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Crisis Intervention Strategies (Non-InfoTrac Version),9780534265946
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Crisis Intervention Strategies (Non-InfoTrac Version)

by
Edition:
4th
ISBN13:

9780534265946

ISBN10:
0534265944
Format:
Hardcover
Pub. Date:
9/1/2000
Publisher(s):
Thomson Learning
List Price: $79.95
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Summary

In his new edition of their best-seller, Richard K. James and Burl E. Gilliland present the latest research, theories, and techniques of this rapidly evolving field, along with case material based on real crisis situations. This unique combination gives s

Table of Contents

PART ONE Crisis Intervention Theory and Application 1(127)
Approaching Crisis Intervention
3(28)
Definitions of Crisis
3(1)
Characteristics of Crisis
3(2)
Presence of Both Danger and Opportunity
4(1)
Complicated Symptomology
4(1)
Seeds of Growth and Change
4(1)
No Panaceas or Quick Fixes
4(1)
The Necessity of Choice
5(1)
Universality and Idiosyncrasy
5(1)
Applied Crisis Domains
5(1)
Developmental Crises
5(1)
Situational Crises
5(1)
Existential Crises
6(1)
Environmental Crises
6(1)
Transcrisis States
6(2)
Theories of Crisis and Crisis Intervention
8(5)
Basic Crisis Intervention
9(1)
Expanded Crisis Theory
10(3)
Ecosystem Theory
13(1)
Electronic Media Impact
13(1)
Systemic Interdependency
14(1)
A Macrosystemic Approach
14(1)
Crisis Intervention Models
14(2)
The Equilibrium Models
15(1)
The Cognitive Model
15(1)
The Psychosocial Transition Model
16(1)
Eclectic Crisis Intervention Theory
16(1)
Characteristics of Effective Crisis Workers
17(4)
Life Experiences
18(1)
Professional Skills
19(1)
Poise
19(1)
Creativity and Flexibility
19(1)
Energy
20(1)
Quick Mental Reflexes
20(1)
Other Characteristics
20(1)
Crises and the Personhood of Crisis Workers
21(1)
Multicultural Perspectives in Crisis Intervention
21(5)
Culturally Biased Assumptions
22(2)
Culturally Effective Helping
24(1)
Multicultural Issues in Outreach
25(1)
Summary
26(2)
References
28(3)
Basic Crisis Intervention Skills
31(50)
Introduction
31(1)
The Six-Step Model of Crisis Intervention
31(2)
Assessing
33(1)
Listening
33(1)
Defining the Problem
33(1)
Ensuring Client Safety
33(1)
Providing Support
33(1)
Acting
34(1)
Examing Alternatives
34(1)
Making Plans
34(1)
Obtaining Commitment
35(1)
Assessment in Crisis Intervention
35(3)
Assessing Client Functioning
35(1)
Assessing in Crisis Intervention
36(1)
Assessing the Severity of Crisis
37(1)
The Triage Assessment System
38(5)
Psychobiological Assessment
43(1)
Assessing the Client's Current Emotional Functioning
44(2)
Client's Current Acute or Chronic State
44(1)
Client's Reservoir of Emotional Strength
45(1)
Strategies for Assessing Emotional Status
45(1)
Assessing Alternatives, Coping Mechanisms, and Support Systems
46(1)
Assessing for Suicide/Homicide Potential
46(1)
Summary of Assessment
47(1)
Listening in Crisis Intervention
47(13)
Open-Ended Questions
48(1)
Closed-Ended Questions
48(1)
Owning Feelings
49(2)
Climate of Human Growth
51(1)
Communicating Empathy
52(3)
Communicating Genuineness
55(2)
Communicating Acceptance
57(1)
Facilitative Listening
57(3)
Acting in Crisis Intervention
60(8)
Collaborative Counseling
60(1)
Nondirective Counseling
61(1)
Directive Counseling
62(1)
Action Strategies for Crisis Workers
62(6)
Summary
68(11)
References
79(2)
Crisis Case Handling
81(46)
Handling Crisis Cases Versus Long-Term Cases
81(4)
Comparing What Crisis Workers and Long-Term Therapists Do
81(1)
Comparison of Principles, Objectives, Client Functioning, and Assessment
82(3)
Case Handling on Telephone Crisis Lines
85(18)
The Telephone as a Crisis Tool
85(2)
Telephone Counseling Strategies
87(5)
Regular, Severely Disturbed, and Abusive Callers
92(3)
Handling the Severely Disturbed Caller
95(4)
Other Problem Callers
99(4)
Case Handling at Walk-In Crisis Facilities
103(5)
Types of Presenting Crises
103(2)
Case Handling at a Community Mental Health Clinic
105(3)
Transcrisis Handling in Long-Term Therapy
108(8)
Anxiety Reactions
108(1)
Regression
109(1)
Problems of Termination
110(1)
Crisis in the Therapy Session
110(1)
Psychotic Breaks
111(1)
Manipulative Clients
112(1)
Borderline Patients
113(3)
Counseling Difficult Clients
116(2)
Ground Rules for Counseling Difficult Clients
116(1)
Confronting Difficult Clients
117(1)
Confidentiality in Case Handling
118(5)
Principles Bearing on Confidentiality
118(1)
The Intent to Harm and the Duty to Warm
119(3)
Legal, Ethical, and Moral Issues of Telephone Counseling
122(1)
Summary
123(1)
References
124(3)
PART TWO Handling Specific Crises: Going into the Trenches 127(342)
Posttraumatic Stress Disorder
129(66)
Background
129(3)
Dynamics of PTSD
132(4)
Diagnostic Categorization
132(1)
Conflicting Diagnoses
133(1)
The Question of Preexisting Psychopathology
134(1)
Physiological Responses
135(1)
Affective-State-Dependent Retention
136(1)
Incidence, Impact, and Trauma Type
136(8)
Incidence
136(1)
Residual Impact
137(1)
Importance of Trauma Type
137(1)
Vietnam: The Archetype
138(3)
Intrusive-Repetitive Ideation
141(1)
Denial/Numbing
141(1)
Increased Nervous Symptom Arousal
142(1)
Dissociation
143(1)
Family Responses
143(1)
Maladaptive Patterns Characteristic of PTSD
144(2)
Treatment of Adults
146(16)
Assessment
146(4)
Phases of Recovery
150(1)
Initiating Intervention
150(1)
Importance of Acceptance
151(1)
Risks of Treatment
152(1)
Individual Intervention
153(1)
Emergency/Outcry
154(1)
Extinguishing Intrusive Images
155(1)
Numbing/Denial
155(3)
Reflection and Transition
158(3)
Integration
161(1)
Group Treatment
162(9)
The Life Adjustment Group
170(1)
Family Treatment
170(1)
Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR)
171(4)
Children and PTSD
175(8)
Intervention Strategies
179(2)
Therapy
181(1)
Moving Beyond the Trauma
182(1)
Summary
183(2)
Resources
185(1)
References
185(10)
Crisis of Lethality
195(34)
Background
195(2)
The Many Faces of Lethality
195(1)
The Scope of the Suicide Crisis
196(1)
Assisted Suicide and Euthanasia in Terminal Illness
196(1)
The Dynamics of Suicide
197(3)
Characteristics of People Who Commit Suicide
197(1)
Similarities Between Suicide and Homicide
198(1)
Analyzing Suicide/Homicide Notes for Commonalities Between Suicide and Homicide
198(2)
Myths About Suicide
200(1)
Assessment Areas
201(4)
Risk Factors
201(2)
Suicide Clues
203(1)
Cries for Help
203(1)
Using the Triage Assessment Form in Addressing Lethality
204(1)
Counseling Suicidal Clients
205(8)
Developmental Crisis Counseling: Adult Age-Specific Examples
205(8)
Intervention Strategies
213(7)
Adults
213(3)
Older Adults
216(1)
Prevention
217(1)
It's Everyone's Concern
217(1)
Educating for Prevention
218(1)
Four Methods of Prevention
218(1)
When Prevention Fails
218(1)
Psychological Autopsy: A Postvention Technique
218(2)
When Crisis Intervention Fails
220(2)
Worker Stress and Grief After Losing a Client
220(1)
The Unique Nature of Grief over Suicide
221(1)
Summary
222(3)
Resources
225(1)
References
226(3)
Sexual Assault
229(53)
Background
229(1)
Rape, Sexual Abuse, and Assault: The Scope of the Problem
229(1)
The Unique Situation of Sexual Abuse Survivours
229(1)
Sexual Assault: A Pervasive Crime
230(1)
Defining Rape
230(1)
Fundamental Assumptions Regarding Rape and Sexual Abuse
230(6)
The Dynamics of Rape
232(2)
Myths About Rape
234(2)
Long-Term Consequences of Sexual Abuse of Children
236(7)
Psychological Trauma and Sequelae
236(4)
Phases of Child Sexual Abuse
240(1)
Pervasiveness, Blame, and Prediction in Survivors of Childhood Sexual Abuse
241(2)
Date and Acquaintance Rape
243(2)
Dominant Perspectives on Date and Acquaintance Rape
243(1)
Date Rape Risk
243(1)
Preventing Date, Acquaintance, and Other Forms of Rape
244(1)
Dynamics of Sexual Abuse in Childhood
245(1)
Dynamics of Sexual Abuse in Families
246(1)
Intergenerational Transmission of Sexual Abuse
246(1)
Memories of Childhood Sexual Abuse
247(1)
False Memories
247(1)
Doubts and Controversy
247(1)
Intervention Strategies with Children
248(3)
Individual Therapy for Children
248(1)
Affirmation and Safety Needed
249(1)
Regaining a Sense of Control
250(1)
Education
250(1)
Prevention
251(1)
Intervention Strategies for Rape and Battery: The Case of Jeanette
251(3)
Immediate Aftermath
251(1)
The Following Three Months
252(2)
Intervention Strategies for Child Sexual Abuse: The Case of Susie
254(9)
Disclosure
254(1)
Immediate Aftermath
255(2)
Interviewing the Child
257(2)
Preparing the Child for Testimony
259(1)
Aftermath
259(1)
Counseling
260(1)
Boundary Issues
261(1)
Home Visits
262(1)
Preventing Revictimization
262(1)
Treatment of Offenders
263(1)
Support and Therapy Groups for Adult Survivors
263(1)
Intervention Strategies for Adult Survivors: The Case of Pearl
264(7)
Assessment
265(1)
Treatment of Adults
266(1)
Discovery and Admission
266(1)
Psychoeducation
267(1)
Validation
267(1)
Extinguishing Trauma
268(1)
Cognitive Restructuring
269(1)
Catharsis
270(1)
Grief Resolution
270(1)
Changing Behavior Through Skill Building
271(1)
Summary
271(3)
Resources
274(1)
References
275(7)
Partner Violence
282(61)
The Incidence of Domestic Violence
283(1)
Emerging Approaches to Partner Violence
284(2)
Dynamics of Partner Violence
286(10)
Psychosocial and Cultural Dynamics
286(4)
Psychological Factors
290(1)
Stressors
291(1)
Myths About Battering
292(1)
Profiling the Batterer
293(1)
The Cycle of Violence
294(1)
Realities for Abused Women
295(1)
Intervention Strategies
296(12)
Assessment
296(3)
Components of Intervention
299(9)
Shelters
308(5)
Counseling Women at Shelters
308(4)
Follow-Up
312(1)
Intervention with Children
313(1)
Courtship Violence
314(1)
Gay and Lesbian Violence
315(3)
Crisis Intervention Involving Gay and Lesbian Violence
316(2)
Treating Batterers
318(13)
Treatment Goals
319(1)
Assessment
320(1)
The Intake Interview
321(1)
Motivation
322(1)
A Typical 24-Session Anger Management Group
322(7)
Program Success
329(2)
If you Are in an Abusive Relationship
331(1)
Summary
331(3)
Resources
334(1)
References
334(9)
Chemical Dependency: The Crisis of Addiction
343(77)
Sociocultural Determinants of Substance Abuse
344(1)
Alcohol: Number One Abused Substance
345(2)
Models of Addiction
347(4)
The Model Controversy
349(2)
Definitions of Commonly Used Terms
351(2)
The Dynamics of Addiction
353(6)
Defense Mechanisms
353(3)
Enabling and Codependency
356(3)
Children in Alcoholic Families
359(8)
Family Rules in Alcoholic Families
361(2)
Adult Children of Alcoholics
363(4)
Multivariate Diagnosis
367(1)
Intervention Strategies
368(11)
Assessment
369(6)
Crisis Points in Chemical Dependency Treatment
375(3)
Detoxification
378(1)
Principles of Treatment
379(24)
Evolving Treatment Approaches
379(3)
Treatment Goals
382(1)
Treatment Protocol
383(1)
Individual Therapy
383(2)
The Treatment Group
385(1)
Learning Relationship Skills
386(1)
Accepting Responsibility
387(1)
Getting Past Denial
388(1)
Confrontation
389(2)
Limit Testing
391(1)
Treatment Secrets
391(1)
Disrupting Irrational Mental Sets
392(1)
Overcoming Environmental Cues That Lead to Drinking
393(2)
Treating the Family
395(5)
Aftercare
400(2)
Relapse
402(1)
Intervention with the ACOA
403(5)
Assessment
404(2)
Education
406(1)
The Counseling Group
407(1)
Pitfalls
407(1)
Summary
408(2)
Resources
410(1)
References
410(10)
Personal Loss: Bereavement and Grief
420(49)
Dynamics of Bereavement
422(1)
Cultural Dynamics
422(1)
Sociocultural Mores
422(1)
Conceptual Approaches to Bereavement
423(4)
The Kubler-Ross Model: The Dying Patient's Stages of Grief
423(2)
The Schneider Model: The Transformational Stages of Grief
425(2)
A Counterpoint to Traditional Models: The Dutro Model
427(1)
Types of Loss
427(8)
Death of a Spouse
427(1)
Death of a Child
428(1)
Bereavement Following a Suicide
428(1)
Bereavement in Childhood
429(1)
Bereavement in Adolescence
430(1)
Separation and Divorce
431(1)
Death of a Pet
432(1)
Bereavement in Elderly People
433(1)
AIDS: A Modern Dilemma
434(1)
Intervention Strategies
435(26)
Clues for Identifying Grief Reaction
435(2)
Applied Stages of Survivor Grief: An Operational Concept
437(1)
The Crisis Worker's Own Grief
438(1)
Death of a Spouse
439(3)
Death of a Child
442(3)
Bereavement Following a Suicide
445(2)
Bereavement in Childhood
447(2)
Bereavement in Adolescence
449(2)
Separation and Divorce
451(3)
Death of a Pet
454(1)
Bereavement in Elderly People
455(2)
Loss Related to HIV Infection and AIDS Disease
457(2)
Bereavement in HIV-Infected Clients
459(2)
Summary
461(1)
Resources
462(3)
References
465(4)
PART THREE Crisis in the Human Services Workplace 469(178)
Violent Behavior in Institutions
471(44)
Precipitating Factors
471(1)
Institutional Culpability
472(1)
Staff Culpability
473(1)
Legal Liability
473(1)
Dynamics of Violence in Human Services Settings
474(4)
Assessment
474(1)
Bases for Violence
474(4)
Intervention Strategies
478(20)
Security Analysis and Planning
478(2)
Training
480(3)
Precautions in Dealing with the Physical Setting
483(2)
Stages of Intervention
485(13)
The Violent Geriatric Client
498(9)
Mild Disorientation: The Case of Cliff
498(7)
Severe Disorientation: The Case of Grace
505(2)
Follow-Up with Staff Victims
507(1)
Summary
508(1)
Resources
509(1)
References
509(6)
Crises in Schools
515(56)
The New-Millennium, Violence-Proof School Building
515(3)
Gangs
518(9)
Types of Gangs
518(2)
Emergence of Suburban and Rural Gangs
520(1)
What the Problems Are in School Systems
521(1)
Gang Intervention/Prevention Programs
522(2)
A Comprehensive Gang Prevention and Intervention Model Named SARA
524(3)
The Estranged Violent Juvenile Offender
527(10)
A Profile Comparison of Traits and Characteristics of SVJOs and EVJOs
527(5)
Screening the EVJO
532(1)
Interviewing the Potential EVJO
533(3)
Acting
536(1)
School-Based Suicide Prevention and Intervention
537(10)
Myths of Child Suicide
537(1)
Child and Adolescent Cases of Suicidal Ideation
538(8)
Clustering of Suicides: Contagion
546(1)
Legal and Ethical Issues of Potentially Violent Behavior
547(2)
Planning for a Crisis
549(4)
The Crisis Response Planning Committee
550(1)
The Crisis Response Team (CRT)
551(2)
Implementing the Crisis Plan
553(5)
Physical Requirements
554(1)
Logistics
554(1)
Responding to the Crisis
555(3)
Bereavement in Schools
558(2)
Transcrisis Intervention
560(3)
Summary
563(2)
Resources
565(1)
References
565(6)
Hostage Crises
571(38)
Dynamics of Hostage Taking
572(10)
Types of Hostage Takers
572(1)
The Mentally Disturbed
573(5)
Stages and Dynamics of a Hostage Situation
578(4)
Intervention Strategies
582(14)
Communication Techniques
582(1)
Containing the Scene
583(1)
Gathering Information
583(1)
Stabilizing the Situation
584(2)
Persuading the Hostages Taker to Give Up
586(3)
Negotiating in a Hostage Situation: The Case of James
589(6)
The Crisis Worker as Consultant
595(1)
If You Are Put in the Role of Negotiator
596(1)
If You Are Held Hostage
596(2)
Intervention After Release
598(6)
Crisis Intervention with Hostage Survivors
601(3)
Summary
604(2)
Resource
606(1)
References
607(2)
Human Services Workers in Crisis: Burnout
609(38)
Helping Professionals: Prime Candidates
609(1)
Defining Burnout
610(1)
Dynamics of Burnout
611(1)
Cornerstones of Burnout
612(1)
Research on Burnout Dynamics
613(1)
Myths That Engender Burnout
614(1)
Symptoms of Burnout
615(1)
Levels of Burnout
615(2)
Stages of Burnout
617(1)
Worker-Client Relationships and Burnout
618(2)
Countertransference
618(1)
Vicarious Traumatization/Compassion Fatigue
619(1)
The Culpability of Organizations
620(1)
Self-Recognition of Burnout
621(1)
Intervention Strategies
622(7)
Assessment
622(1)
Intervention Through Training
623(1)
Intervention with the Organization
623(6)
Private Practitioners and Burnout
629(12)
Intervention with the Individual
630(11)
Summary
641(1)
Resources
642(1)
References
643(4)
PART FOUR New Directions 647(38)
Off the Couch and into the Streets
649(36)
The Evolution of the Crisis Intervention Subspecialty
649(5)
The Grassroots Movement
649(1)
The Importance of Volunteerism
650(1)
The Need for Trained Professional Consultants
651(1)
The Quest for Maturity and Power
651(2)
The Societal Impetus for Crisis Intervention
653(1)
Job-Related Impetus for Crisis Intervention
653(1)
Proactive and Preventive Models of Crisis Intervention
654(2)
Crisis Intervention in the Real World
654(1)
Cost and Managed Care Considerations
655(1)
Collaborating/Networking
655(1)
Prevention Programs
656(1)
Emerging Trends in Crisis Intervention
656(7)
Crisis Stabilization Programs
657(1)
Outreach Programs and Crisis Response Teams
657(3)
Multicultural Issues in Outreach
660(3)
Psychiatric Emergency Services
663(1)
The Ecosystem Approach
663(2)
Debriefing the Crisis Worker
665(5)
Electronic Outreach Services
668(2)
Police and Crisis Intervention
670(6)
Police and the Mentally Ill/Mentally Disturbed
670(1)
The Crisis Intervention Team (CIT) Program
671(3)
The Family Trouble Center (FTC) Program
674(2)
Community Development of Proactive-Preventive Crisis Intervention Services
676(2)
The Importance of Multidisciplinary Thinking
676(1)
The Need for Innovative Alliances
676(1)
A Blueprint for the Future
677(1)
Last Words
678(1)
Summary
678(1)
Resources
679(2)
References
681(4)
Index 685


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