Developing Academic Language with the SIOP Model

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  • Edition: 1st
  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 4/1/2015
  • Publisher: Pearson

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In Developing Academic Language with the SIOP® Model, teachers and teacher candidates get an informative look at how to use the highly effective SIOP Model to design effective lessons that meet high standards, while scaffolding content information and promoting language skills and development for all students—English learners and native English speakers alike—in today’s age of the Common Core and other state standards. The focus is on ways to develop and advance English learners’ proficiency in academic English across all grades and all subjects so they are able to access and acquire information related to academic topics; communicate and produce information in academic contexts; and create and extend knowledge through linguistic, conceptual, and sociocultural choices. The book is packed with practical guidelines, activities, techniques, and sample lessons.

Author Biography

Deborah J. Short, Ph.D., directs Academic Language Research & Training, a consulting company, and provides professional development on sheltered instruction and academic literacy worldwide. Formerly she was a Division Director at the Center for Applied Linguistics, Washington, DC where she co-developed the research-validated SIOP Model for sheltered instruction. She has directed numerous research studies on English language learners funded by the Carnegie Corporation of New York, the Rockefeller Foundation, and the U.S. Department of Education, among others. Her publications include journal articles, the SIOP Model book series, and several ESL textbook series for National Geographic Learning/Cengage. She taught English as a second/foreign language in New York, California, Virginia, and the Democratic Republic of the Congo.


Jana Echevarría, Ph.D., is Professor Emerita at California State University, Long Beach where she was selected as Outstanding Professor. She has taught in elementary, middle, and high school in general education, special education, ESL, and bilingual programs. An internationally known expert on second language learners, her research and publications focus on effective instruction for English learners, including those with learning disabilities. She has presented her research across the U.S. and internationally including Oxford University (England), Wits University (South Africa), Harvard University (U.S.), South East Europe University (Macedonia), and University of Barcelona (Spain). A founding researcher of the Sheltered Instruction Observational Protocol, commonly known as SIOP, her publications include over 50 books, book chapters and journal articles.


Table of Contents

Chapter 1       Understanding Academic Language: A Second Language for All

Defining Academic Language
Social and Academic Language
Characteristics of Academic Language

Academic Language in the Common Core and Next Generation Standards
Using Academic Language to Meet Standards

What Teachers Need to Know About Teaching Academic Language to English Learners

Addressing Academic Language With the SIOP Model


        Questions for Reflection

Chapter 2       Maximizing Language Development in Lessons

Lesson Preparation
Language objectives defined
Meaningful activities

Building Background
Vocabulary emphasized

Comprehensible Input
Appropriate teacher speech

Explicit teaching of learning strategies
Scaffolding techniques
Variety of questions for higher-order thinking

Frequent opportunities for interaction and elaboration
Grouping configurations that support the language objective
Native language use for clarification

Practice & Application
Activities to apply content and language knowledge
Activities that integrate all language skills

Lesson Delivery
Language objectives supported

Review & Assessment
Review of key vocabulary
Regular feedback on student output
Assessment of student comprehension


Questions for Reflection

Chapter 3       Strengthening Language Objectives

Basic Guidelines for Identifying and Incorporating Objectives in SIOP Lessons

Recognizing Language Objectives

Categories of Language Objectives

Language Targets

Identifying Language Objectives from Text, Talk, Tasks, and Tests
Language Targets in Text
Language Targets in Talk
Language Targets in Tasks
Language Targets in Tests

Writing Language Objectives

Meeting Language Objectives
Differentiate Instruction Not Language Objectives


Questions for Reflection

Chapter 4       Building Academic Vocabulary

Academic Vocabulary Development
Word Selection
Word Instruction
Extensive Word Practice
Word Learning Strategies
Word Consciousness

Application to Common Core Standards


Questions for Reflection

Chapter 5       Enhancing Academic Oral Language

Academic Oral Language Development
A Positive, Respectful, and Communal Classroom Environment
Interesting Topics for Discussion
Active Listening
Scaffolds for Expressing Ideas
Authentic Academic Language Models
Multiple Opportunities for Practice
Less Teacher Talk

Application to Common Core Standards


Chapter 6       Promoting Collaborative Academic Discussions

Benefits of Collaborative Academic Discussions

Making Collaborative Academic Discussions Work
Rules for Discussion
Formats of Academic Discussions Aligned to Lesson Objectives
Teacher Questions to Stimulate Academic Discussions
Student Questioning
Oral Discourse Linked to Reading and Writing
Student Accountability

Application to Common Core Standards


Questions for Reflection

Chapter 7       Advancing Academic Language Proficiency

How Do We Advance Our Students Academic English Skills?

A Framework for Academic Language

Diagnose Gaps in Academic English Knowledge and Performance and Monitor Regularly

Plan Interventions

Ramp Up Language Objectives

Deepen Vocabulary Knowledge

Extend Oral Language Practice Opportunities

Apply Oral Language and Vocabulary Knowledge to Academic Writing

Application to Common Core Standards


Questions for Reflection

Appendix A   SIOP Protocol (short form)

Appendix B    Alignment of SIOP and Common Core State Standards

Appendix C   SIOP Books and Resources

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