9780140447477

Critique of Pure Reason

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  • ISBN13:

    9780140447477

  • ISBN10:

    0140447474

  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 1/29/2008
  • Publisher: Penguin Classics
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Summary

The masterpiece of the father of modern philosophy A seminal text of modern philosophy, Immanuel Kant's "Critique of Pure Reason" (1781) made history by bringing together two opposing schools of thought: rationalism, which grounds all our knowledge in reason, and empiricism, which traces all our knowledge to experience. Published here in a lucid reworking of Max Muller's classic translation, the Critique is a profound investigation into the nature of human reason, establishing its truth, falsities, illusions, and reality.

Author Biography

Immanuel Kant (1724-1804) was one of the most influential philosophers of all time. His comprehensive and profound thinking on aesthetics, ethics, and knowledge has had an immense impact on all subsequent philosophy.
Max Muller (1823-1900) was born in Dessau, Germany, and was an orientalist, a scholar of ancient languages, and a follower of Kant-'s philosophy. He was the first to translate Sanskrit texts into a modern European language. He taught at Oxford and became a British citizen in 1855.
Marcus Weigelt studied at Corpus Christi College, Cambridge, and at Freie Universit+t, Berlin.

Table of Contents

Introductionp. ix
Selected Bibliographyp. xvii
Translator's Prefacep. xix
Critique of Pure Reasonp. 1
Preface [First Edition]p. 1
Preface [Second Edition]p. 4
Introduction [Second Edition]p. 15
On the Distinction between Pure and Empirical Cognitionp. 15
On the Distinction between Analytic and Synthetic Judgmentsp. 16
All Theoretical Sciences of Reason Contain Synthetic A Priori Judgments as Principlesp. 18
The General Problem of Pure Reasonp. 20
Idea and Division of a Special Science under the Name of Critique of Pure Reasonp. 23
Transcendental Doctrine of Elementsp. 25
Transcendental Aesthetic 1p. 25
Spacep. 27
Metaphysical Exposition of This Conceptp. 27
Transcendental Exposition of the Concept of Spacep. 29
Conclusions from the Above Conceptsp. 29
Timep. 32
Metaphysical Exposition of the Concept of Timep. 32
Transcendental Exposition of the Concept of Timep. 33
Conclusions from these Conceptsp. 33
Elucidationp. 36
Transcendental Logicp. 39
Introduction: Idea of a Transcendental Logicp. 39
On Logic As Suchp. 39
Division I Transcendental Analyticp. 41
Analytic of Conceptsp. 42
On the Guide for the Discovery of All Pure Concepts of Understandingp. 42
Transcendental Guide for the Discovery of All Pure Concepts of Understandingp. 43
On the Understanding's Logical Use As Suchp. 43
On the Understanding's Logical Function in Judgmentsp. 45
On the Pure Concepts of Understanding, or Categoriesp. 46
On the Deduction of the Pure Concepts of Understandingp. 51
On the Principles of a Transcendental Deduction As Suchp. 51
Transition to the Transcendental Deduction of the Categoriesp. 55
[Second Edition] Transcendental Deduction of the Pure Concepts of Understandingp. 58
On the Possibility of a Combination As Suchp. 58
On the Original Synthetic Unity of Apperceptionp. 59
The Principle of the Synthetic Unity of Apperception Is the Supreme Principle for All Use of the Understandingp. 61
What Objective Unity of Self-Consciousness Isp. 63
The Logical Form of All Judgments Consists in the Objective Unity of Apperception of the Concepts Contained in Themp. 64
All Sensible Intuitions Are Subject to the Categories, Which Are Conditions under Which Alone Their Manifold Can Come Together in One Consciousnessp. 65
Commentp. 65
A Category Cannot Be Used for Cognizing Things Except When It Is Applied to Objects of Experiencep. 67
p. 68
On Applying the Categories to Objects of the Senses As Suchp. 69
p. 70
Transcendental Deduction of the Universally Possible Use in Experience of the Pure Concepts of Understandingp. 72
Result of This Deduction of the Concepts of Understandingp. 75
Brief Sketch of This Deductionp. 77
Analytic of Principlesp. 78
On the Schematism of the Pure Concepts of Understandingp. 78
System of All Principles of Pure Understandingp. 84
On the Supreme Principle of All Synthetic Judgmentsp. 86
Systematic Presentation of All the Synthetic Principles of Pure Understandingp. 88
Axioms of Intuitionp. 91
Anticipations of Perceptionp. 93
Analogies of Experiencep. 100
First Analogy: Principle of the Permanence of Substancep. 103
Second Analogy: Principle of Temporal Succession According to the Law of Causalityp. 107
Third Analogy: Principle of Simultaneity According to the Law of Interaction or Communityp. 120
Refutation of Idealism [Second Edition]p. 124
Transcendental Dialecticp. 128
Introductionp. 128
On Transcendental Illusionp. 128
On Pure Reason As the Seat of Transcendental Illusionp. 131
On the Pure Use of Reasonp. 131
On the Dialectical Inferences of Pure Reasonp. 134
On the Paralogisms of Pure Reason [Second Edition]p. 134
The Antinomy of Pure Reasonp. 138
System of Cosmological Ideasp. 140
Antithetic of Pure Reasonp. 141
First Conflict of Transcendental Ideasp. 143
Second Conflict of Transcendental Ideasp. 149
Third Conflict of Transcendental Ideasp. 156
Critical Decision of the Cosmological Dispute That Reason Has with Itselfp. 162
Pure Reason's Regulative Principle Regarding the Cosmological Ideasp. 168
On the Empirical Use of the Regulative Principle of Reason in Regard to All Cosmological Ideasp. 172
Solution of the Cosmological Idea of the Totality of Composition of Appearances of a World Wholep. 173
Solution of the Cosmological Idea of the Totality of Division of a Whole Given in Intuitionp. 176
Solution of the Cosmological Idea of Totality in the Derivation of World Events from Their Causesp. 181
The Ideal of Pure Reasonp. 196
On the Impossibility of an Ontological Proof of the Existence of Godp. 196
Appendix to the Transcendental Dialecticp. 202
On the Final Aim of the Natural Dialectic of Human Reasonp. 202
Transcendental Doctrine of Methodp. 204
The Canon of Pure Reasonp. 204
On the Ultimate Purpose of the Pure Use of Our Reasonp. 205
On the Ideal of the Highest Good, As a Determining Basis of the Ultimate Purpose of Pure Reasonp. 209
On Opinion, Knowledge, and Faithp. 218
Indexp. 225
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