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Getting Started with Excel | p. 1 |
Getting Started | p. 2 |
Special Files for This Book | p. 2 |
Installing the StatPlus Files | p. 2 |
Excel and Spreadsheets | p. 4 |
Launching Excel | p. 5 |
Viewing the Excel Window | p. 6 |
Running Excel Commands | p. 7 |
Excel Workbooks and Worksheets | p. 10 |
Opening a Workbook | p. 10 |
Scrolling through a Workbook | p. 11 |
Worksheet Cells | p. 14 |
Selecting a Cell | p. 14 |
Moving Cells | p. 16 |
Printing from Excel | p. 18 |
Previewing the Print Job | p. 18 |
Setting Up the Page | p. 19 |
Printing the Page | p. 21 |
Saving Your Work | p. 22 |
Excel Add-Ins | p. 24 |
Loading the StatPlus Add-In | p. 24 |
Loading the Data Analysis ToolPak | p. 28 |
Unloading an Add-In | p. 30 |
Features of StatPlus | p. 30 |
Using StatPlus Modules | p. 30 |
Hidden Data | p. 31 |
Linked Formulas | p. 32 |
Setup Options | p. 32 |
Exiting Excel | p. 34 |
Working with Data | p. 35 |
Data Entry | p. 36 |
Entering Data from the Keyboard | p. 36 |
Entering Data with Autofill | p. 37 |
Inserting New Data | p. 40 |
Data Formats | p. 41 |
Formulas and Functions | p. 45 |
Inserting a Simple Formula | p. 46 |
Inserting an Excel Function | p. 47 |
Cell References | p. 50 |
Range Names | p. 51 |
Sorting Data | p. 54 |
Querying Data | p. 55 |
Using the AutoFilter | p. 56 |
Using the Advanced Filter | p. 59 |
Using Calculated Values | p. 62 |
Importing Data from Text Files | p. 63 |
Importing Data from Databases | p. 68 |
Using Excel's Database Query Wizard | p. 68 |
Specifying Criteria and Sorting Data | p. 71 |
Exercises | p. 75 |
Working with Charts | p. 81 |
Introducing Excel Charts | p. 82 |
Introducing Scatter Plots | p. 86 |
Editing a Chart | p. 91 |
Resizing and Moving an Embedded Chart | p. 91 |
Moving a Chart to a Chart Sheet | p. 93 |
Working with Chart and Axis Titles | p. 94 |
Editing the Chart Axes | p. 97 |
Working with Gridlines and Legends | p. 100 |
Editing Plot Symbols | p. 102 |
Identifying Data Points | p. 105 |
Selecting a Data Row | p. 106 |
Labeling Data Points | p. 107 |
Formatting Labels | p. 109 |
Creating Bubble Plots | p. 110 |
Breaking a Scatter Plot into Categories | p. 117 |
Plotting Several Variables | p. 120 |
Exercises | p. 123 |
Describing Your Data | p. 128 |
Variables and Descriptive Statistics | p. 129 |
Frequency Tables | p. 131 |
Creating a Frequency Table | p. 132 |
Using Bins in a Frequency Table | p. 134 |
Defining Your Own Bin Values | p. 136 |
Working with Histograms | p. 138 |
Creating a Histogram | p. 138 |
Shapes of Distributions | p. 141 |
Breaking a Histogram into Categories | p. 143 |
Working with Stem and Leaf Plots | p. 146 |
Distribution Statistics | p. 151 |
Percentiles and Quartiles | p. 151 |
Measures of the Center: Means, Medians, and the Mode | p. 154 |
Measures of Variability | p. 159 |
Measures of Shape: Skewness and Kurtosis | p. 162 |
Outliers | p. 164 |
Working with Boxplots | p. 165 |
Concept Tutorials: Boxplots | p. 166 |
Exercises | p. 175 |
Probability Distributions | p. 182 |
Probability | p. 183 |
Probability Distributions | p. 184 |
Discrete Probability Distributions | p. 185 |
Continuous Probability Distributions | p. 186 |
Concept Tutorials: PDFs | p. 187 |
Random Variables and Random Samples | p. 189 |
Concept Tutorials: Random Samples | p. 190 |
The Normal Distribution | p. 193 |
Concept Tutorials: The Normal Distribution | p. 194 |
Excel Worksheet Functions | p. 196 |
Using Excel to Generate Random Normal Data | p. 197 |
Charting Random Normal Data | p. 199 |
The Normal Probability Plot | p. 201 |
Parameters and Estimators | p. 205 |
The Sampling Distribution | p. 206 |
Concept Tutorials: Sampling Distributions | p. 211 |
The Standard Error | p. 212 |
The Central Limit Theorem | p. 212 |
Concept Tutorials: The Central Limit Theorem | p. 213 |
Exercises | p. 218 |
Statistical Inference | p. 224 |
Confidence Intervals | p. 225 |
z Test Statistic and z Values | p. 225 |
Calculating the Confidence Interval with Excel | p. 228 |
Interpreting the Confidence Interval | p. 229 |
Concept Tutorials: The Confidence Interval | p. 229 |
Hypothesis Testing | p. 232 |
Types of Error | p. 233 |
An Example of Hypothesis Testing | p. 234 |
Acceptance and Rejection Regions | p. 234 |
p Values | p. 235 |
Concept Tutorials: Hypothesis Testing | p. 236 |
Additional Thoughts about Hypothesis Testing | p. 239 |
The t Distribution | p. 240 |
Concept Tutorials: The t Distribution | p. 241 |
Working with the t Statistic | p. 242 |
Constructing a t Confidence Interval | p. 243 |
The Robustness of t | p. 243 |
Applying the t Test to Paired Data | p. 244 |
Applying a Nonparametric Test to Paired Data | p. 250 |
The Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test | p. 250 |
The Sign Test | p. 253 |
The Two-Sample t Test | p. 255 |
Comparing the Pooled and Unpooled Test Statistics | p. 256 |
Working with the Two-Sample t Statistic | p. 256 |
Testing for Equality of Variance | p. 258 |
Applying the t Test to Two-Sample Data | p. 259 |
Applying a Nonparametric Test to Two-Sample Data | p. 265 |
Final Thoughts about Statistical Inference | p. 267 |
Exercises | p. 268 |
Tables | p. 275 |
PivotTables | p. 276 |
Removing Categories from a PivotTable | p. 280 |
Changing the Values Displayed by the PivotTable | p. 282 |
Displaying Categorical Data in a Bar Chart | p. 283 |
Displaying Categorical Data in a Pie Chart | p. 285 |
Two-Way Tables | p. 288 |
Computing Expected Counts | p. 291 |
The Pearson Chi-Square Statistic | p. 293 |
Concept Tutorials: The ¿^{2} Distribution | p. 293 |
Working with the ¿^{2} Distribution in Excel | p. 296 |
Breaking Down the Chi-Square Statistic | p. 297 |
Other Table Statistics | p. 297 |
Validity of the Chi-Square Test with Small Frequencies | p. 299 |
Tables with Ordinal Variables | p. 302 |
Testing for a Relationship between Two Ordinal Variables | p. 303 |
Custom Sort Order | p. 307 |
Exercises | p. 309 |
Regression and Correlation | p. 313 |
Simple Linear Regression | p. 314 |
The Regression Equation | p. 314 |
Fitting the Regression Line | p. 315 |
Regression Functions in Excel | p. 316 |
Exploring Regression | p. 317 |
Performing a Regression Analysis | p. 318 |
Plotting Regression Data | p. 320 |
Calculating Regression Statistics | p. 323 |
Interpreting Regression Statistics | p. 325 |
Interpreting the Analysis of Variance Table | p. 326 |
Parameter Estimates and Statistics | p. 327 |
Residuals and Predicted Values | p. 328 |
Checking the Regression Model | p. 329 |
Testing the Straight-Line Assumption | p. 329 |
Testing for Normal Distribution of the Residuals | p. 331 |
Testing for Constant Variance in the Residuals | p. 332 |
Testing for the Independence of Residuals | p. 332 |
Correlation | p. 335 |
Correlation and Slope | p. 336 |
Correlation and Causality | p. 336 |
Spearman's Rank Correlation Coefficient s | p. 337 |
Correlation Functions in Excel | p. 337 |
Creating a Correlation Matrix | p. 338 |
Correlation with a Two-Valued Variable | p. 342 |
Adjusting Multiple p Values with Bonferroni | p. 342 |
Creating a Scatter Plot Matrix | p. 343 |
Exercises | p. 345 |
Multiple Regression | p. 352 |
Regression Models with Multiple Parameters | p. 353 |
Concept Tutorials: The F Distribution | p. 353 |
Using Regression for Prediction | p. 355 |
Regression Example: Predicting Grades | p. 356 |
Interpreting the Regression Output | p. 358 |
Multiple Correlation | p. 359 |
Coefficients and the Prediction Equation | p. 361 |
t Tests for the Coefficients | p. 362 |
Testing Regression Assumptions | p. 363 |
Observed versus Predicted Values | p. 363 |
Plotting Residuals versus Predicted Values | p. 366 |
Plotting Residuals versus Predictor Variables | p. 368 |
Normal Errors and the Normal Plot | p. 370 |
Summary of Calc Analysis | p. 371 |
Regression Example: Sex Discrimination | p. 371 |
Regression on Male Faculty | p. 372 |
Using a SPLOM to See Relationships | p. 373 |
Correlation Matrix of Variables | p. 374 |
Multiple Regression | p. 376 |
Interpreting the Regression Output | p. 377 |
Residual Analysis of Discrimination Data | p. 377 |
Normal Plot of Residuals | p. 378 |
Are Female Faculty Underpaid? | p. 380 |
Drawing Conclusions | p. 385 |
Exercises | p. 386 |
Analysis of Variance | p. 392 |
One-Way Analysis of Variance | p. 393 |
Analysis of Variance Example: Comparing Hotel Prices | p. 393 |
Graphing the Data to Verify ANOVA Assumptions | p. 395 |
Computing the Analysis of Variance | p. 397 |
Interpreting the Analysis of Variance Table | p. 399 |
Comparing Means | p. 402 |
Using the Bonferroni Correction Factor | p. 403 |
When to Use Bonferroni | p. 404 |
Comparing Means with a Boxplot | p. 405 |
One-Way Analysis of Variance and Regression | p. 406 |
Indicator Variables | p. 406 |
Fitting the Effects Model | p. 408 |
Two-Way Analysis of Variance | p. 410 |
A Two-Factor Example | p. 410 |
Two-Way Analysis Example: Comparing Soft Drinks | p. 413 |
Graphing the Data to Verify Assumptions | p. 414 |
The Interaction Plot | p. 417 |
Using Excel to Perform a Two-Way Analysis of Variance | p. 419 |
Interpreting the Analysis of Variance Table | p. 422 |
Summary | p. 424 |
Exercises | p. 424 |
Time Series | p. 431 |
Time Series Concepts | p. 432 |
Time Series Example: The Rise in Global Temperatures | p. 432 |
Plotting the Global Temperature Time Series | p. 433 |
Analyzing the Change in Global Temperature | p. 436 |
Looking at Lagged Values | p. 438 |
The Autocorrelation Function | p. 440 |
Applying the ACF to Annual Mean Temperature | p. 441 |
Other ACF Patterns | p. 443 |
Applying the ACF to the Change in Temperature | p. 444 |
Moving Averages | p. 445 |
Simple Exponential Smoothing | p. 448 |
Forecasting with Exponential Smoothing | p. 450 |
Assessing the Accuracy of the Forecast | p. 450 |
Concept Tutorials: One-Parameter Exponential Smoothing | p. 451 |
Choosing a Value for w | p. 455 |
Two-Parameter Exponential Smoothing | p. 457 |
Calculating the Smoothed Values | p. 458 |
Concept Tutorials: Two-Parameter Exponential Smoothing | p. 459 |
Seasonality | p. 462 |
Multiplicative Seasonality | p. 462 |
Additive Seasonality | p. 464 |
Seasonal Example: Liquor Sales | p. 464 |
Examining Seasonality with a Boxplot | p. 467 |
Examining Seasonality with a Line Plot | p. 468 |
Applying the ACF to Seasonal Data | p. 470 |
Adjusting for Seasonality | p. 471 |
Three-Parameter Exponential Smoothing | p. 473 |
Forecasting Liquor Sales | p. 474 |
Optimizing the Exponential Smoothing Constant (optional) | p. 479 |
Exercises | p. 482 |
Quality Control | p. 487 |
Statistical Quality Control | p. 488 |
Controlled Variation | p. 489 |
Uncontrolled Variation | p. 489 |
Control Charts | p. 490 |
Control Charts and Hypothesis Testing | p. 492 |
Variable and Attribute Charts | p. 493 |
Using Subgroups | p. 493 |
The <$>\bar {x}<$> Chart | p. 493 |
Calculating Control Limits When ¿ Is Known | p. 494 |
<$>\bar {x}<$> Chart Example: Teaching Scores | p. 495 |
Calculating Control Limits When ¿ Is Unknown | p. 498 |
<$>\bar {x}<$> Chart Example: A Coating Process | p. 500 |
The Range Chart | p. 502 |
The C Chart | p. 504 |
C Chart Example: Factory Accidents | p. 504 |
The P Chart | p. 506 |
P Chart Example: Steel Rod Defects | p. 507 |
Control Charts for Individual Observations | p. 509 |
The Pareto Chart | p. 513 |
Exercises | p. 517 |
Appendix | p. 521 |
Excel Reference | p. 581 |
Bibliography | p. 587 |
Index | p. 589 |
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