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Criminal Law

by ;
Edition:
9th
ISBN13:

9780534624569

ISBN10:
0534624561
Format:
Hardcover
Pub. Date:
5/31/2005
Publisher(s):
Thomson-Wadsworth
List Price: $168.33

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Summary

Part I: BASIC CONCEPTS OF CRIMINAL LAW. 1. Criminal Law Generally. 2. Purposes, Scope, and Sources of Criminal Law. 3. Essential Elements of a Crime. 4. Criminal Liability. 5. Criminal Responsibility and the Capacity to Commit a Crime. 6. The Law Governing the Use of Force. 7. Other Criminal Defenses. 8. Criminal Punishment. 9. Jurisdiction. Part II: THE BALANCING OF CONSTITUTIONAL RIGHTS WITH THE NEED FOR PUBLIC ORDER. 10. Guaranteed Freedoms and Public Order. Part III: CRIMES AGAINST THE PERSON. 11. Homicide. 12. Assault, Battery, and Other Crimes Against the Person. Part IV: CRIMES AGAINST PROPERTY. 13. Theft, Robbery, and Burglary. 14. Shoplifting, Cyber Crimes and Other Commercial Crimes. 15. Fraud and Other Property Crimes. Part V: SEX CRIMES. 16. Rape and Related Sex Crimes. 17. Prostitution, Related Offenses, and AIDS. Part VI: OTHER CRIMINAL CONDUCT. 18. Drug Abuse and Alcohol-Related Crimes. 19. Terrorism. 20. Organized Crime and Gangs. 21. Contempt, Crimes by Public Officials, and Crimes Against Government. Appendix A: Applicable Sections of the U.S. Constitution. Appendix B: Glossary of Legal Terms. Table of Cases. Index.

Table of Contents

Preface xix
PART ONE Basic Concepts of Criminal Law
Criminal Law Generally
1(19)
Criminal Law in a Democracy
2(1)
The Law as the Will of the People Within a Democracy
2(1)
Criminal Law and Related Fields of Law
3(4)
Public and Private Law
3(1)
Criminal Procedure
3(1)
Substantive Criminal Law
4(1)
Legal Wrongs
4(1)
Distinction Between a Crime and a Tort
5(1)
Criminal Law and Moral Law
5(2)
The Principle of ``No Punishment Without a Law for It''
7(1)
Classifications of Crimes
8(3)
Felony and Misdemeanor
8(3)
General Constitutional Limitations on Criminal Laws
11(5)
States' Power to Enact Criminal Laws
11(1)
Ex Post Facto Laws
11(1)
Bill of Attainder
12(1)
Due Process and the Void-for-Vagueness Doctrine
12(1)
Overbreadth
13(1)
``Status'' Crimes
14(2)
Equal Protection of the Laws
16(1)
Summary
16(1)
Questions and Problems
17(1)
Notes
18(2)
Purposes, Scope, and Sources of Criminal Law
20(13)
Goals and Purposes of Criminal Law
21(2)
Background of the U.S. Criminal Justice System
21(1)
Goals and Purposes
22(1)
The Permissible Scope of Criminal Laws in the United States
23(2)
The Use of the Police Power to Maintain Public Order
23(1)
Limitations on the Police Power of a State to Regulate Conduct
24(1)
Sources of Criminal Law
25(6)
Common Law Crimes
25(3)
Statutory Crimes
28(1)
Administrative Crimes
29(2)
Summary
31(1)
Questions and Problems
31(1)
Notes
32(1)
Essential Elements of a Crime
33(25)
Crimes Requiring Proof of Mental Fault
34(8)
Simultaneous Occurrence of the Forbidden Act and the Mental Element
35(1)
Actus Reus: The Forbidden Act or Omission
36(1)
Actus Reus for Different Elements of Parties to a Crime
37(1)
Mens Rea: The Guilty Mind
37(1)
Proving Criminal Intent or Criminal State of Mind
38(1)
The Requirement of Scienter
39(2)
The Motive for Committing a Crime
41(1)
Strict Liability Crimes
42(3)
Strict Liability Laws That Seek to Protect Children
45(1)
Proximate Cause or Causation
45(4)
Unintended Harm Resulting From a Misdemeanor or Other Minor Offense
46(1)
When the Illegal Act Would Not Support a Manslaughter Conviction
46(2)
The Ancient ``Year-and-a-Day'' Murder Rule
48(1)
Possession Alone as a Crime
49(1)
The Possession of Illegal Contraband Inference
50(1)
The Use of Presumptions and Inferences in Criminal Law
50(5)
Functions of Presumptions
52(1)
Inferences Distinguished from Presumptions
52(1)
The Presumption That All Persons Are Sane, Normal, and Competent
53(2)
Summary
55(1)
Questions and Problems
56(1)
Notes
56(2)
Criminal Liability
58(25)
Preliminary, Anticipatory, or Inchoate Crimes
59(10)
When Is a Crime Committed?
59(1)
Solicitation or Incitement to Commit a Crime?
59(2)
Conspiracy to Commit a Crime
61(4)
The Crime of Attempt
65(1)
Impossibility in Attempt Cases
66(3)
Parties to the Principal Crime
69(5)
Under the Common Law
69(1)
Criminal Liability in the United States Today
69(1)
Theories of Criminal Liability
70(3)
Liability for Crimes Other Than the Planned and Intended Offense
73(1)
Post-Crime Offenses
74(3)
When Material Witnesses Can Be Criminally Liable
76(1)
Summary
77(1)
Questions and Problems
78(1)
Notes
79(4)
Criminal Responsibility and the Capacity to Commit a Crime
83(20)
Ancient Concepts of Criminal Responsibility
84(1)
Infancy and Criminal Responsibility
85(1)
The Liability of Children Under State Statutes
86(1)
The Insanity Defense
86(1)
Insanity at the Time of the Criminal Incident
86(1)
Tests Used to Determine Insanity
87(5)
The M'Naghten Case and the ``Right and Wrong'' Test
87(1)
Other Tests in the United States
88(1)
The Model Penal Code Substantial Capacity Test
88(2)
States That Have Abolished the Insanity Defense
90(1)
The Plea and Verdict of ``Guilty But Mentally Ill''
91(1)
Mental Conditions That Do Not Satisfy the Insanity Defense
92(1)
The Defense of Diminished Capacity
92(2)
The Requirement of Competency to Stand Trial
94(2)
Can Amnesia Be the Grounds for a Finding of Incompetency?
95(1)
Faking Insanity or Incompetency
95(1)
The Criminal Liability of Corporations
96(2)
Summary
98(1)
Questions and Problems
99(1)
Notes
99(4)
The Law Governing the Use of Force
103(22)
Self-Defense and the Defense of Others
104(6)
Less Than Deadly Force in Self-Protection
104(1)
Coming to the Aid of Another
105(1)
The Use of Deadly Force in Self-Defense or the Defense of Others
106(1)
Loss of Self-Defense Privilege for a Wrongdoer or an Aggressor
106(1)
The Castle Doctrine and the Duty to Retreat as an Exception to the Castle Doctrine
106(2)
Battered Women and Domestic Homicides
108(2)
The Use of Force in the Defense of Property
110(2)
Less Than Deadly Force in the Defense of Property
110(1)
Deadly Force in the Defense of Property
110(1)
The Use of Booby Traps to Protect Property
110(2)
The Use of Force in Making an Arrest
112(6)
Less Than Deadly Force in Making an Arrest
112(1)
Using Reasonable Force to Obtain Evidence of Drunk or Drugged Driving
113(1)
Standards for the Use of Deadly Force Established by the U.S. Supreme Court
114(1)
Definition of an Unreasonable Seizure Today
115(1)
Use of Force in Resisting an Unlawful Arrest
116(1)
Cases in Which Force Was Not Legally Justified
116(2)
Disciplining Children
118(4)
Use of Force by Parents
118(1)
Others Who May Discipline Children
119(3)
Summary
122(1)
Questions and Problems
122(1)
Notes
123(2)
Other Criminal Defenses
125(34)
Affirmative Defenses
126(1)
Immunity as a Defense
126(2)
Diplomatic Immunity
126(1)
Legislative Immunity
127(1)
Witness Immunity
127(1)
Mistake or Ignorance of Fact or Law as a Defense
128(3)
Mistake or Ignorance of Fact
128(1)
Strict Liability Crimes and the Defense of Mistake
129(1)
Mistake or Ignorance of Criminal Law
130(1)
Intoxication or Drugged Condition as a Defense
131(1)
Involuntary Intoxication or Drugged Condition
131(1)
Duress, Coercion, or Compulsion as a Defense
132(1)
Duress or Coercion as Justification to Escape from Prison
132(1)
The Defense of Duress in a Charge of Murder
133(1)
The Crime of Coercion
133(1)
Necessity or Choice of Evils Defense
133(1)
Can One Kill to Save Oneself?
134(2)
Other Uses of the Defense of Necessity
135(1)
Alibi as a Criminal Defense
136(1)
Alibi Notice Statutes
136(1)
Determining the Validity of Alibi Defenses
136(1)
The Defense That the Defendant Was Acting Under the Authority, Direction, or Advice of Another
137(1)
The Defense of ``I Acted on the Orders of My Boss''
137(1)
The Defense of Double Jeopardy
138(7)
The Times When Jeopardy Attaches
138(1)
Prosecution by Both State and Federal Governments
138(3)
The Meaning of Separate Offense
141(1)
Other Times When the Defense of Double Jeopardy Could Not Be Used Successfully
141(1)
Res Judicata and Collateral Estoppel as Part of the Double Jeopardy Guarantee
142(3)
Entrapment, Frame-Up, and Outrageous Government Conduct as Defenses
145(6)
Entrapment
145(2)
Frame-Up as Distinguished from Entrapment
147(2)
Outrageous Government Conduct
149(2)
The Right to a Speedy Trial as a Defense
151(2)
Cases in Which No Speedy Trial Violation Occurred
152(1)
The Statute of Limitations as a Defense
153(1)
Summary
154(1)
Questions and Problems
155(1)
Notes
156(3)
Criminal Punishment
159(22)
Punishments Used in Early England
160(2)
Practices Used in England to Avoid Severe Penalties
160(1)
Punishment Used in Early America
161(1)
The Constitutional Limitation on Punishment
162(3)
The Proportionality Test for Determining Appropriate Punishment
162(3)
Corporal Punishment
165(2)
Corporal Punishment as Criminal Punishment
165(1)
The Use of Corporal Punishment in Schools
165(1)
The Use of Corporal Punishment in Prisons
166(1)
Capital Punishment
167(4)
Death Penalty Laws After Furman v. Georgia in 1972
167(4)
Imprisonment as Punishment
171(1)
Can Indigents Be Held in Jail to Work Off Their Money Fines?
171(1)
Fines as Punishment
171(1)
Forfeiture as Punishment
172(1)
Career Criminals and the Repeat Offender
173(4)
Three Strikes Laws
174(3)
Summary
177(1)
Questions and Problems
178(1)
Notes
179(2)
Jurisdiction
181(22)
Jurisdiction to Create Criminal Laws
182(1)
Jurisdiction over the Offense and the Person Charged
182(3)
Jurisdiction over the Offense Charged
182(2)
Jurisdiction over the Person Charged with a Crime
184(1)
``Long-Arm'' Statutes
185(1)
Nation-to-Nation Jurisdiction
186(2)
The Law of the Seas: Territorial Waters
187(1)
International Criminal Law
188(1)
Criminal Jurisdiction of the Federal Government
188(2)
Federal Enclaves and the Assimilative Crimes Act
189(1)
Indian Tribes Within the United States
190(2)
Self-Government by Indian Tribes
191(1)
The Military, Martial, and War Powers Jurisdiction of the Federal Government
192(6)
Jurisdiction of Military Courts
192(3)
When U.S. Citizens or Military Are in a Foreign Country
195(1)
Martial Law and the Use of Military Forces in the Continental United States
195(3)
Summary
198(1)
Questions and Problems
199(1)
Notes
199(4)
PART TWO Free Speech and Public Order
Speech and Conduct That Is Not Protected by the First Amendment
203(44)
Belief-Speech-Action
204(2)
When Speech May Be Regulated
204(2)
The Clear and Present Danger Test
206(1)
Fighting Words
206(2)
When Does Vulgar, Insulting Language to a Police Officer Constitute Fighting Words?
208(1)
Obscene Communications
209(2)
Inciting and Urging Unlawful Acts
211(1)
Defamation: Libel and Slander
211(1)
Symbolic Speech and the First Amendment
212(1)
Flag Burning and Cross Burning as Symbolic Speech
212(1)
Threats of Violence as Crimes
213(1)
Using the U.S. Mail, Telephones, or E-Mail to Threaten Another Person
214(1)
Loud Noise or Nuisance Speech
215(1)
Regulating the Use of Public and Private Places
215(3)
Picketing, Demonstrations, and Parades
218(4)
Picketing
219(1)
Parades and Demonstrations
219(3)
Obstruction of the Law Enforcement Process
222(1)
The Crimes of Unlawful Assembly and Rioting
223(1)
Public Order in Business Places
224(1)
Disruption of Public or Private Meetings
225(1)
Public Nuisances as Civil or Criminal Offenses
226(1)
Handbills and Door-to-Door Canvassing as Forms of Communication
227(1)
Handbills
227(1)
Door-to-Door Canvassing
227(1)
The Crime of Stalking
228(1)
Other Public Order Aspects of U.S. Streets
228(4)
The Homeless on U.S. Streets
228(1)
Panhandling or Begging
229(1)
Urinating in a Public Place
230(1)
Compulsory School Attendance Laws and Truancy
231(1)
Curfews
231(1)
The Second Amendment
232(5)
The Second Amendment Today
232(1)
The Political Battle as to Gun Control Laws in the United States
233(1)
Federal Laws Regulating Firearms
234(1)
The Crime of Carrying a Concealed Weapon
235(2)
Endangering Public Safety by Failure to Properly Store Loaded Firearms
237(1)
The Free Exercise of Religion
237(2)
The Right to Believe or Not to Believe
237(2)
Cults, Sects, and Nontraditional Churches in the United States
239(1)
The Right of Privacy
239(2)
The Use and Distribution of Contraceptives
239(1)
The Abortion Question
240(1)
Summary
241(1)
Questions and Problems
241(1)
Notes
242(5)
PART THREE Crimes Against the Person
Homicide
247(26)
Homicide in General
248(1)
The Corpus Delicti Requirement
248(4)
Proving Corpus Delicti in ``No Body'' Cases
249(1)
Body Without Proof of the Cause of Death Cases
250(1)
The Common Law ``Born Alive'' Requirement and the Crime of Feticide (Fetal Murder)
251(1)
Proof That the Victim Was Alive at the Time of the Defendant's Unlawful Act
252(2)
When Is a Person Legally Dead?
253(1)
The Causation Requirement
254(1)
Causation and Proximate Cause
254(1)
The Year-and-a-Day Rule
255(1)
Murder
255(4)
Intent-to-Kill Murder
256(1)
The Deadly Weapon Doctrine
256(1)
Transferred Intent
256(2)
Intent-to-Do-Serious-Bodily-Harm Murder
258(1)
Depraved-Mind or Depraved-Heart Murder
258(1)
Felony Murder
259(2)
Manslaughter
261(6)
Definition
261(1)
Voluntary Manslaughter
261(1)
Heat of Passion Manslaughter
262(3)
Imperfect or Unlawful Force in Self-Defense Charged as Manslaughter
265(1)
Involuntary Manslaughter
266(1)
Suicide, Assisting Suicide, and Euthanasia
267(2)
Murder, Assisted Suicide, or Neither?
267(1)
The Oregon ``Death with Dignity'' Law
268(1)
Summary
269(1)
Questions and Problems
269(1)
Notes
270(3)
Assault, Battery, and Other Crimes Against the Person
273(26)
The Crime of Assault
274(2)
Assault Under the Present Federal Criminal Code
275(1)
Assault with a Deadly or Dangerous Weapon
275(1)
The Crime of Armed Violence
276(1)
Battery
276(4)
Offensive Touching Under Sexual Assault and Sexual Battery Statutes
277(1)
The Crime of Genital Mutilation
277(1)
Sports Injuries When Force Exceeds the Rules of the Game
277(1)
Other Physical Contact Without Consent
278(1)
Menacing, Intentional Scaring, and Jostling
278(2)
Felonious and Aggravated Assaults and Batteries
280(2)
Mayhem and Malicious Disfigurement
280(1)
Mental Culpability Increasing the Degree of the Crime
280(2)
Child Abuse and Neglect
282(2)
Offenses Against the Liberty of a Person
284(5)
Kidnapping
284(2)
Hostage Taking
286(1)
False Imprisonment
287(1)
Parental Kidnapping or Child Snatching
287(2)
The Missing Children's Assistance Act
289(1)
Family Violence and Disturbances
289(4)
Domestic Violence and Women
291(1)
Abuse of the Elderly
292(1)
The Crime of Violation of a Court Order (or Court Injunction)
292(1)
Violence in the Workplace
293(1)
Road Rage: Violent Aggressive Driving
294(1)
Summary
294(1)
Questions and Problems
295(1)
Notes
295(4)
PART FOUR Crimes Against Property
Theft, Robbery, and Burglary
299(30)
General Property Concepts
300(1)
Larceny or Theft
301(8)
The Taking
302(2)
Defining What Property Can Be Stolen
304(3)
Property of Another
307(1)
Intent to Steal
308(1)
Robbery
309(8)
Changes in Bank Robbery
311(1)
Distinguishing Robbery from Theft or Larceny
312(1)
Where State Courts Differ on What Constitutes Robbery
312(1)
Carjacking: A New Name for an Old Crime
313(1)
Home Invasion Robberies
314(1)
Purse Snatching, Pickpocketing, and Other Thefts from a Person
314(1)
Theft of Services
315(1)
Distinguishing Robbery from Extortion
315(1)
Extortion by Intimidation
316(1)
The Crime of Bribery
317(1)
Burglary
317(7)
Breaking
318(1)
Unlawful Entry into Premises
319(1)
The Dwelling House of Another
320(1)
Nighttime
320(1)
Intent to Commit a Felony
320(2)
Proof of Burglary When Other Crimes Are Committed
322(2)
Summary
324(1)
Questions and Problems
324(1)
Notes
325(4)
Shoplifting, Cyber Crimes, and Other Commercial Crimes
329(18)
Shoplifting
330(6)
Taking and Carrying Away in Shoplifting
330(1)
Proving the Crime of Shoplifting When the Suspect Has Not Left the Store
331(1)
The Requirement of Probable Cause Based on Personal Knowledge
331(3)
Criminal or Civil Prosecution of Shoplifters?
334(1)
Other Retail Theft Crimes
335(1)
Fraudulent Use of Credit Cards
336(1)
Obtaining Credit Cards and Bank Cards for Fraudulent Use
336(1)
Criminal Use of Bank Cards and Credit Cards
336(1)
Check Violations
337(4)
Worthless Checks, or Checks That Bounce
337(1)
The Crime of Uttering
337(1)
The Crime of Forgery
338(1)
Operations of Check-Forging Rings
339(1)
Passing Forged Checks and Other Counterfeit Securities in Interstate Commerce
339(1)
Check Kiting
340(1)
Other Crimes Affecting Computers and the Internet
341(2)
Computers as Crime Tools
342(1)
Summary
343(1)
Questions and Problems
344(1)
Notes
345(2)
Fraud and Other Property Crimes
347(19)
Fraud and Fraudulent Practices
348(5)
Fraud and Corruption in Government
348(1)
Consumer Fraud
349(1)
Fraudulent Insurance Claims
350(1)
The Con Game as a Form of Fraud
350(1)
Pyramid Schemes
350(1)
Stock Market and Financial Market Frauds
351(1)
Internet Securities Fraud
351(1)
Charging Fraud Under the Federal Criminal Code
352(1)
The Rapidly Growing Crime of Identity Theft
353(1)
Counterfeiting of Money and Commercial Products
353(2)
Counterfeiting of Currency
353(2)
Other Counterfeiting Problems
355(1)
Trafficking in Stolen Goods
355(3)
The Fence and Fencing Stolen Property
356(1)
When Property Loses Its Character as Stolen Goods
357(1)
Possession of Criminal or Burglary Tools
358(1)
Destroying or Damaging the Property of Another
358(1)
Vandalism and Graffiti Vandalism
358(1)
Arson
359(1)
Essential Elements of Arson
359(1)
Trespass
360(1)
The Crime of Defiant Trespass
360(1)
Product Tampering
361(1)
Summary
362(1)
Questions and Problems
363(1)
Notes
363(3)
PART FIVE Sex Crimes
Rape and Related Sex Crimes
366(24)
Forcible Rape of Women and Girls
368(10)
Capacity to Commit Forcible Rape
369(1)
The Marital Exemption
369(1)
The Burden of Proof in a Sexual Assault or Rape Case
370(1)
The Importance of Corroborative Evidence in a Rape Case
371(1)
Possible Responses to a Threat of Rape
371(1)
Different Sexual Assault Statutes Require Different Degrees of Proof
372(1)
Defenses in Acquaintance Rape or After-the-Date Rape
373(1)
Convictions for Lesser or Other Offenses in Weak Rape Cases
374(1)
The Report of Rape Rule and the Effect of Delay in Reporting
375(1)
False Reporting
376(1)
Rape Shield Laws
377(1)
Homosexual Rape
378(1)
Statutory Rape
378(4)
Incest
382(2)
Other Laws That Seek to Achieve Public Safety
384(3)
Sex Predator Laws Under Which Sexually Dangerous Persons Could Be Held Indefinitely
384(1)
Megan's Law: Registration Laws and Notification Laws for Sex Offenders
384(3)
Summary
387(1)
Questions and Problems
387(1)
Notes
388(2)
Prostitution and Related Crimes
390(18)
Prostitution
391(6)
Procuring, Promoting, and Pimping for the Practice of Prostitution
391(4)
Statutes That Require Proof That the Crime Was Committed in a Public Place
395(1)
Touching or Other Conduct Done to Arouse Sexual Desire
396(1)
Obscenity
397(1)
Obscenity, or Hardcore Pornography
397(1)
Protecting Children Against Sexual Exploitation
398(3)
Child Pornography
398(1)
Other Laws Protecting Children Against Sexual Exploitation
399(2)
Pedophiles and the Internet
401(1)
Movies, Videos, and Photographs
401(1)
X-Rated Films and Videos
401(1)
Nude Photos of Children Taken by Family Members
402(1)
Voyeurism and Other Criminal Invasions of Privacy
402(1)
Harassment as an Offense
403(1)
Sexual Harassment
403(1)
Telephone Harassment
404(1)
Criminal Charges Relating to HIV Infections
404(1)
Summary
405(1)
Questions and Problems
406(1)
Notes
406(2)
PART SIX Other Criminal Conduct
Drug Abuse and Alcohol-Related Crimes
408(20)
Drug Abuse
409(2)
The Frightening Drug Problem
409(1)
Illegal Drug Users
409(2)
Drug Laws in the United States
411(9)
If You Drank a Bottle of Coca-Cola in the Year 1905, You Would Probably Not Know That It Contained Cocaine
411(1)
The Uniform Controlled Substances Act
412(1)
Types of Possession of Controlled Substances
413(1)
To Convict of Possession of an Illegal Drug, Must the State Present a ``Usable Amount'' as Evidence?
414(1)
Delivery of Controlled Substances
414(1)
The Crime of Possession of a Controlled Substance With Intent to Deliver (Sell or Transfer)
415(1)
State-Federal Clash over the Medical Use of Marijuana
415(1)
Drug Rip-Off Cases
416(1)
Criminal Liability for Drug-Induced Deaths
416(1)
Possession or Sale of Drug Paraphernalia
417(1)
Other Statutes and Laws Used in the War on Drugs
418(2)
Alcohol-Related Crimes
420(4)
Alcohol as a Drug
420(1)
Alcohol's Relation to Crimes and Deaths
421(1)
1998 Report on Alcohol and Drug Problems of Prison Inmates
421(1)
Drunk Driving: The Criminal Homicide Causing the Most Deaths
422(1)
``Booze It and Lose It'' Laws
423(1)
When Is a Person Driving, Operating, or ``in Physical Control'' of a Vehicle?
423(1)
Summary
424(1)
Questions and Problems
424(1)
Notes
425(3)
Terrorism
428(11)
Early Terrorist Acts in the United States
429(1)
Terrorism in Recent Years
430(2)
Criminal Charges Against Terrorists
432(2)
Other Possible Criminal Charges Against Terrorists
434(1)
Immigration Offenses
434(1)
The Crime of Terrorizing (Terrorism by Threats)
435(1)
Summary
436(1)
Questions and Problems
437(1)
Notes
437(2)
Organized Crime and Gangs
439(15)
Organized Crime and Criminal Gangs
440(2)
Prosecuting Mafia Members Before 1970
442(1)
Federal and State Laws Passed After 1970 to Fight Organized Crime
443(3)
The Federal Witness Protection Program and the Crime of Witness Tampering
446(1)
The Crime of Money Laundering
447(1)
Currency Transaction Reports and ``Structured Transactions''
447(1)
Other Criminal Laws Used to Fight Gangs and Organized Crime
448(4)
The Travel Act
448(1)
Extortion
448(1)
Bribery
449(1)
Kickbacks
449(1)
Mail Fraud
450(2)
Summary
452(1)
Questions and Problems
452(1)
Notes
453(1)
Contempt, Crimes by Public Officials, and Crimes Against Government
454(15)
Contempt
455(4)
Civil Contempt
455(1)
Criminal Contempt
456(1)
Direct and Constructive Contempt
456(1)
The Requirement of Intentional Wrongdoing
457(1)
Language by a Witness or Attorney That Would Justify a Contempt Finding
457(1)
The Power of Legislative Bodies to Punish for Contempt
458(1)
Crimes by Public Officials
459(1)
Some of the Crimes Committed by Public Officials and Other People
459(1)
Crimes Against Government
460(4)
Espionage
460(2)
The Economic Espionage Act of 1996
462(1)
Obstruction of Justice
462(1)
Tax Evasion
463(1)
Environmental Crimes
463(1)
Voting Law Violations
464(1)
Other Criminal Violations
464(1)
Summary
465(1)
Questions and Problems
466(1)
Notes
466(3)
Appendix A Applicable Sections of the United States Constitution 469(2)
Appendix B Glossary of Legal Terms 471(4)
Table of Cases 475(8)
Index 483(6)
Photograph Credits 489


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