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Diagnosis and Troubleshooting of Automotive Electrical, Electronic, and Computer Systems,9780130799791
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Diagnosis and Troubleshooting of Automotive Electrical, Electronic, and Computer Systems

by ;
Edition:
3rd
ISBN13:

9780130799791

ISBN10:
0130799793
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
1/1/2001
Publisher(s):
PRENTICE HALL
List Price: $95.00
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Summary

For courses in Automotive Electrical Systems and Electronics, Engine Performance and Tune-Ups, and Emissions Testing. Comprehensive, yet easy-to-read, this text presents principles and practices of diagnosis and troubleshooting of automotive electrical, electronic, and computer systems in a clear, concise format and at a level of detail that far exceeds most similar texts. Additionally, an accompanying interactive, multi-media CD-ROM brings to life the sights and sounds of the ?whys? and ?hows? of all phases of diagnosis and troubleshooting.

Table of Contents

Preface xviii
Acknowledgments xix
Electrical System Principles
1(17)
Objectives
1(1)
Electricity
1(1)
The Atom and Electrons
1(1)
Electron Orbits
2(1)
Energy Levels
3(1)
Conductors
3(1)
How Conductor Resistance Increases with Heat
3(1)
Insulators
4(1)
Semiconductors
4(1)
Current Electricity
4(1)
How Electrons Move through a Conductor
4(1)
Conventional Theory versus Electron Theory
4(1)
Amperes
5(1)
Volts
5(1)
Ohms
5(1)
Principles of Conductors and Resistance
6(1)
Resistors
6(1)
Variable Resistors
7(1)
Sources of Direct-Current Electricity
7(1)
Capacitors
7(3)
Comparison Between a Capacitor and a Water Tower
10(1)
Magnetism
11(1)
What Makes a Magnet Magnetic
11(1)
Classification of Magnetic Materials
11(1)
Electromagnetism
12(1)
Magnetic Fields in a Coil of Wire
12(1)
Magnetic Field Strength
13(1)
Reluctance
13(1)
Electromagnetic Uses
13(1)
Electromagnetic Switches
13(1)
How an Electromagnetic Switch Works
13(1)
Relays and Solenoids
14(1)
Residual Magnetism
14(1)
Electromagnetic Induction
14(1)
Self-Induction
15(1)
Mutual Induction
15(2)
Summary
17(1)
Review Questions
17(1)
ASE Certification-Type Questions
17(1)
Electrical Circuits and Ohm's Law
18(17)
Objectives
18(1)
Circuits
18(1)
Parts of a Complete Circuit
18(1)
Open Circuits
19(1)
Short-to-Voltage
19(1)
Short-to-Ground
20(1)
Chasis Ground
21(1)
One-Wire Systems
21(1)
How The One-Wire System Can Cause Problems
22(1)
Series Circuits
22(1)
Parallel Circuits
23(1)
How to Determine a Parallel Circuit
24(1)
Where Parallel Circuits Are Used in a Vehicle
24(1)
Series-Parallel Circuits
24(1)
The Four Basic Automotive Circuits
24(1)
Ohm's Law
24(1)
Ohm's Law Applied To Simple Circuits
25(1)
Watts
26(1)
Ohm's Law and Series Circuits
26(1)
Farsighted Quality of Electricity
27(1)
Series Circuits and Voltage Drops
27(1)
Kirchhoff's Voltage Law
27(1)
Applying Kirchhoff's Voltage Law
28(1)
Use of Voltage Drops
28(1)
Voltage Drops as a Testing Method
29(1)
Current Flow through Parallel Circuits
29(1)
Kirchhoff's Current Law
29(1)
Determining Total Resistance in a Parallel Circuit
29(4)
Magic Circle
33(1)
Summary
33(1)
Review Questions
33(1)
ASE Certification-Type Questions
34(1)
Fundamentals of Electronics
35(17)
Objectives
35(1)
Semiconductors
35(1)
N-Type Material
35(1)
P-Type Material
36(1)
How Holes Move
36(1)
Summary of Semiconductors
36(1)
Diodes
36(1)
Zener Diodes
37(1)
Clamping Diodes
38(1)
Zener Diode Despiking Protection
39(1)
Despiking Resistors
39(1)
Diode Ratings
39(1)
Light-Emitting Diodes
40(1)
Photodiodes
40(1)
Photoresistors
41(1)
Varistors
41(1)
Silicon-Controlled Rectifiers
41(1)
Thermistors
42(1)
Rectifier Bridges
42(1)
Passive and Active Circuits
42(1)
Transistors
42(1)
How a Transistor Works
43(1)
How a Transistor Amplifies
43(1)
Field-Effect Transistors
44(1)
Darlington Pairs
44(1)
Transistor Gain
44(1)
Solid-Stae, Integrated-Circuit, and Dual Inline Package Components
45(1)
Heat Sink
45(1)
Phototransistors
45(1)
Solar Cells
45(1)
How to Test Diodes and Transistors
46(1)
Transistor Gates
46(1)
Logic Highs and Lows
47(1)
Transistor-Transistor Logic
47(1)
Operational Amplifiers
48(1)
Polarity
48(1)
Electronic Component Failure Causes
48(1)
Electrostatic Discharge
49(1)
Summary
50(1)
Review Questions
50(1)
ASE Certification-Type Questions
51(1)
Electrical and Electronic Test Equipment
52(36)
Objectives
52(1)
Test Lights
52(1)
Continuity Test Lights
53(1)
LED Test Light
53(1)
Logic Probe
54(1)
Digital Multimeters
54(1)
Measuring Amperes
54(3)
AC/DC Clamp-On Digital Multimeter
57(1)
Measuring Voltage
57(1)
Measuring Resistance
58(3)
Electrical Unit Prefixes
61(2)
How to Read Digital Meters
63(2)
RMS versus Average
65(1)
Resolution, Digits, and Counts
65(1)
Accuracy
66(2)
Analog versus Digital Storage Oscilloscope
68(1)
Oscilloscope Display Grid
68(1)
Setting the Time Base
69(1)
Setting the Volts per Division
70(1)
AC Coupling
70(1)
DC Coupling
71(1)
Pulse Trains
71(3)
Using Scope Leads
74(1)
Measuring Battery Voltage with a Scope
74(1)
Scope Probe Attenuation
74(1)
Adjusting Scope Probe Compensation
74(13)
Summary
87(1)
Review Questions
87(1)
ASE Certification-Type Questions
87(1)
Wiring, Circuit Diagrams, and Troubleshooting
88(33)
Objectives
88(1)
Automotive Wiring
88(1)
American Wire Gauge
88(1)
Metric Wire Gauge
89(1)
Braided Ground Straps
89(1)
Wire and Cable
90(1)
Battery Cables
90(1)
Jumper Cables
90(1)
Fuses
90(1)
Glass Fuses
91(1)
Blade Fuses
92(1)
Mini Fuses
92(1)
Maxi Fuses
93(1)
Testing Fuses
93(1)
Circuit Breakers
93(1)
PTC Circuit Protectors
94(1)
Fusible Links
95(1)
Terminals and Connectors
95(2)
Wire Repair
97(2)
Wiring Diagrams and Schematics
99(2)
Switches
101(1)
Relay Terminal Identification
101(1)
Using Wiring Diagrams for Troubleshooting
102(3)
European Wiring Codes
105(1)
Japanese Wiring Codes
106(1)
Locating a Short Circuit
106(1)
Electrical Troubleshooting Guide
107(13)
Summary
120(1)
Review Questions
120(1)
ASE Certification-Type Questions
120(1)
Batteries and Battery Testing
121(27)
Objectives
121(1)
Purpose of a Battery
121(1)
Battery Construction
121(1)
Grids
122(2)
How a Battery Works
124(1)
During Discharging
124(1)
The Fully Discharged State
124(1)
During Charging
125(1)
Specific Gravity
125(1)
Charge Indicators
126(1)
Specific Gravity versus State of Charge and Battery Voltage
126(1)
Causes and Types of Battery Failure
126(1)
Battery Hold-Downs
127(1)
Battery Ratings
127(1)
Deep Cycling
127(1)
Hybrid Batteries
127(1)
Battery Council International Group Sizes
127(2)
Battery Service Safety Considerations
129(1)
Battery Maintenance
130(1)
Battery Voltage Test
131(2)
Hydrometer Testing
133(2)
Battery Load Testing
135(1)
Capacitance Testing
135(1)
Battery Charging
136(1)
Jump-Starting
137(1)
Battery Date Codes
137(1)
Battery Electrical Drain Test
137(1)
Procedure for Battery Electrical Drain Test
137(3)
Finding the Source of the Drain
140(1)
What to Do if a Battery Drain Still Exists after All the Fuses Are Disconnected
140(1)
Hidden Batteries
140(1)
Battery Troubleshooting Guide
141(1)
Summary
141(6)
Review Questions
147(1)
ASE Certification-Type Questions
147(1)
Cranking System Operation and Diagnosis
148(28)
Objectives
148(1)
Cranking Circuit
148(1)
How the Starter Motor Works
149(1)
How Magnetic Fields Turn an Armature
150(1)
Types of Starter Motors
151(1)
Gear-Reduction Starters
152(1)
Starter Drives
152(2)
Symptoms of a Defective Starter Drive
154(1)
Starter Drive Operation
154(1)
Positive-Engagement Starters
154(1)
Solenoid-Operated Starters
155(1)
Starting System Troubleshooting
156(1)
Voltage-Drop Testing
156(3)
Control Circuit Testing
159(1)
Specifications for a Starter Amperage Test
159(2)
Starter Overhaul
161(1)
Testing Starter Armatures
162(1)
Growler Test for Shorted Armature Windings
162(2)
Testing the Armature for Grounds
164(1)
Testing the Armature for Opens
164(1)
Armature Service
165(1)
Testing Starter Motor Field Coils
165(1)
Starter Brush Inspection
166(1)
Bench Testing
166(1)
Starter Drive-to-Flywheel Clearance
166(1)
Ground Wire Current Flow
167(1)
Starting System Troubleshooting Guide
167(7)
Summary
174(1)
Review Questions
174(1)
ASE Certification-Type Questions
174(2)
Charging System Operation and Diagnosis
176(45)
Objectives
176(1)
Principles of Generator Operation
176(1)
Alternating-Current Generators (Alternators)
176(1)
Generator Construction
176(1)
Rotors
177(1)
Generator Brushes
178(1)
Stators
178(1)
Diodes
178(1)
How a Generator Works
179(1)
Wye-Connected Stators
180(1)
Delta-Connected Stators
181(1)
Generator Output Factors
181(1)
Generator Voltage Regulation
182(1)
Battery Condition and Charging Voltage
182(1)
Temperature Compensation
183(1)
A and B Field Circuits
183(1)
Electronic Voltage Regulators
183(1)
How an Electronic Voltage Regulator Works
183(1)
Computer-Controlled Generators
184(1)
Charging System Testing and Service
185(3)
AC Voltage Check
188(2)
Charging System Voltage-Drop Testing
190(1)
General Motors SI Test Light Test
191(2)
General Motors CS Series AC Generators
193(1)
Diagnosing Problems with the General Motors CS Series
194(1)
Generator Output Test
194(2)
How to Determine Minimum Required Generator Output
196(1)
Generator Disassembly
197(1)
Testing the Rotor
197(2)
Testing the Stator
199(1)
Testing the Diode Trio
200(1)
Testing the Rectifier Bridge (Diodes)
200(1)
Testing the GM Internal Voltage Regulator
201(1)
Brush Holder Replacement
201(1)
Bearing Service and Replacement
202(1)
Generator Assembly
202(1)
Remanufactured Generators
202(1)
Generator Drawings
203(12)
Summary
215(5)
Review Questions
220(1)
ASE Certification-Type Questions
220(1)
Lighting and Signaling Circuit Operation and Diagnosis
221(16)
Objectives
221(1)
Lighting
221(1)
Bulb Numbers
221(3)
#1157 Bulbs versus #2057 Bulbs
224(1)
Brake Lights
224(1)
Headlight Switches
225(1)
Removing a Headlight Switch
225(1)
Sealed-Beam Headlights
226(1)
Headlight Aiming
227(1)
Composite Headlights
227(1)
Halogen Sealed-Beam Headlights
227(1)
High-Intensity Discharge Headlights
227(1)
Daytime Running Lights
228(1)
Dimmer Switches
229(1)
Turn (Directional) Signals
229(3)
Hazard Flashers
232(1)
Courtesy Lights
232(1)
Illuminated Entry
233(1)
Fiber Optics
233(1)
Feedback
233(1)
Feedback Example
233(1)
Lighting System Troubleshooting Guide
234(1)
Summary
235(1)
Review Questions
235(1)
ASE Certification-Type Questions
236(1)
Dash Instruments Operation and Diagnosis
237(17)
Objectives
237(1)
Analog Dash Instruments
237(1)
Computer-Controlled Instrument Panels
238(1)
Dash Instrument Diagnosis
238(3)
Telltale Lamps
241(1)
Oil Pressure Lamp Diagnosis
241(1)
Temperature Lamp Diagnosis
241(1)
Brake Warning Lamp
242(1)
Digital Electronic Dash Operation
242(2)
The ``Wow'' Display
244(1)
Electronic Speedometers
245(1)
Electronic Odometers
245(1)
Electronic Speedometer and Odometer Service
246(2)
Electronic Fuel-Level Gauges
248(1)
Electronic Dash Instrument Diagnosis and Troubleshooting
248(2)
Maintenance Reminder Lamps
250(1)
Summary
250(1)
Review Questions
250(3)
ASE Certification-Type Questions
253(1)
Accessory Circuits Operation and Diagnosis
254(27)
Objectives
254(1)
Blower Motor Operation
254(1)
Blower Motor Diagnosis
254(1)
Windshield Wipers
255(3)
Horns
258(1)
Horn Diagnosis
258(1)
Cruise Control
258(2)
Basic Cruise Control Operation
260(1)
Noncomputer-Controlled Resume-Type Cruise Control
260(1)
Computer-Controlled Cruise Control
260(1)
Troubleshooting Cruise Control
260(1)
Power Windows
260(1)
Troubleshooting Power Windows
261(1)
Power Seats
262(2)
Troubleshooting Power Seats
264(1)
What Every Driver Should Know About Power Seats
264(1)
Electric Power Door Locks
264(1)
Heated Rear-Window Defoggers
264(2)
Troubleshooting a Heated Rear-Window Defogger
266(1)
Cellular Telephones
267(1)
Troubleshooting and Servicing Cellular Telephones
267(1)
Airbags
267(5)
Electrical Accessory Troubleshooting Guide
272(7)
Summary
279(1)
Review Questions
280(1)
ASE Certification-Type Questions
280(1)
Audio System Operation and Diagnosis
281(10)
Objectives
281(1)
Radios
281(1)
Antennas
282(1)
Antenna Testing
282(1)
Power Antennas
282(1)
Speakers
283(2)
Speakers Types
285(1)
Crossovers
285(1)
Powerline Capacitor
286(1)
Radio Interference
287(2)
Audio Noise Control Diagnostic Chart
289(1)
Summary
290(1)
Review Questions
290(1)
ASE Certification-Type Questions
290(1)
Ignition System Operation
291(21)
Objectives
291(1)
Ignition System Operation
291(1)
Ignition Coils
291(2)
Self-Induction
293(1)
Mutual Induction
293(1)
How Ignition Coils Create 40,000 Volts
293(1)
Electronic Ignition Principles of Operation
293(2)
Pickup Coil (Pulse Generators)
295(1)
Hall Effect Sensors
295(1)
Magnetic Crankshaft Position Sensors
296(1)
Optical Sensors
297(1)
Waste Spark Ignition Systems
298(1)
Coil-on-Plug Ignition
298(1)
General Motors HEI Electronic Ignition
298(2)
General Motors Hall Effect Sensor-Triggered Ignitions
300(1)
General Motors Magnetic Sensor-Triggered Ignitions
301(1)
Ford Electronic Ignition
302(2)
Ford Thick Film Integrated Ignition
304(1)
Ford Module Identification
305(2)
Operation of Ford Electronic Ignition
307(1)
Ford DIS and EDIS
307(1)
Chrysler Electronic Ignition
307(1)
Chrysler Ballast Resistor
308(1)
Chrysler Waste Spark Ignition
308(1)
Chrysler Coil-over-Plug Ignition
308(2)
Computer-Controlled Ignition Timing
310(1)
Summary
310(1)
Review Questions
310(1)
ASE Certification-Type Questions
310(2)
Ignition System Diagnosis and Troubleshooting
312(33)
Objectives
312(1)
Checking for Spark
312(1)
Electronic Ignition Troubleshooting Procedure
313(1)
Coil-on-Plug Diagnosis
314(1)
Ignition Coil Testing
314(1)
Condenser Testing
315(1)
Pickup Coil Testing
316(1)
Ignition Module Testing
316(1)
Distributorless Ignition Testing
317(2)
Testing for Poor Performance
319(1)
Testing for a No-Start Condition
320(2)
Ignition System Service
322(1)
Distributor Cap Inspection
322(1)
Spark Plug Wire Inspection
323(1)
Firing Order
323(2)
Ignition System Silicone Greases
325(1)
Spark Plug Service
326(3)
Original-Equipment Spark Plugs
329(1)
Quick-and-Easy Secondary Ignition Tests
330(2)
Ignition Timing
332(1)
Pretiming Checks
332(1)
Timing Light Connections
332(1)
Determining the #1 Cylinder
333(1)
Checking or Adjusting Ignition Timing
334(1)
Magnetic Timing
335(1)
Mechanical Timing Advance
335(2)
Vacuum Timing Advance
337(1)
Computerized Timing Advance
337(1)
Ignition System Troubleshooting Guide
337(7)
Summary
344(1)
Review Questions
344(1)
ASE Certification-Type Questions
344(1)
Oscilloscope Testing
345(17)
Objectives
345(1)
Scope Testing the Ignition System
345(1)
Connecting the Scope Leads
345(1)
How to Read a Scope Pattern
346(1)
Firing Line
347(1)
Spark Line
348(1)
Intermediate Oscillations
348(1)
Transistor-On Point
348(2)
Dwell Section
350(1)
Primary Pattern
350(1)
Scope Pattern Analysis
350(1)
Pattern Selection
350(1)
Reading the Scope on Display (Parade)
351(1)
Examples of Firing Line Problems
351(1)
Reading the Spark Lines
352(1)
Spark Line Slope
353(1)
Reading the Intermediate Section
353(1)
Electronic Ignition and the Dwell Section
354(1)
Dwell Variation (Electronic Ignition)
354(1)
Coil Testing
355(1)
Acceleration Check
355(1)
Rotor Gap Voltage
355(1)
Scope-Testing a Waste Spark Ignition System
355(1)
Paired Cylinders
355(1)
Power Balance Test
356(1)
Power Balancing a Computer-Equipped Engine
357(1)
Scope-Testing Generators
357(1)
Other Scope Tests
358(1)
Dual-Trace Bench Scopes
358(1)
Frequency
359(1)
Duty Cycle
359(1)
Pulse Width
359(1)
Summary
360(1)
Review Questions
360(1)
ASE Certification-Type Questions
361(1)
Computer Fundamentals and Operation
362(10)
Objectives
362(1)
Computer Operation
362(1)
Purpose of the Computer Engine Management System
362(1)
Inputs
363(1)
Outputs
364(3)
Computer Wiring and Circuits
367(1)
Binary Numbers
368(1)
Open-Loop and Closed-Loop Operation
368(1)
Static Electricity Precautions
369(1)
Radio-Frequency Interference
369(1)
Testing Computers
370(1)
Summary
370(1)
Review Questions
371(1)
ASE Certification-Type Questions
371(1)
Computer Sensor Operation and Diagnosis
372(23)
Objectives
372(1)
Engine Coolant Temperature Sensor
372(2)
Manifold Absolute Pressure Sensor
374(1)
Barometric Pressure Sensor
375(1)
Throttle Position Sensor
375(3)
Oxygen Sensor
378(5)
Intake Air Temperature Sensor
383(1)
Airflow Sensor
384(1)
Testing the Mass Airflow Sensor
385(9)
Summary
394(1)
Review Questions
394(1)
ASE Certification-Type Questions
394(1)
Computer-Controlled Carburetor Operation and Diagnosis
395(16)
Objectives
395(1)
Mechanical Fuel Pump
395(1)
Fuel System Operation
396(1)
Computerized Carburetors
396(5)
Choke Operation and Service
401(3)
Idle Mixture Screw Adjustment
404(1)
Feedback Carburetor Mixture Control
405(2)
Idle Speed Control
407(1)
Summary
407(3)
Review Questions
410(1)
ASE Certification-Type Questions
410(1)
Electronic Fuel-Injection Operation and Diagnosis
411(22)
Objectives
411(1)
Electronic Fuel-Injection Operation
411(4)
Throttle-Body Injection
415(2)
Port Fuel Injection
417(7)
Idle Air Speed Control
424(8)
Summary
432(1)
Review Questions
432(1)
ASE Certification-Type Questions
432(1)
Emission Control Device Operation and Diagnosis
433(18)
Objectives
433(1)
Positive Crankcase Ventilation (PCV) System
434(1)
PCV System performance Check
434(1)
Air-Pump System
435(3)
Air-Pump System Diagnosis
438(1)
Evaporative Emission Control System
438(1)
Exhaust Gas Recirculation System
439(5)
Catalytic Converters
444(4)
Summary
448(2)
Review Questions
450(1)
ASE Certification-Type Questions
450(1)
Engine Performance Diagnosis
451(39)
Objectives
451(1)
The Eight-Step Diagnostic Procedure
451(10)
Diagnosing Using Diagnostic Trouble Codes
461(3)
OBD II
464(2)
Exhaust Analysis and Combustion Efficiency
466(2)
I/M 240
468(9)
Summary
477(1)
Review Questions
477(1)
ASE Certification-Type Questions
477(2)
APPENDIXES
1 Sample ASE Certification Test: Electrical/Electronic Systems(A6)
479(4)
2 Sample ASE Certification Test: Engine Performance (A8)
483(7)
Answers to Even-Numbered ASE Certification-Type Questions 490(1)
Glossary 491(6)
Index 497


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