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The late RICHARD M. BARKER, PhD, PE, was Professor Emeritus of Civil and Environmental Engineering at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University. Dr. Barker spent more than fifty years as a structural designer, project engineer, researcher, and teacher.
JAY A. PUCKETT, PhD, PE, is V. O. Smith Professor of Civil and Architectural Engineering at the University of Wyoming and President of BridgeTech, Inc., a consulting firm that specializes in software development for bridge engineering. With over thirty years of experience in bridge research and development, he has developed software for the analysis and rating of bridge systems that is currently in use at over forty transportation agencies. Dr. Puckett was a subconsultant to Michael Baker Jr. Inc. for the development of AASHTO's new rating and design systems (Virtis/Opis). His research has involved several National Academy NCHRP projects.
Preface to the Second Edition xiii
Preface to the First Edition xv
PART I GENERAL ASPECTS OF BRIDGE DESIGN
CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION TO BRIDGE ENGINEERING 3
1.1 A Bridge Is the Key Element in a Transportation System 3
1.2 Bridge Engineering in the United States 3
1.2.1 Stone Arch Bridges 3
1.2.2 Wooden Bridges 4
1.2.3 Metal Truss Bridges 6
1.2.4 Suspension Bridges 8
1.2.5 Metal Arch Bridges 10
1.2.6 Reinforced Concrete Bridges 12
1.2.7 Girder Bridges 13
1.2.8 Closing Remarks 14
1.3 Bridge Engineer—Planner, Architect, Designer, Constructor,
and Facility Manager 14
References 15
Problems 15
CHAPTER 2 SPECIFICATIONS AND BRIDGE FAILURES 17
2.1 Bridge Specifications 17
2.2 Implication of Bridge Failures on Practice 18
2.2.1 Silver Bridge, Point Pleasant, West Virginia, December 15, 1967 18
2.2.2 I-5 and I-210 Interchange, San Fernando, California,
February 9, 1971 19
2.2.3 Sunshine Skyway, Tampa Bay, Florida, May 9, 1980 21
2.2.4 Mianus River Bridge, Greenwich, Connecticut, June 28, 1983 22
2.2.5 Schoharie Creek Bridge, Amsterdam, New York, April 5, 1987 24
2.2.6 Cypress Viaduct, Loma Prieta Earthquake, October 17, 1989 25
2.2.7 I-35W Bridge, Minneapolis,Minnesota, August 1, 2007 26
2.2.8 Failures During Construction 30
References 30
Problems 31
CHAPTER 3 BRIDGE AESTHETICS 33
3.1 Introduction 33
3.2 Nature of the Structural Design Process 33
3.2.1 Description and Justification 33
3.2.2 Public and Personal Knowledge 34
3.2.3 Regulation 34
3.2.4 Design Process 35
3.3 Aesthetics in Bridge Design 36
3.3.1 Definition of Aesthetics 36
3.3.2 Qualities of Aesthetic Design 37
3.3.3 Practical Guidelines for Medium- and Short-Span Bridges 47
3.3.4 Computer Modeling 55
3.3.5 Web References 56
3.3.6 Closing Remarks on Aesthetics 59
References 59
Problems 60
CHAPTER 4 BRIDGE TYPES AND SELECTION 61
4.1 Main Structure below the Deck Line 61
4.2 Main Structure above the Deck Line 61
4.3 Main Structure Coincides with the Deck Line 64
4.4 Closing Remarks on Bridge Types 66
4.5 Selection of Bridge Type 66
4.5.1 Factors to Be Considered 66
4.5.2 Bridge Types Used for Different Span Lengths 69
4.5.3 Closing Remarks 72
References 72
Problems 73
CHAPTER 5 DESIGN LIMIT STATES 75
5.1 Introduction 75
5.2 Development of Design Procedures 75
5.2.1 Allowable Stress Design 75
5.2.2 Variability of Loads 76
5.2.3 Shortcomings of Allowable Stress Design 76
5.2.4 Load and Resistance Factor Design 77
5.3 Design Limit States 77
5.3.1 General 77
5.3.2 Service Limit State 79
5.3.3 Fatigue and Fracture Limit State 80
5.3.4 Strength Limit State 81
5.3.5 Extreme Event Limit State 81
5.4 Closing Remarks 82
References 82
Problems 82
CHAPTER 6 PRINCIPLES OF PROBABILISTIC DESIGN 83
6.1 Introduction 83
6.1.1 Frequency Distribution and Mean Value 83
6.1.2 Standard Deviation 83
6.1.3 Probability Density Functions 84
6.1.4 Bias Factor 85
6.1.5 Coefficient of Variation 85
6.1.6 Probability of Failure 86
6.1.7 Safety Index β 87
6.2 Calibration of LRFD Code 89
6.2.1 Overview of the Calibration Process 89
6.2.2 Calibration Using Reliability Theory 89
6.2.3 Calibration of Fitting with ASD 93
6.3 Closing Remarks 94
References 94
Problems 94
CHAPTER 7 GEOMETRIC DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS 95
7.1 Introduction to Geometric Roadway Considerations 95
7.2 Roadway Widths 95
7.3 Vertical Clearances 96
7.4 Interchanges 96
References 97
Problem 97
PART II LOADS AND ANALYSIS
CHAPTER 8 LOADS 101
8.1 Introduction 101
8.2 Gravity Loads 101
8.2.1 Permanent Loads 101
8.2.2 Transient Loads 102
8.3 Lateral Loads 114
8.3.1 Fluid Forces 114
8.3.2 Seismic Loads 118
8.3.3 Ice Forces 122
8.4 Forces Due to Deformations 127
8.4.1 Temperature 127
8.4.2 Creep and Shrinkage 129
8.4.3 Settlement 129
8.5 Collision Loads 129
8.5.1 Vessel Collision 129
8.5.2 Rail Collision 129
8.5.3 Vehicle Collision 129
8.6 Blast Loading 129
8.7 Summary 130
References 130
Problems 131
CHAPTER 9 INFLUENCE FUNCTIONS AND GIRDER-LINE ANALYSIS 133
9.1 Introduction 133
9.2 Definition 133
9.3 Statically Determinate Beams 134
9.3.1 Concentrated Loads 134
9.3.2 Uniform Loads 136
9.4 Muller–Breslau Principle 137
9.4.1 Betti’s Theorem 137
9.4.2 Theory of Muller–Breslau Principle 138
9.4.3 Qualitative Influence Functions 139
9.5 Statically Indeterminate Beams 139
9.5.1 Integration of Influence Functions 142
9.5.2 Relationship between Influence Functions 143
9.5.3 Muller–Breslau Principle for End Moments 145
9.5.4 Automation by Matrix Structural Analysis 146
9.6 Normalized Influence Functions 147
9.7 AASHTO Vehicle Loads 149
9.8 Influence Surfaces 156
9.9 Summary 157
References 157
Problems 157
CHAPTER 10 SYSTEM ANALYSIS—INTRODUCTION 161
10.1 Introduction 161
10.2 Safety of Methods 162
10.2.1 Equilibriumfor Safe Design 162
10.2.2 Stress Reversal and Residual Stress 165
10.2.3 Repetitive Overloads 165
10.2.4 Fatigue and Serviceability 169
10.3 Summary 170
References 170
Problem 170
CHAPTER 11 SYSTEM ANALYSIS—GRAVITY LOADS 171
11.1 Slab–Girder Bridges 171
11.2 Slab Bridges 194
11.3 Slabs in Slab–Girder Bridges 198
11.4 Box-Girder Bridges 206
11.5 Closing Remarks 212
References 213
Problems 213
CHAPTER 12 SYSTEM ANALYSIS—LATERAL, TEMPERATURE, SHRINKAGE,
AND PRESTRESS LOADS 215
12.1 Lateral Load Analysis 215
12.1.1 Wind Loads 215
12.1.2 Seismic Load Analysis 216
12.2 Temperature, Shrinkage, and Prestress 221
12.2.1 General 221
12.2.2 Prestressing 221
12.2.3 Temperature Effects 222
12.2.4 Shrinkage and Creep 225
12.3 Closing Remarks 225
References 225
PART III CONCRETE BRIDGES
CHAPTER 13 REINFORCED CONCRETE MATERIAL RESPONSE AND PROPERTIES 229
13.1 Introduction 229
13.2 Reinforced and Prestressed Concrete Material Response 229
13.3 Constituents of Fresh Concrete 230
13.4 Properties of Hardened Concrete 232
13.4.1 Short-Term Properties of Concrete 232
13.4.2 Long-Term Properties of Concrete 238
13.5 Properties of Steel Reinforcement 242
13.5.1 Nonprestressed Steel Reinforcement 242
13.5.2 Prestressing Steel 244
References 246
Problems 246
CHAPTER 14 BEHAVIOR OF REINFORCED CONCRETE MEMBERS 249
14.1 Limit States 249
14.1.1 Service Limit State 249
14.1.2 Fatigue Limit State 252
14.1.3 Strength Limit State 255
14.1.4 Extreme Event Limit State 256
14.2 Flexural Strength of Reinforced Concrete Members 257
14.2.1 Depth to Neutral Axis for Beams with Bonded Tendons 257
14.2.2 Depth to Neutral Axis for Beams with Unbonded Tendons 259
14.2.3 Nominal Flexural Strength 260
14.2.4 Ductility,Maximum Tensile Reinforcement,
and Resistance Factor Adjustment 262
14.2.5 Minimum Tensile Reinforcement 264
14.2.6 Loss of Prestress 265
14.3 Shear Strength of Reinforced Concrete Members 270
14.3.1 Variable-Angle Truss Model 271
14.3.2 Modified Compression Field Theory 272
14.3.3 Shear Design Using Modified Compression Field Theory 278
14.4 Closing Remarks 289
References 289
Problems 290
CHAPTER 15 CONCRETE BARRIER STRENGTH AND DECK DESIGN 291
15.1 Concrete Barrier Strength 291
15.1.1 Strength of Uniform Thickness Barrier Wall 291
15.1.2 Strength of Variable Thickness Barrier Wall 293
15.1.3 Crash Testing of Barriers 293
15.2 Concrete Deck Design 293
References 311
Problems 311
CHAPTER 16 CONCRETE DESIGN EXAMPLES 313
16.1 Solid Slab Bridge Design 313
16.2 T-Beam Bridge Design 321
16.3 Prestressed Girder Bridge 340
References 359
PART IV STEEL BRIDGES
CHAPTER 17 STEEL BRIDGES 363
17.1 Introduction 363
17.2 Material Properties 363
17.2.1 Steelmaking Process: Traditional 363
17.2.2 Steelmaking Process: Mini Mills 365
17.2.3 Steelmaking Process: Environmental Considerations 365
17.2.4 Production of Finished Products 365
17.2.5 Residual Stresses 365
17.2.6 Heat Treatments 366
17.2.7 Classification of Structural Steels 366
17.2.8 Effects of Repeated Stress (Fatigue) 370
17.2.9 Brittle Fracture Considerations 372
17.3 Summary 374
References 374
Problem 375
CHAPTER 18 LIMIT STATES AND GENERAL REQUIREMENTS 377
18.1 Limit States 377
18.1.1 Service Limit State 377
18.1.2 Fatigue and Fracture Limit State 378
18.1.3 Strength Limit States 389
18.1.4 Extreme Event Limit State 389
18.2 General Design Requirements 390
18.2.1 Effective Length of Span 390
18.2.2 Dead-Load Camber 390
18.2.3 Minimum Thickness of Steel 390
18.2.4 Diaphragms and Cross Frames 390
18.2.5 Lateral Bracing 390
References 391
Problems 391
CHAPTER 19 STEEL COMPONENT RESISTANCE 393
19.1 Tensile Members 393
19.1.1 Types of Connections 393
19.1.2 Tensile Resistance—Specifications 393
19.1.3 Strength of Connections for Tension Members 396
19.2 Compression Members 396
19.2.1 Column Stability—Behavior 396
19.2.2 Inelastic Buckling—Behavior 398
19.2.3 Compressive Resistance—Specifications 399
19.2.4 Connections for Compression Members 401
19.3 I-Sections in Flexure 402
19.3.1 General 402
19.3.2 Yield Moment and Plastic Moment 405
19.3.3 Stability Related to Flexural Resistance 411
19.3.4 Limit States 421
19.3.5 Summary of I-Sections in Flexure 424
19.3.6 Closing Remarks on I-Sections in Flexure 424
19.4 Shear Resistance of I-Sections 427
19.4.1 Beam Action Shear Resistance 427
19.4.2 Tension Field Action Shear Resistance 429
19.4.3 Combined Shear Resistance 431
19.4.4 Shear Resistance of UnstiffenedWebs 432
19.5 Shear Connectors 432
19.5.1 Fatigue Limit State for Stud Connectors 433
19.5.2 Strength Limit State for Stud Connectors 434
19.6 Stiffeners 438
19.6.1 Transverse Intermediate Stiffeners 438
19.6.2 Bearing Stiffeners 440
References 441
Problems 442
CHAPTER 20 STEEL DESIGN EXAMPLES 443
20.1 Noncomposite Rolled Steel Beam Bridge 443
20.2 Composite Rolled Steel Beam Bridge 452
20.3 Multiple-Span Composite Steel Plate Girder Beam Bridge 461
References 499
APPENDIX A INFLUENCE FUNCTIONS FOR DECK ANALYSIS 501
APPENDIX B TRANSVERSE DECK MOMENTS PER AASHTO APPENDIX A4 503
APPENDIX C METAL REINFORCEMENT INFORMATION 505
APPENDIX D REFINED ESTIMATE OF TIME-DEPENDENT LOSSES 507
References 512
APPENDIX E NCHRP 12-33 PROJECT TEAM 513
Task Groups 513
APPENDIX F LIVE-LOAD DISTRIBUTION—RIGIDMETHOD 515
INDEX 517