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Crime Victims:  An Introduction to Vicimology (Non-InfoTrac Version),9780534515454

Crime Victims: An Introduction to Vicimology (Non-InfoTrac Version)

by
Edition:
4th
ISBN13:

9780534515454

ISBN10:
0534515452
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
8/1/2000
Publisher(s):
Thomson Learning
List Price: $36.95
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Summary

CRIME VICTIMS: AN INTRODUCTION TO VICTIMOLOGY is a innovative and comprehensive guide that offers balanced coverage on this controversial subject. A must-have for anyone interested in this field!

Table of Contents

Foreword xv
Preface xvii
The Rediscovery of Crime Victims and the Rise of Victimology
The Discovery, Decline, and Rediscovery of Crime Victims
2(6)
The Discovery of Crime Victims
2(1)
The Decline of Crime Victims
2(2)
The Rediscovery of Crime Victims
4(1)
Social Movements: Taking Up the Victims' Cause
4(3)
The News Media: Portraying the Victims Plight
7(1)
Businesses: Selling Products and Services to Victims
7(1)
The Rise of Victimology
8(15)
The Emergence of a New Focus
8(2)
Highlights in the Brief History of Victimology and Victim Assistance
10(2)
The Need for Objectivity
12(8)
Victimology Compared to Criminology
20(3)
What Victimologists Do
23(3)
Identify, Define, and Describe the Problem
24(1)
Measure the True Dimensions of the Problem
24(1)
Investigate How Victims Are Handled
25(1)
Gather Evidence to Test Hypotheses
26(1)
Victimology Contributes to the Process of Rediscovering Victims
26(12)
The Kinds of Studies Victimologisists Undertake
27(1)
Calling Attention to an Overlooked Problem
28(2)
Winning Victories, Implementing Reforms
30(1)
Emergence of an Opposition and Development of Resistance to Further Changes
31(1)
Research and Temporary Resolution of the Dispute
32(1)
The Continuing Process of Rediscovery
32(2)
Groups of Victims That Have Been Recently Rediscovered
34(4)
Chapter Summary
38(1)
Discussion Questions
39(3)
Digging Up the Facts About Crime Victims
Crime in the Streets: The Big Picture
42(15)
The Use and Abuse of Statistics
42(4)
A Closer Look at the Two Official Sources of Victimization Data
46(1)
The Uniform Crime Report
47(2)
The National Crime Victimization Survey
49(3)
Comparing the UCR and the NCVS
52(1)
Using Data to Bring the Big Picture Into Focus
53(4)
Searching for Crime Waves: Detecting Victimization Trends
57(7)
Changes Over Time in Violent Crime Rates
57(4)
Checking Out Whether More Robberies Are Turning into Murders
61(2)
``Your Money or Your Life''
63(1)
Using the UCR to Analyze Murders
64(2)
Murderers and Their Victims
64(2)
Using the NCVS to Analyze Robberies
66(5)
Robbers and Their Victims
66(2)
Findings From the NCVS That Shed Light on Robberies
68(3)
Making International Comparisons
71(2)
Comparing the Murder Rates in Different Societies
72(1)
Assessing Comparative Risks
73(3)
Putting Crime Into Perspective
73(3)
Uncovering Victimization Patterns
76(5)
Recognizing Differential Risks
76(1)
Differential Risks of Being Murdered
77(2)
Differential Risks of Being Robbed
79(2)
Projecting Cumulative Risks
81(2)
Estimating Lifetime Likelihoods
81(2)
Chapter Summary
83(1)
Discussion Questions
84(3)
The Victims' Contribution to the Crime Problem
The Search for Risk Factors
87(11)
The Determinants of Differential Risks
88(5)
Reducing Risks: How Safe Is Safe Enough?
93(1)
From Crime Prevention to Victimization Prevention
94(2)
Ambivalence About Risk Taking
96(1)
Deterrence Theory As Applied to Victims
97(1)
The Controversy Over Shared Responsibility
98(39)
Expressions of Support for Inquiries Into the Victim's Role
99(2)
Victim Facilitation, Precipitation, and Provocation
101(1)
Victim Facilitation
101(3)
Victim Precipitation and Provocation
104(2)
The Frequency of Shared Responsibility in Violent Crimes
106(1)
Recognizing Complete Innocence and Full Responsibility
107(1)
Typologies of Shared Responsibility
107(1)
A Typology of Auto Theft Victims
108(2)
Victim Blaming Versus Victim Defending
110(3)
Victim Facilitation and Auto Theft: Is It the Careless Who Wind Up Carless?
113(1)
Criticisms of the Notion of Shared Responsibility
114(3)
Blaming the Victim for Facilitating the Crime
117(1)
Examples of ``Motorise Blaming''
118(1)
Victim Precipitation and Rape: Was It Somehow Her Fault?
119(3)
Victim-Blaming Views
122(2)
Victim-Defending Perspectives
124(1)
Victim Provocation and Murder: When Is the Slaying of a Wife Beater Justified?
125(2)
Arguments Stressing That the Brutal Men Did Not Deserve to Die
127(2)
Arguments Emphasizing That the Brutal Men Provoked the Lethal Responses
129(3)
Transcending Victim Blaming and Victim Defending
132(2)
The Legal Importance of Determining Responsibility
134(1)
Prof Calls for Crackdown on Crime Victims
135(2)
Chapter Summary
137(1)
Discussion Questions
138(2)
Victims and the Criminal Justice System: Cooperation and Conflict
Victims Versus the Criminal Justice System
140(2)
Criticisms of the Way the Criminal Justice System Handles Victims
141(1)
What Do Victims Want: Punishment? Treatment? or Restitution?
142(6)
The System's Shortcomings From a Victim's Point of View
143(5)
Victims and the Police
148(13)
Reporting Incidents
148(3)
Responding Quickly
151(1)
Investigating Complaints
152(2)
Judging Complaints to Be Unfounded
154(2)
Arresting Suspects
156(4)
Recovering Stolen Property
160(1)
Victims and Prosecutors
161(10)
Assisting Victims and Other Witnesses for the State
162(2)
Protecting Victims Serving as Witnesses for the Prosecution
164(3)
Dismissing Charges and Rejecting Cases
167(2)
Negotiating Pleas
169(2)
Victims and Defense Attorneys
171(3)
Postponing Hearings
171(1)
Cross-examining Witnesses During Trials
172(2)
Victims and Judges
174(6)
Granting Bail
174(1)
Sentencing Offenders
175(3)
Appealing to the Supreme Court
178(1)
Supreme Court Decisions Directly Affecting Victims
179(1)
Victims and Corrections Officials
180(3)
Contacting Parole Boards
181(2)
And Justice for All
183(3)
Recognizing ``Second-Class'' Treatment
183(2)
Which Victims Get Better Treatment?
185(1)
Chapter Summary
186(1)
Discussion Questions
186(3)
Special Kinds of Victims: Problems and Solutions
Missing Children
189(9)
Estimates of the Incidence and the Seriousness of the Problem
190(1)
Highlights of the Rediscovery of the Missing Children Problem
191(3)
How Often Are Children Kidnapped, and What Happens to Them?
194(1)
Hunting for Children Who Have Vanished
194(3)
Victimization Prevention Measures
197(1)
Physically and Sexually Abused Children
198(20)
The Rediscovery of Child Abuse
198(3)
Estimates of the Incidence, Prevalence, and Seriousness of Child Abuse
201(4)
More Controversies Surrounding Childhood Sexual Abuse
205(1)
Accusations Made During Divorce Proceedings and Custody Battles
205(1)
The Four Over Recoalling Repressed Memories of Childhood Sexual Abuse
206(4)
Strange Allegations of Ritualistic Abuse by Satanic Cults
210(1)
Abused Children and Legal Proceedings
211(1)
Taking the Best Interests of the Child Into Account
212(1)
Handling Charges of Abuse
212(1)
Children as Witnesses
213(4)
Proactive Versus Reactive Strategies
217(1)
More Casualties of Domestiv Violence
218(3)
Abuse of Adolescents by Parents
218(1)
Abuse of Parents by Adolescents
219(1)
Sibling Abuse
219(1)
Elder Abuse
219(2)
Violence Between Intimates
221(18)
The Rediscovery of Wife Beating
221(3)
Estimates of the Incidence, Prevalence, and Seriousness of Spouse Abuse
224(5)
Aiding Victims Who Feel Trapped
229(2)
Battered Women and the Criminal Justice System: Violence Is Violence, or Is It?
231(2)
The Police Response
233(1)
The Prosecutorial Response
234(1)
The Judicial Response
235(1)
Preventing Battering
236(1)
The Rediscovery of Other Victims of Beatings
237(1)
Battering Within Same-Sex Relationships
237(1)
The Controversy Surrounding Battered Husbands
238(1)
Victims of Sexual Assault
239(26)
The Rediscovery of the Plight of Rape Victims
239(1)
``Real Rapes'' and ``Date Rapes''
240(2)
The Consequences of Being Sexually Assaulted
242(1)
Estimates of the Incidence, Prevalence, and Seriousness of Rape
243(5)
The Controversy Over Date Rape on College Campuses
248(2)
How the Criminal Justice System Handles Rape Victims
250(1)
The Controversy Over Unfounded Accusations
251(3)
The Accuser Versus the Accused
254(1)
Rape Shield Laws
255(1)
Force and Resistance
256(1)
Corroboration
257(1)
Arrest, Prosecution, and Adjudication
258(1)
Crisis Centers: Providing Emergency Assistance
259(1)
Unwanted Publicity and Negative Media Portrayals
260(2)
Reducing the Threat of Rape
262(1)
The Rediscovery of More Rape Victims
263(1)
Wives Raped by Their Husbands
263(1)
Sexually Assaulted Males
263(2)
Chapter Summary
265(1)
Discussion Questions
265(3)
Repaying Victims
Gaining Restitution From Offenders
268(13)
Back to Basics
268(1)
The Rise, Fall, and Revival of Restitution
269(4)
Divergent Goals, Clashing Philosophies
273(1)
Restitution as a Means of Repaying Victims
273(1)
Restitution as a Means of Rehabilitating Offenders
274(1)
Restitution as a Means of Reconciling Offenders and Their Victims
274(1)
Restitution as a Means of Punishing Offenders
275(1)
Opportunities Versus Obstacles
275(5)
Evaluating Restitution Programs
280(1)
Winning Judgments in Civil Court
281(9)
The Revival of Interest in Civil Lawsuits
281(1)
The Litigation Process
282(1)
Possibilities and Pitfalls
283(3)
Collecting Damages From Third Parties
286(1)
Suing Private Enterprises
287(1)
Suing Government Bodies
288(2)
Collecting Insurance Reimbursements
290(2)
Private Crime Insurance
290(1)
Patterns of Loss, Recovery, and Reimbursement
291(1)
Federal Crime Insurance
291(1)
Recovering Losses by Turning to Compensation Programs
292(11)
Reimbursement From Government Funds
292(1)
The History of Victim Compensation by Governments
293(1)
The Debate Over Compensation in the United States
294(3)
How Programs Operate: Similarities and Differences
297(2)
Monitoring and Evaluating Compensation Programs
299(1)
Uncovering How Programs Work
299(2)
Measuring the Effects of Programs
301(2)
Confiscating Profits From Notorious Criminals
303(1)
Chapter Summary
304(1)
Discussion Questions
305(3)
Victims in the 21st Century: Alternative Directions
Toward Greater Formal Legal Rights Within the Criminal Justice System
308(11)
Rights Gained at the Expense of Offenders
311(2)
Rights Gained at the Expense of the System
313(1)
Rights Gained at the Expanse of Either Offenders of the System or Both
313(6)
Toward Restorative Justice
319(11)
Peacemaking
319(5)
How Reconciliation Programs Work
324(2)
Evaluating Efforts at Reconciliation
326(1)
Pros and Cons From the Victim's Point of View
327(3)
Toward Retaliatory Justice
330(14)
Vigilantism's Frontier Origins
331(2)
Vigilantism's Versus Legitimate Use of Force in Self-defense
333(1)
Would Potential Victims Be Better Off If They Were Armed?
334(4)
The Drift Back Toward Retaliatory Violence
338(6)
Chapter Summary
344(1)
Discussion Questions
345(2)
References 347(42)
Appendix 389(4)
Name Index 393(8)
Subject Index 401


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