9780133514407

Criminal Investigation Basic Perspectives

by ;
  • ISBN13:

    9780133514407

  • ISBN10:

    0133514404

  • Edition: 13th
  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 2/20/2015
  • Publisher: Pearson

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Summary

For courses in basic and advanced criminal investigation

A Guide to Effective Criminal Investigations
Drawing upon the author’s 50 plus years of experience, Criminal Investigation gives students a comprehensive introduction to the investigative process. From preliminaries to case preparation for prosecutorial review, this text focuses on the fundamentals of inquiry and each element of investigation.

Concise and well-organized, Criminal Investigation exposes students to the most recent investigative techniques and features real-life case studies to help them develop their ability to analyze, evaluate, and reason. Through the emphasis of ethical awareness students gain an understanding of the need for honesty and fidelity in effective criminal investigations.

The Thirteenth Edition includes numerous pedagogical aids to assist the learning process as well as new chapter segments on cell phones, social networking, and video cameras as investigative leads, cold case investigations, home invasion and drug house robberies, organized retail theft and cargo theft, financial investigative responses to organized crime and updates on terrorist activities.

Author Biography

Charles Lushbaugh after having earned his bachelor’s degree in Criminal Justice and a master’s degree in Public Administration was hired as a Postal Inspector. After a few years he left this position and was hired by the U.S. Marshal’s Service in Sacramento, California. Eventually he became a deputy with the Sacramento Sheriff’s Department. He served in the corrections and patrol divisions prior to being promoted and placed in charge of the departments training academy. He attended the FBI National Academy and retired at the rank of Lieutenant after 26 years of service. He taught at the California State University at Sacramento in the division of Criminal Justice. During his tenure as a lecturer he taught a variety of courses including Basic and Advance Criminal Investigation, Interviewing and the Detection of Deception and Drug Abuse and Criminal Behavior.

Paul Weston, the original author of this text, was born in New York City. He joined the police force there at a young age and rapidly rose through the ranks and retired at the rank of Chief Deputy. He moved west to become a professor at the California State University at Sacramento. He served in this capacity until he took leave to become the Chief of the California State Police. When he returned to teaching he became to Chair of the division of Criminal Justice. He authored a number of books on Criminal Justice topics such as Arson Investigation, Police Personnel Management, Police Organization and Management, and Criminal Investigation.

Table of Contents

Part 1 The Initial Investigation
Chapter 1 Evolution of Policing and Investigation 1
Early Response to Crime 2
Night Watch 2
Thief-Takers 3
Bow Street Runners 3
London’s Metropolitan Police 3
American Policing 4
The Reform Movement 5
Development of Forensic Science 7
Local Policing 9
State Policing 9
Federal Investigative Agencies 9
Case Study: Betty’s New Car 11
Chapter Review 12 • Key Terms 12 • Review Questions 12
Application Exercise 13 • Discussion Questions 13 • Related
Websites 14 • Notes 14

Chapter 2 Rules of Evidence and Arrest 15
Search Warrants 16
Warrantless Searches 18
Consent Search 18
Stop and Frisk 18
Plain View Exception 19
Search Incident to a Lawful Arrest 19
Motor Vehicle Stop 20
Open Fields 20
Exigent Circumstances 20
Exclusionary Rule 21
Arrest vs. Detention 21
Arrest Warrants 22
Locating the Suspect 22
The Broadcast Alarm 23
Records as Sources of Information 24
Wanted Notices 24
The Arrest 27
Case Preparation 28
The Defendant’s Identity 29
The Defendant and the Corpus Delicti 29
Negative Evidence 30
Lawful Procedures 30
The Decision to Charge 30
Closing an Investigation 31
Case Study: Weeks v. United States 232 U.S. 383 (1914) 32
Chapter Review 33 • Key Terms 33 • Review Questions 33
Application Exercise 34 • Discussion Questions 34 • Related
Websites 34 • Notes 35

Chapter 3 The Crime Scene 36
Control of the Crime Scene 37
Approach 37
Safety 38
Medical Attention 38
Search for Witnesses 38
Broadcast Alarm 38
Scene Boundaries 38
Management Notification 39
Media Relations 39
Officer-in-Charge 40
Crime Scene Investigation 40
Search Procedures 40
Collecting Evidence 42
Marking Evidence 43
Establishing the Chain of Custody 44
Packaging Physical Evidence 45
Matching Physical Evidence with Known Standards 46
Transporting Evidence 47
Handling Infected Evidence 48
Identifying Physical Changes at the Scene 49
Conducting a Final Survey of the Scene 49
Recording the Crime Scene 50
Field Notes 50
Preliminary Investigative Report 51
Offense or Crime Report 54
Photographing the Crime Scene 54
Sketching the Crime Scene 56
Videotaping the Crime Scene 60
Locating Witnesses 61
Revisiting the Crime Scene 61
View Area Canvass 62
The Neighborhood Canvass 62
Issuing Pleas for Public Cooperation 63
Case Study: Incredible Evidence 64
Chapter Review 66 • Key Terms 66 • Review Questions 66
Application Exercise 67 • Discussion Questions 67
Related Websites 67 • Notes 68

Chapter 4 Physical Evidence 69
Class and Individual Evidence 70
Weapons 70
Blood 73
Imprints and Impressions 75
Tool Marks 77
Hair 79
Fibers 80
Glass 81
Paint 81
Questioned Documents 82
Case Study: The Blacken Fern 82
Chapter Review 83 • Key Terms 83 • Review Questions 84
Application Exercise 84 • Discussion Questions 85 • Related
Websites 85 • Notes 85

Chapter 5 Laboratory and Technical Services 86
Criminalistics: Forensic Science 87
DNA Profiling 88
Mitochondrial DNA 89
Laboratory Determinations 90
Laboratory Equipment 93
Voiceprint Identification 96
Cryptography 96
Forensic Databases 97
Case Study: Child Abduction 98
Chapter Review 98 • Key Terms 98 • Review
Questions 99 • Application Exercise 99 • Discussion
Questions 100 • Related Websites 100 • Notes 100

Chapter 6 Basic Investigative Leads and Informants 102
Basic Leads 104
Victim’s Background 104
Benefit 105
Opportunity 106
Knowledge 106
Field Contact Reports 107
Vehicles 107
Weapons 108
Fingerprints 108
Stolen Property 109
Modus Operandi 110
Computer Databases 111
Offender Registration 111
Photographs of Known Criminals 112
Composite Sketches for Identification 113
Injured Suspects 114
Linkage Between Suspect and Crime Partners 114
Social Media 115
Video Surveillance Cameras 115
Cell Phones 116
Informants 116
Basic-Lead Informants 117
Participant Informants 118
Covert Informants 119
Accomplice Witnesses 119
Investigative Techniques 120
Visual Surveillance 121
Audio Surveillance 122
Contact Surveillance 124
Search Warrants 125
Police Intelligence: Criminal Investigation Information 125
Proactive Investigation 127
Undercover Police Agents 127
Lineups 128
Case Study: Tracking Bad Guys 129
Chapter Review 129 • Key Terms 129 • Review
Questions 130 • Application Exercise 131 • Discussion
Questions 131 • Related Websites 131 • Notes 131

Chapter 7 Interviewing and Interrogation 133
Interview Essentials 134
Privacy 134
Rapport Building 135
Competency and Credibility Issues 135
Interview Structure 136
Listening 136
Detection of Deception 137
Physical Signs of Deception 137
Neurolinguistic Eye Movement 138
Polygraph Testing 140
Recollection Refreshment 141
Investigative Hypnosis 141
Cognitive Interview 142
Written Statement of a Witness 142
Interrogations 143
Interrogation Law 143
The Waiver 145
Interrogation Essentials 146
Privacy 146
Prior to Interrogation 146
Approach 147
Why People Confess 147
The Suspect’s Dilemma: The Crime Partner 147
Documenting the Confession 148
Case Study: Interrogation of a Robbery Suspect 149
Chapter Review 150 • Key Terms 150 • Review
Questions 151 • Application Exercise 152 • Discussion
Questions 152 • Related Websites 152 • Notes 152

Part 2 Investigating Major Crimes
Chapter 8 Crimes of Violence 153
Homicide 154
“Suspicious Death” Investigation 154
The Autopsy as an Extension of the Crime Scene 155
Medicolegal Laboratory Services 156
Suicide, Accident, or Criminal Homicide? 157
Identification of the Victim 158
Time of Death 160
Exhumation 161
Checklist for the Investigation of Criminal Homicide 161
Patterns of Criminal Homicide 163
Motive for Murder: Relationships 165
Multicide 165
Cold Case Investigations 168
Stalking 168
Assaults 169
Child Abuse 170
Case Study: Autopsy Surgeon 172
Chapter Review 174 • Key Terms 174 • Review
Questions 175 • Application Exercise 175 • Discussion
Questions 176 • Related Websites 176 • Notes 176

Chapter 9 Sexual Assaults 177
Rape 178
Initial Action 178
Follow-Up Interview of Victim 180
Follow-Up Interviews of Witnesses 181
Personality Profile of the Serial Rapist 182
Arrest of the Suspected Rapist 183
Case Preparation 184
Problems of Proof 184
Statutory Rape 185
Nuisance Sexual Behavior 185
Child Sexual Abuse 186
Incest 186
Pedophilia 186
The Child as Victim-Witness 189
Case Study: The East Area Rapist 189
Chapter Review 190 • Key Terms 190 • Review
Questions 190 • Application Exercise 191 • Discussion
Questions 191 • Related Websites 192 • Notes 192

Chapter 10 Missing and Exploited Persons 193
Missing Persons 194
Abducted Infants 194
Missing Children 194
Missing Teenagers 196
Missing Adults 196
Investigative Response 197
Exploited Persons 199
Investigative Leads 200
Case Study: The Cleveland Abductions 201
Chapter Review 201 • Key Terms 201 • Review
Questions 202 • Application Exercise 202 • Discussion
Questions 202 • Related Websites 203 • Notes 203

Chapter 11 Robbery 204
Components of Robbery 205
The Target in Robberies 208
Identification Evidence 210
Checklist for the Investigation of Robbery 211
Repeat-Offender Cases 213
Carjacking 213
Outline of Carjacking Investigation 213
Problems of Proof 214
Case Study: Cheshire Home Invasion 214
Chapter Review 215 • Key Terms 215 • Review
Questions 215 • Application Exercise 216 • Discussion
Questions 216 • Related Websites 216 • Notes 216

Chapter 12 Arson, Bombing, and Hate Crimes 218
Arson and Arson Law 219
The Suspicious Fire Concept 220
Burn Patterns: Structural Fires 221
Burn Patterns: Nonstructural Fires 222
Fire Ignition and Place of Origin 222
The Fire Scene 223
Photographs of the Fire Scene 225
The Continuing Arson Investigation 226
Bombings 228
Problems of Proof in Arson and Bombing Cases 229
Hate Crimes 229
Case Study: Motive for Arson 230
Chapter Review 231 • Key Terms 231 • Review
Questions 231 • Application Exercise 232 • Discussion
Questions 232 • Related Websites 233 • Notes 233

Chapter 13 Property Crimes 234
Burglary 235
Types of Burglars 237
Burglary as a Behavioral Concept 239
Safe Burglars 240
The Burglary Scene Investigation 241
The Postscene Investigation 241
Known Burglars 242
Theft 242
The Attack 244
Modus Operandi Searches 244
The Universe of Suspects 245
Criminal Receivers of Stolen Property 246
Auto Theft 246
Theft by Employees 248
Organized Retail Theft 249
Cargo Theft 250
Fraud 250
Elements of Fraud 251
Bunco Schemes and Con Games 252
The Bank Examiner Fraud 254
Fraudulent Checks 254
Credit Card Fraud 254
Consumer and Business Fraud 255
Workplace Fraud 256
ATM Fraud 256
Investigation of Fraud 257
Case Study: Costly Crush 258
Chapter Review 258 • Key Terms 258 • Review
Questions 259 • Application Exercise 260 • Discussion
Questions 260 • Related Websites 260 • Notes 261

Chapter 14 CyberCrime 262
Internal Threats 263
External Threats 264
Fraud 265
Identity Theft 267
Child Pornography 267
Child Molesters 268
Contraband Sales 268
Terrorism 268
Investigation 269
Case Study: The Case Against PFC. Bradley Manning 270
Chapter Review 271 • Key Terms 271 • Review
Questions 272 • Application Exercise 272 • Discussion
Questions 273 • Related Websites 273 • Notes 273

Chapter 15 Dangerous Drugs 274
Entrapment 276
The Drug Scene 276
Heroin 277
Cocaine 278
Marijuana 278
Amphetamine and Methamphetamine 279
Phencyclidine 279
Lysergic Acid Diethylamide 280
Ecstasy 280
Rohypnol 280
Drug-Selling Organizations 280
Drug Investigations 282
Pickup Arrests 282
Arrests Based on “Buys” 283
Search Warrants 284
Warrantless Searches 287
Working-Up Investigations 287
Raids 288
Problems of Proof 289
Case Study: Dangerous Drugs Law Enforcement—Roles and Story
Lines 290
Chapter Review 292 • Key Terms 292 • Review
Questions 293 • Application Exercise 293 • Discussion
Questions 294 • Related Websites 294 • Notes 294

Chapter 16 Special Investigations 295
Vice and Gambling 296
Gambling 296
Prostitution 296
Organized Crime 298
Nature of Operations 298
Characteristic Activity 299
Investigative Alerts 300
Gang Activity 301
Problems of Proof 301
Investigative Tactics 301
Hit and Run 302
The Hit-and-Run Operator 302
The Alarm 304
The Scene Search 304
Stakeouts 305
Transfer Evidence 305
Accountability 306
Possible Murder 306
Case Study: Hit and Run 306
Chapter Review 307 • Key Terms 307 • Review
Questions 308 • Application Exercise 308 • Discussion
Questions 309 • Related Websites 309 • Notes 309

Chapter 17 Terrorism 310
Defining Terrorism 311
Terrorist Acts 311
Terrorist Atrocities 312
Domestic Terrorism 313
International Terrorism 316
Weapons of Mass Destruction 318
Counterterrorism 318
Role of Police Operations Units 319
Role of the Criminal Investigator 320
Problems of Proof 321
Case Study: Joint Terrorism Task Force 322
Chapter Review 322 • Key Terms 322 • Review
Questions 322 • Application Exercise 323 • Discussion
Questions 323 • Related Websites 324 • Notes 324
Chapter 18 The Investigator as a Witness and Ethical
Awareness 325
The Investigator as a Witness 326
Action Prior to Court Appearance 326
General Behavior 327
Nonverbal Communication 328
Conduct After Testifying 329
Ethical Awareness 330
Crime and Outrageous Conduct 330
Impact of Misconduct on Criminal Investigation 330
Standards for Criminal Investigators 330
Prevention of Misconduct 331
Case Study: The Special Crime Squad 331
Chapter Review 334 • Key Terms 334 • Review
Questions 334 • Application Exercise 335 • Discussion
Questions 335 • Related Websites 335 • Notes 336

Appendix A Case Briefs 337
Appendix B Federal Controlled Substances Law 341
Appendix C Identity Theft: What to Do If It Happens to You 344
Appendix D Answers to Chapter Review Questions 346
Glossary 348
Index 359

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