9780691002392

Cultural Realism

by
  • ISBN13:

    9780691002392

  • ISBN10:

    0691002398

  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 1998-07-27
  • Publisher: Princeton Univ Pr
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Summary

Cultural Realismis an in-depth study of premodern Chinese strategic thought that has important implications for contemporary international relations theory. In applying a Western theoretical debate to China, Iain Johnston advances rigorous procedures for testing for the existence and influence of "strategic culture." Johnston sets out to answer two empirical questions. Is there a substantively consistent and temporally persistent Chinese strategic culture? If so, to what extent has it influenced China's approaches to security? The focus of his study is the Ming dynasty's grand strategy against the Mongols (1368-1644). First Johnston examines ancient military texts as sources of Chinese strategic culture, using cognitive mapping, symbolic analysis and congruence tests to determine whether there is a consistent grand strategic preference ranking across texts that constitutes a single strategic culture. Then he applies similar techniques to determine the effect of the strategic culture on the strategic preferences of the Ming decision makers. Finally, he assesses the effect of these preferences on Ming policies towards the Mongol "threat." The findings of this book challenge dominant interpretations of traditional Chinese strategic thought. They suggest also that the roots ofrealpolitikare ideational and not predominantly structural. The results lead to the surprising conclusion that there may be, in fact, fewer cross-national differences in strategic culture than proponents of the "strategic culture" approach think.

Author Biography

Alastair Iain Johnston is Assistant Professor of Government and teaches Chinese foreign policy and international relations at Harvard University

Table of Contents

LIST OF FIGURES AND TABLES
vii(2)
PREFACE ix
CHAPTER ONE Strategic Culture: A Critique
1(31)
The International Security Field and Strategic Culture
4(18)
Strategic Culture and China
22(5)
Conclusion
27(5)
CHAPTER TWO Some Questions of Methodology
32(29)
Definitions of Strategic Culture
33(6)
Objects of Analysis
39(10)
Methods of Analysis
49(3)
Empirical Analysis
52(9)
CHAPTER THREE Chinese Strategic Culture and the Parabellum Paradigm
61(48)
Righteous War
69(2)
On Violence
71(28)
On "Not Fighting and Subduing the Enemy"
99(7)
Conclusion
106(3)
CHAPTER FOUR Chinese Strategic Culture and Grand Strategic Preferences
109(46)
A Typology of Grand Strategies
109(8)
Central Paradigms and Grand Strategic Preferences
117(26)
Conclusion
143(12)
CHAPTER FIVE A Return to Theory
155(20)
The Strategy of Symbols and Symbolic Strategy
156(14)
Some Hypotheses about Ming Strategic Decision-Making
170(5)
CHAPTER SIX The Parabellum Paradigm and the Ming Security Problematique
175(41)
Bingshu in the Ming Dynasty
176(7)
Ming Security Problems Along the Northern Border
183(3)
The Parabellum Paradigm and Alternative Grand Strategies
186(4)
On Violence
190(22)
Conclusion
212(4)
CHAPTER SEVEN Chinese Strategic Culture and Ming Grand Strategic Choice
216(32)
Patterns in Ming Grand Strategic Preferences
217(14)
Strategic Preferences and Coerciveness in Ming Security Policy
231(11)
Conclusion
242(6)
CHAPTER EIGHT Conclusion
248(19)
APPENDIX A Coding Procedures 267(3)
APPENDIX B 270(4)
Terms Used to Describe Legitimate Actions Directed at an Adversary 270(3)
Terms Used to Describe Outcomes of Actions against an Adversary 273(1)
APPENDIX C Map of Northern Border Areas in the Ming Period 274(1)
REFERENCES 275(18)
INDEX 293

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