in Europe. Exploring the subject chronologically, he addresses the forms of offending, the changing interpretations and understandings of that offending at both elite and popular levels, and howthe emerging nation states of the period responded to criminal activity by the development of police forces and the refinement of forms of punishment. The book focuses on the comparative nature in which different states studied each other and their institutions, and the ways in which different reformers exchanged ideas and investigated policing and penal experiments in other countries. It also explores the theoretical issues underpinning recent research, emphasising that the changes in ideas on crime and criminals were neither linear nor circular, and demonstrating clearly that many ideas hailed as new by contemporary politicians and incurrent debate on crime and its 'solutions', have a very long and illustrious history.
Educated at the University of York and at Peterhouse, Cambridge, Clive Emsley has taught and held visiting fellowships in Australia, Canada, France, and New Zealand. He has published widely on the history of crime and policing, including Crime and Society in England 1750-1900 (now in its fourth edition), Crime and Society in Twentieth-Century England and The Great British Bobby: A History of British Policing from the 18th Century to the Present. He was president of the International Association for the History of Crime and Criminal Justice for ten years.
Table of Contents
1. Introduction The Old Regime and the Enlightenment 2. Laws and Punishments 3. The Understanding and Nature of Crime 4. Coping with Crime The Revolutionary Era 5. The New French System 6. Crime and Police in Revolution and War The Discovery of the Criminal Classes 7. Measuring a Problem 8. Danger in the City: Danger in the Countryside 9. Protection, Punishment and Reformation The Appliance of Science 10. 'Scientific Criminology 11. New Professionals: Old Problems The Faces of Penal Welfare 12. Penal Policies and the Impact of War 13. Controlling and Punishing after the Great War 14. National Paths: Common Patterns