9780134163741

Criminal Behavior: A Psychological Approach, 11th Edition

by
  • ISBN13:

    9780134163741

  • ISBN10:

    0134163745

  • Edition: 11th
  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 1/4/2016
  • Publisher: PEARSO

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Summary

A comprehensive psychological approach to criminal and antisocial behavior.

Building on a tradition of excellence, Criminal Behavior: A Psychological Approachis accurate, well-researched, contemporary, and comprehensive. It offers a detailed look at crime, what may lead to it, and how criminal behavior may be prevented — all from a psychological perspective. With a focus on serious crimes, particularly those involving violence, this text offers an all-inclusive look at a very complex field through effective and engaging material that has been classroom-tested for more than thirty years.

 

Now in the Eleventh Edition, you’ll find crucial updates relating to crime definitions and DSM-5 categories, as well as the most current statistics and recently proposed models and theories. Numerous topics — such as intimate partner violence, juvenile sex offending, terrorist recruitment, elderly abuse, and sexual burglary — now receive more extensive coverage than ever before.

Author Biography

Curt Bartol earned a PhD in Personality/Social Psychology from Northern Illinois University. He was then a psychology professor for over 30 years, teaching a wide array of both graduate and undergraduate courses, including Criminal Behavior, Biopsychology, Social Psychology, Introduction to Forensic Psychology, Juvenile Delinquency, and Psychology and Law. He was instrumental in creating and launching a Master’s Program in Forensic Psychology at Castleton State College (now Castleton University) and served as its director for six years. He is a licensed clinical psychologist who has offered psychological services to local, state, and federal law enforcement agencies and public safety offices for over 35 years. He was editor of the scholarly journal Criminal Justice and Behavior for 17 years.   

 

Anne Bartol earned an M.A. in Journalism from the University of Wisconsin-Madison and an M.A. and PhD in Criminal Justice from the State University of New York at Albany. Over a 20-year college teaching career she taught criminal justice, sociology, and journalism courses, including Criminology, Juvenile Justice, Corrections, Women and Criminal Justice, Occupational Crime, and Media Law. She was managing editor of Criminal Justice and Behavior and has worked as a news reporter and a social worker in family and child protective services.

 

In addition to individual published articles in journals and encyclopedias, the Bartols have collaborated on and co-authored five books through multiple editions—with each subsequent edition carefully updated to reflect changes in data, research findings, theories, and law. Besides Criminal Behavior in its Eleventh Edition, they have written: Juvenile Delinquency (Third Edition, 2009); Psychology and Law (Third Edition, 2015); Introduction to Forensic Psychology (Fourth Edition, 2015); and Criminal and Behavioral Profiling (First Edition, 2013). They also have co-edited a book of readings, Current Perspectives in Forensic Psychology and Criminal Behavior (Fourth Edition, 2016).  

Table of Contents

Chapter 1 Introduction to Criminal Behavior 1

Chapter Objectives 1

Theories of Crime 2

Theoretical Perspectives on Human Nature 4

Disciplinary Perspectives in Criminology 6

Sociological Criminology 7

Psychological Criminology 8

Box 1-1: Hate or Bias Crimes 8

Psychiatric Criminology 10

Defining and Measuring Crime 12

Uniform Crime Reporting System 12

Box 1-2: The Problem of Internet-Facilitated Crime 17

Self-Report Studies 19

Victimization Surveys 21

Juvenile Delinquency 23

Recap: Defining Crime and Delinquency 24

Summary and Conclusions 26

Key Concepts 27 • Review Questions 27

 

Chapter 2 Origins of Criminal Behavior: Developmental Risk Factors 28

Chapter Objectives 28

Cumulative Risk Model 29

Developmental Cascade Model 30

Social Environment Risk Factors 32

Poverty 32

Peer Rejection and Association with Antisocial Peers 33

Preschool Experiences 36

After-School Care 37

Academic Failure 37

Parental and Family Risk Factors 38

Single-Parent Households 38

Parental Styles and Practices 39

Parental Monitoring 42

Box 2-1: Monitoring, Middle School, and Family Relationships 42

Influence of Siblings 44

Parental Psychopathology 44

Psychological Risk Factors 45

Lack of Attachment 45

Lack of Empathy 46

Cognitive and Language Deficiencies 48

Intelligence and Delinquency 49

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder 51

Box 2-2: ADHD: Which Treatment to Use? 52

ADHD and Criminal Behavior 53

Conduct Disorder 54

Oppositional Defiant Disorder 55

Summary and Conclusions 56

Key Concepts 58 • Review Questions 58

 

Chapter 3 Origins of Criminal Behavior: Biological Factors 59

Chapter Objectives 59

Genetics and Antisocial Behavior 60

Behavior Genetics 60

Studies of Twins 61

The Twins’ Early Development Study 63

Twin Study of Child and Adolescent Development 64

Adoption Studies 64

Molecular Genetics 66

Psychophysiological Factors 66

Temperament 67

Environmental Risk Factors 70

Neurotoxins 70

Lead 71

Cadmium 72

Manganese 73

Mercury (Methlymercury) 73

Protective Properties of Micronutrients 74

Prenatal and Postnatal Malnutrition 75

Box 3-1: Malnutrition in Infants 75

Nicotine, Alcohol, and Drug Exposure 76

Traumatic Brain Injury 78

Brain Development Abnormalities 79

Hormones and Neurotransmitters 80

Neuropsychological Factors 80

Summary and Conclusions 81

Key Concepts 82 • Review Questions 82

 

Chapter 4 Origins of Criminal Behavior: Learning and Situational Factors 83

Chapter Objectives 83

Behaviorism 85

Skinner’s Theory of Behavior 86

Behaviorism as a Method of Science 86

Behaviorism as a Perspective of Human Nature 87

Skinnerian Concepts 87

Operant Learning and Crime 88

Social Learning 89

Expectancy Theory 90

Imitational Aspects of Social Learning 91

Differential Association-Reinforcement Theory 92

Frustration-Induced Criminality 94

The Socialized and Individual Offender 94

Frustration-Induced Riots 95

Frustration and Crime 96

Situational Instigators and Regulators of Criminal Behavior 96

Authority as an Instigator of Criminal Behavior 97

Box 4-1: National Security Interrogations—Psychology’s Role 100

Deindividuation 101

The Stanford Prison Experiment 103

The BBC Prison Study 104

Deindividuation and Crowd Violence 105

The Bystander Effect 106

Box 4-2: Do Security Cameras Affect Bystander Apathy? 108

Moral Disengagement 109

Summary and Conclusions 110

Key Concepts 111 • Review Questions 112

 

Chapter 5 Human Aggression and Violence 113

Chapter Objectives 113

Defining Aggression 114

Hostile and Instrumental Aggression 115

Box 5-1: Aggression in Recent High Profile Cases 115

Interpretation by Victim 117

Theoretical Perspectives on Aggression 117

Psychoanalytical/Psychodynamic Viewpoint 118

Ethological Viewpoints 118

Frustration-Aggression Hypothesis 119

Weapons Effect 120

Cognitive-Neoassociation Model 121

Excitation Transfer Theory 121

Displaced Aggression Theory 122

Social Learning Factors in Aggression and Violence 122

Modeling 123

Observation Modeling 124

Cognitive Models of Aggression 125

Cognitive Scripts Model 125

Hostile Attribution Model 125

Box 5-2: Dealing With Anger—What Works and for Whom? 128

The General Aggression Model 129

I³ Theory 130

Overt and Covert Acts of Aggression 130

Reactive and Proactive Forms of Aggression 131

Gender Differences in Aggression 132

Effects of Media Violence 133

Copycat Crime or Contagion Effect 136

Box 5-3: Copycat Gamers 137

Summary and Conclusions 139

Key Concepts 140 • Review Questions 141

 

Chapter 6 Juvenile Delinquency 142

Chapter Objectives 142

Definitions of Delinquency 143

Legal Definition 143

Social Definition 144

Psychological Definitions 144

Nature and Extent of Juvenile Offending 145

Status Offenses 147

The Serious Delinquent 148

Gender Differences in Juvenile Offending 148

Developmental Theories of Delinquency 151

Moffitt’s Developmental Theory 152

Box 6-1: Emerging Adulthood as a Developmental Stage 154

Steinberg’s Dual Systems Model 157

Coercion Developmental Theory 158

Callous-Unemotional Trait Theory 160

Prevention, Intervention, and Treatment of Juvenile Offending 161

Treatment and Rehabilitation Strategies 161

Characteristics of Successful Programs 162

Box 6-2: Gender Responsive Programming 163

Classification of Prevention and Treatment Programs 165

Primary Prevention 167

Selective or Secondary Prevention 168

Box 6-3: The Fast Track Experiment 169

Treatment Approaches 170

Summary and Conclusions 175

Key Concepts 177 • Review Questions 177

 

Chapter 7 Psychopathy 178

Chapter Objectives 178

What is a Psychopath? 179

Antisocial Personality Disorder 179

Examples of Primary Psychopaths 180

Behavioral Descriptions 181

Behavioral Characteristics 182

Psychological Testing Differences 183

Psychopaths and Mental Disorders 183

Psychopaths and Suicide 183

Other Principal Traits 184

The Criminal Psychopath 185

Prevalence of Criminal Psychopathy 186

Offending Patterns of Criminal Psychopaths 186

Recidivism of Criminal Psychopaths 187

Psychological Measures of Psychopathy 187

The PCL-R 188

Criticisms of the PCL-R 189

Box 7-1: Corporate Psychopaths 189

Core Factors of Psychopathy 190

The Two-Factor Position 190

The Three-Factor Position 191

The Four-Factor Model 191

The Boldness Factor 191

The Meanness Factor 192

The Female Psychopath 192

Racial/Ethnic Differences 193

Juvenile Psychopathy 194

Can Juvenile Psychopathy Be Identified? 194

Box 7-2: Treating Adolescents with Psychopathic Features 195

Ethical Considerations 196

Measures of Juvenile Psychopathy 197

Neurobiological Factors and Psychopathy 198

Genetic Factors 198

Neuropsychology and Psychopathy 198

Central Nervous System Differences 199

Peripheral Nervous System (PNS) Research 202

Autonomic Nervous System Research 203

The Dual-Process Model of Psychopathy 206

Childhood of the Psychopath 207

Treatment of Criminal Psychopaths 208

Treatment of Children and Adolescents with Psychopathic

Summary and Conclusions 210

Key Concepts 212 • Review Questions 212

 

Chapter 8 Crime and Mental Disorders 213

Chapter Objectives 213

Defining Mental Illness 216

The DSM 216

Schizophrenia Spectrum and Other Psychotic Disorders 217

Bipolar Disorder 218

Major Depressive Disorder 219

Antisocial Personality Disorder 219

Box 8-1: Does Serious Mental Disorder Cause Crime? 220

Competency and Criminal Responsibility 221

Incompetency to Stand Trial 221

Criminal Responsibility 224

Insanity Standards 227

Guilty but Mentally Ill 230

Unique Defenses and Conditions 231

Posttraumatic Stress Disorder 231

Dissociation 233

Dissociative Identity Disorder 234

Dissociative Amnesia 235

Mental Disorder and Violence 236

Research on the Violence of the Mentally Disordered 237

The MacArthur Research Network 238

Police and the Mentally Disordered 239

Mentally Disordered Inmates 239

Dangerousness and the Assessment of Risk 241

The Tarasoff Case 241

Violence Risk Factors and Measures 243

Summary and Conclusions 245

Key Concepts 246 • Review Questions 246

 

Chapter 9 Homicide, Assault, and Intimate Partner and Family Violence 247

Chapter Objectives 247

Definitions 249

Criminal Homicide 250

Aggravated Assault 251

Demographic and Other Factors of Homicide 251

Race/Ethnicity 252

Gender 252

Age 253

Socioeconomic Status 253

Circumstances 253

Weapons 253

Box 9-1: Guns, Crime, and Cumulative Risk 255

Psychological Aspects of Criminal Homicide 256

General Altercation Homicide 257

Felony Commission Homicides 258

Juvenile Homicide Offenders 259

Box 9-2: Boys, Girls, and Homicide: Why and How do They Do It? 260

Psychological Characteristics of Juvenile Murderers 260

Treatment of Juveniles Who Kill 262

Intimate Partner Violence 262

IPV among Older Adults 264

IPV among Hispanics 264

Same Sex or Nonheterosexual IPV 265

IPV within Law Enforcement and Military Families 266

Psychological and Demographic Characteristics of Abusers 267

Family Violence 268

Prevalence 269

Victims 269

Child Maltreatment 271

Missing, Abducted, Runaway, and Thrownaway Children 273

Munchausen Syndrome by Proxy 274

Abusive Head Trauma 275

Infanticide 276

Neonaticide 276

Filicide 277

Elderly Abuse 278

Sibling-to-Sibling Violence 280

Child-to-Parent Violence 281

Multiassaultive Families 282

The Cycle of Violence 283

The Effects of Family Violence on Children 284

Summary and Conclusions 285

Key Concepts 286 • Review Questions 287

Chapter 10 Multiple Murder, School and Workplace Violence 288

Chapter Objectives 288

Investigative Psychology 289

Forms of Profiling 290

Psychological Profiling 290

Suspect-Based Profiling 291

Geographical Profiling 291

Crime Scene Profiling 292

Equivocal Death Analysis 297

Multiple Murders 298

Definitions 299

Serial Murders 300

Choice of Victims and Modus Operandi 301

Geographical Location of Serial Killing 302

Ethnic and Racial Characteristics 302

Risk Factors and Psychological Motives 303

Research on Backgrounds 303

Female Serial Killers 304

Juvenile Serial Killers 305

Mass Murderers 305

Public Mass Shootings 306

A Mass Murder Typology 308

School Violence 310

School Shootings 311

Box 10-1: Safety Drills in Schools: Unanticipated Consequences 312

Psychological Characteristics of School Shooters 314

Workplace Violence 315

Categories of Workplace Violence 316

Perpetrators of Workplace Violence 319

Summary and Conclusions 320

Key Concepts 321 • Review Questions 322

 

Chapter 11 Psychology of Modern Terrorism 323

Chapter Objectives 323

Definitions and Examples 325

Classification of Terrorist Groups 328

A Terrorist Typology 330

Followers and Leaders: Who Joins and Who Leads 330

Why Do They Join? 331

Quest for Significance Theory 332

Terror Management Theory 333

Suicidal Terrorism 333

Becoming a Terrorist: The Process of Radicalization 334

Terrorist Leaders 335

Lone Wolf Terrorists 336

Boston Marathon Bombers 337

Box 11-1: The Marathon Bombing and Beyond 337

Fort Hood Shooter 338

The Times Square Bombing Attempt 338

The Psychosocial Context of Terrorism 340

Terrorist Motives and Justifications 341

Additional Disengagement Practices 342

Psychological Effects and Nature of Terrorism 343

Cognitive Restructuring 343

Moral Development 343

Summary and Conclusions 346

Key Concepts 347 • Review Questions 347

 

Chapter 12 Sexual Assault 348

Chapter Objectives 348

Definitions and Statistics 349

Sexual Assault in Date and Acquaintance Relationships 351

Box 12-1: Campus Sexual Assault 352

Incidence and Prevalence of Rape 353

Impact of Sexual Assault on Survivors 354

Psychological Effects 354

Physical Injury 355

Sexual Assault Vulnerability Factors 356

Situational Factors 356

Location 356

Age of Victims 356

Relationship Factors 357

Consumption of Alcohol 357

History of Victimization 357

Risk Taking Behaviors 357

Characteristics of Sexual Offenders: Who Offends? 358

Ages of Sex Offenders 359

Recidivism and Offending History 359

Applying Crime Scene Analysis to Predictions of Recidivism 360

Attitudes and Myths That Support Rape and Other Sexual Assaults 362

Cognitive-Perceptual Distortions in Communication 363

The Influence of Pornography 363

Classification of Rape Patterns 365

Massachusetts Treatment Center Classification System 366

Box 12-2: Sexual Burglary 368

The MTC: R3 368

MTC Version 4 370

The Groth Typology 371

Treatment of Sex Offenders 372

Summary and Conclusions 374

Key Concepts 375 • Review Questions 375

 

Chapter 13 Sexual Abuse of Children and Youth 376

Chapter Objectives 376

Incidence and Prevalence of Child Sex Abuse 378

Box 13-1: Sexual Abuse: The Shame of Juvenile Corrections 379

Situational and Victimization Characteristics 381

Incest 383

Types of Sexual Contact 383

Psychological Effects of Child Sexual Victimization 384

Characteristics of Child Sex Offenders 384

Age and Gender 385

Selection of Victims 386

Backgrounds 386

Interpersonal and Intimacy Deficits 387

Cognitive Distortions 388

Neurocognitive Functions 388

Recidivism and Risk Assessment 389

Risk Assessment 390

Classification of Male Child Sex Offender Patterns 391

The MTC: CM3 392

The Groth Classification Model 394

Female Sex Offender Typology 395

Internet-Facilitated Sexual Offending 396

Who Are the Offenders? 396

Who Are the Child Victims? 397

Online Sex Offenders Interested in Adolescents 398

Sex Trafficking 398

Treatment of Child Sex Offenders 399

Summary and Conclusions 401

Key Concepts 402 • Review Questions 402

 

Chapter 14 Burglary, Home Invasions, Thefts, and “White-Collar” Offenses 403

Chapter Objectives 403

Burglary 405

Characteristics of Burglary 405

Who Commits Burglary? 406

Burglary Cues and Selected Targets 407

Burglar Cognitive Processes 408

Entry Strategies 409

How Far Do Burglars Travel? 410

Gender Differences in Methods and Patterns 410

Property Taken and Disposed 410

Motives 412

Burglar Typologies 413

Psychological Impact of Burglary 414

Home Invasions 415

Larceny and Motor Vehicle Theft 416

Motor Vehicle Theft 416

Fraud and Identity Theft 417

Box 14-1: Identity Theft—Anyone Can Be Victimized 418

Shoplifting 420

Who Shoplifts? 422

Motives 424

Shoplifting by Proxy 425

Shoplifting as an Occupation 425

Methods of Shoplifting 426

Kleptomania: Fact or Fiction? 426

White-Collar and Occupational Crime 427

Green’s Four Categories of Occupational Crime 428

Box 14-2: Political Crimes—Unexamined Issues 429

Prevalence and Incidence of Occupational Crime 430

Corporate Crime 430

Justifications and Neutralizations 432

Individual Occupational Crime 433

Employee Theft 433

Summary and Conclusions 435

Key Concepts 436 • Review Questions 436

 

Chapter 15 Violent Economic Crime, Cybercrime, and Crimes of Intimidation 437

Chapter Objectives 437

Robbery 438

Bank Robbery 439

Amateurs and Professionals 440

Commercial Robbery 442

Street Robbery 442

Motives and Cultural Influences 443

Robbery by Groups 444

Cybercrime 445

Box 15-1: Cybercrime—Heists and Intrusions 446

Privacy Concerns and Cybercrime Laws 447

Psychological Characteristics of Cybercriminals 448

Stalking 449

Categories of Stalking 450

Cyberstalking 451

Cyberbullying 452

Hostage-Taking Offenses 454

Instrumental and Expressive Hostage Taking 454

FBI Categories of Hostage Taking 454

Strategies for Dealing with Hostage Takers 456

The Stockholm Syndrome 457

Rules for Hostages to Follow 457

Arson 459

Incidence and Prevalence 459

Developmental Stages of Firesetting 460

Persistent and Repetitive Firesetting among Adults 461

Female Arsonists 462

Behavioral Typologies and Trajectories 463

Psychological Disorders 464

Summary and Conclusions 465

Key Concepts 466 • Review Questions 466

 

Chapter 16 Substance Abuse and Crime 467

Chapter Objectives 467

Juvenile Drug Use 468

Who Is Selling to Juveniles? 470

Gender Differences in Juvenile Drug Use 471

Consistent Findings on Illict Drug Use 471

Tripartite Conceptual Model 474

Major Categories of Drugs 475

Tolerance and Dependence 476

The Hallucinogens 477

Marijuana 477

How Is Marijuana Prepared? 478

Synthetic Marijuana 479

Synthetic Cathinones 480

Salvia 480

Cannabis and Crime 480

Phencyclidine (PCP) 482

PCP and Crime 482

The Stimulants 482

Amphetamines 482

Methamphetamine 483

Other Stimulants with Similar Effects 483

Cocaine and Its Derivatives 484

Psychological Effects 485

Adverse Physical Effects 485

Stimulants and Crime 485

Crack Cocaine 486

Crack and Crime 487

MDMA (Ecstasy or Molly) 487

Narcotic Drugs 488

Heroin 488

Box 16-1: Prescription Medications: Fraudulent Distribution 489

Heroin and Crime 490

Fentanyl 491

Other Narcotic Drugs 491

OxyContin® and Vicodin® 491

OxyContin®, Vicodin®, and Crime 492

The Club Drugs: Sedative Hypnotic Compounds 492

Ketamine 493

Gamma Hydroxybutyrate (GHB) 493

Rohypnol 494

Alcohol 494

Psychological Effects 495

Alcohol, Crime, and Delinquency 496

Substance Abuse and Violence 497

Summary and Conclusions 498

Key Concepts 500 • Review Questions 500

Glossary 501

Cases Cited 514

References 515

Author Index 609

Subject Index 633

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