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Curriculum Alternative Approaches, Ongoing Issues,9780131715103
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Curriculum Alternative Approaches, Ongoing Issues

by ;
Edition:
4th
ISBN13:

9780131715103

ISBN10:
0131715100
Format:
Hardcover
Pub. Date:
6/1/2006
Publisher(s):
Pearson
List Price: $168.60

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Summary

This compact, scholarly book treats creating a curriculum as an ongoingprocess, the product of which is a composite of what is intended (planned curriculum), what actually happens (enacted curriculum), and how what happens influences those involved (experienced curriculum). It proposes that desirable educational experiences arise when the interaction of these three curricula is flexible and evolving; and, therefore, the authors never advance specific, "best" practices or "most correct" answers to fundamental curriculum questions. Rather, through a finely honed discussion of essential theoretical and practical alternatives, they invite readers to develop their own points of view.Major discussions of postmodernism, autobiographical techniques, gender, and race. The book also includes coverage of recent actions by state governing agencies and boards of education and aligning curriculum with state standards.For professionals in the field of teaching.

Table of Contents

The Character of Curriculum
1(22)
Introduction
2(6)
Defining Curriculum
8(8)
An Interrelated Set of Plans and Experiences
15(1)
What Comes Next?
16(7)
Curriculum History
23(45)
Introduction
24(1)
Three Focal Points for Curriculum History
25(4)
The Nature of Subject Matter
26(1)
The Nature of Society
27(1)
The Nature of the Individual
28(1)
The Colonial Era and the Early United States
29(4)
The Harvard Curriculum
31(1)
Franklin's Academy
31(2)
The Nineteenth Century
33(9)
The Common School Movement and the Expansion of the Curriculum
34(1)
Reports of the National Education Association
35(7)
The Twentieth Century
42(20)
The Cardinal Principles of Secondary Education
43(2)
Franklin Bobbitt and Activity Analysis
45(1)
Child-Centered Pedagogy
46(1)
The 1927 NSSE Yearbook
47(3)
The Eight-Year Study
50(2)
After World War II
52(1)
Sputnik and the National Response
52(2)
The Curriculum Reform Movement
54(2)
A New Risk to the Nation
56(1)
The National Commission on Excellence in Education
57(5)
Prospects for the Twenty-First Century
62(2)
No Child Left Behind
62(2)
Concluding Comment
64(4)
Approaches to Curriculum
68(26)
Introduction
69(1)
Approaches to Curriculum
70(18)
Tyler's Rational-Linear Approach
72(7)
Walker's Deliberative Approach
79(3)
Eisner's Artistic Approach
82(6)
Is One Approach Preferable?
88(6)
Curriculum Theorizing
94(52)
Introduction
95(2)
What Is Curriculum Theorizing?
97(5)
Curriculum Models
100(1)
Curriculum Theorizing
100(2)
Major Categories of Curriculum Theorizing
102(39)
Prescriptive Theorizers: Creating the Best Curricula Possible
103(9)
Descriptive Theorizers: Mapping the Procedures of Curriculum Development
112(7)
Critical-Exploratory Theorizers: Understanding Curriculum in Terms of What Has Been, Is, and Might Be
119(22)
Curriculum Theory and Theorizing Today
141(5)
Curriculum Development and Change
146(33)
Introduction
147(1)
Some Important Terms
148(3)
Curriculum Developers
148(1)
Curriculum Change
149(1)
Innovation
149(1)
Diffusion and Dissemination
150(1)
The Curriculum Continuum
151(1)
Curriculum Development as a Planned Activity
151(13)
Levels of Curriculum Development
153(5)
Activities of Curriculum Developers
158(1)
Expertise and Control of Curriculum Development
159(1)
Site of Activities
160(2)
Use of Products
162(1)
Typology
162(2)
The Process of Educational Change
164(3)
Attributes of an Innovation
165(1)
Contexts of Innovations
166(1)
Change Models
167(7)
Models External to the School
167(3)
Models Internal to the School
170(2)
Models Linking the External, the Internal, and the Personal
172(2)
Principles and Guidelines
174(1)
Concluding Comment
175(4)
Curriculum Planning: Levels and Participants
179(33)
Introduction
180(1)
Planning at Different Levels
181(3)
Policies and Programs: The Macro and Intermediate Levels
182(1)
Lessons: The Micro Level
183(1)
Teachers
184(9)
Teacher Beliefs and Constructivism
185(1)
How Teachers Plan
186(2)
Interacting with Other Faculty
188(1)
Site-Based Management
189(2)
Educational Policies and Priorities of School Districts
191(1)
Organizational Policies of Individual Schools
192(1)
Societal Pressures
192(1)
Principals
193(3)
Leadership Styles of School Principals
195(1)
Parents
196(4)
Desirable versus Actual Practices
199(1)
Students
200(4)
Reasons for Student Participation
201(2)
Reasons against Student Participation
203(1)
External Facilitators
204(2)
Concluding Comment
206(6)
Curriculum Implementation
212(37)
Introduction
213(2)
Some Definitions and Issues
215(2)
Influences on Implementation
217(3)
Discovering and Describing What Happens in Implementation
220(2)
Implementation: Student Activities and Achievements
221(1)
Implementation: Use of Curriculum Materials
221(1)
Implementation: Teacher Activities
222(1)
Research on Implementation
222(6)
Fidelity of Implementation
223(1)
Adaptation in Implementation
224(1)
The Continuing Debate: Fidelity of Use versus Mutual Adaptation
225(3)
Supporting Curriculum Implementation
228(17)
Federal and State Actions
228(2)
Approaches to Implementation
230(15)
Concluding Comment
245(4)
Curriculum Evaluation and Student Assessment
249(55)
Introduction
250(3)
Purposes of Curriculum Evaluation
253(9)
Why Evaluate?
255(1)
What to Evaluate?
256(1)
On What Basis to Evaluate?
256(6)
Examples of Student Assessment
262(13)
Authentic Assessment
262(8)
Other Forms of Assessment
270(5)
Persons Involved in Evaluations
275(1)
Are There Uniform Standards?
275(2)
Preparing for a Formal Evaluation
277(1)
Evaluation Models
278(22)
Objectives Model
281(5)
Countenance Model
286(4)
Illuminative Model
290(4)
Educational Connoisseurship Model
294(6)
Concluding Comment
300(4)
Politics and Curriculum Decision Making
304(35)
Introduction
306(1)
Decision Makers and Influences on Them
307(8)
The Decision Makers
308(1)
Some Influential Groups
309(5)
Levels of Influence
314(1)
Who Initiates the Curriculum?
315(2)
Who Determines Priorities?
317(4)
Who Implements the Curriculum?
321(1)
Who Is Responsible for What Happens?
322(1)
How Power Is Applied: Some Examples
323(6)
A Bottom-Up Approach to Curriculum Decision Making: Charter Schools as a Counterexample
327(2)
Implications for Teachers
329(5)
Pressures
329(1)
Messages
330(1)
Professionalization
331(2)
Empowerment
333(1)
A Final Comment on Curriculum Approaches and Issues
334(5)
Bibliography 339(36)
Glossary 375(4)
Name Index 379(8)
Subject Index 387


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