Preface 

xvii  


xxi  


1  (32) 


2  (3) 

Digital and Analog Sources and Systems 


5  (1) 

Deterministic and Random Waveforms 


6  (1) 


6  (1) 

Use of a Personal Computer and MATLAB 


7  (1) 

Block Diagram of a Communication System 


8  (2) 


10  (2) 

Propagation of Electromagnetic Waves 


12  (4) 


16  (2) 

Channel Capacity and Ideal Communication Systems 


18  (1) 


19  (10) 


20  (2) 


22  (3) 


25  (1) 


25  (3) 


28  (1) 


29  (1) 


29  (4) 


30  (3) 


33  (95) 

Properties of Signals and Noise 


33  (10) 

Physically Realizable Waveforms 


34  (1) 


35  (1) 


36  (1) 


37  (2) 

Rms Value and Normalized Power 


39  (1) 

Energy and Power Waveforms 


40  (1) 


40  (2) 


42  (1) 

Fourier Transform and Spectra 


43  (18) 


43  (3) 

Properties of Fourier Transforms 


46  (2) 

Parseval's Theorem and Energy Spectral Density 


48  (3) 

Dirac Delta Function and Unit Step Function 


51  (3) 

Rectangular and TriangularPulses 


54  (4) 


58  (3) 

Power Spectral Density and Autocorrelation Function 


61  (4) 


61  (2) 


63  (2) 

Orthogonal Series Representation of Signals and Noise 


65  (3) 


65  (2) 


67  (1) 


68  (11) 


68  (2) 

Quadrature Fourier Series 


70  (1) 


71  (2) 

Line Spectra for Periodic Waveforms 


73  (4) 

Power Spectral Density for Periodic Waveforms 


77  (2) 


79  (7) 

Linear TimeInvariant Systems 


79  (1) 


79  (1) 


80  (3) 

Distoritionless Transmission 


83  (1) 

Distortion of Audio, Video, and Data Signals 


84  (2) 

Bandlimited Signals and Noise 


86  (8) 


86  (1) 


87  (3) 

Impulse Sampling and Digital Signal Processing (DSP) 


90  (3) 


93  (1) 

Discrete Fourier Transform 


94  (7) 

Using the DFT to Compute the Continuous Fourier Transform 


95  (5) 

Using the DFT to Compute the Fourier Series 


100  (1) 


101  (9) 


110  (1) 


110  (18) 


115  (13) 

Baseband Pulse and Digital Signaling 


128  (102) 


128  (1) 

Pulse Amplitude Modulation 


129  (8) 

Natural Sampling (Gating) 


129  (4) 

Instantaneous Sampling (FlatTop PAM) 


133  (4) 


137  (15) 

Sampling, Quantizing, and Encoding 


138  (1) 


138  (4) 


142  (1) 


143  (4) 

Nonuniform Quantizing: μLaw and ALaw Companding 


147  (4) 

V.90 56kb/s PCM Computer Modem 


151  (1) 


152  (8) 


153  (2) 


155  (1) 


156  (2) 


158  (2) 


160  (20) 


160  (3) 

Power Spectra for Binary Line Codes 


163  (6) 


169  (1) 


170  (1) 


171  (2) 


173  (3) 

Power Spectra for Multilevel Polar NRZ Signals 


176  (3) 


179  (1) 


180  (8) 

Nyquist's First Method (Zero ISI) 


182  (1) 

Raised CosineRolloff Nyquist Filtering 


183  (5) 

Nyquist's Second and Third Methods for Control of ISI 


188  (1) 

Differential Pulse Code Modulation 


188  (4) 


192  (7) 

Granular Noise and Slope Overload Noise 


194  (3) 

Adaptive Delta Modulation and Continuously Variable Slope Delta Modulation 


197  (2) 


199  (1) 

TimeDivision Multiplexing 


199  (14) 


200  (2) 

Synchronous and Asynchronous Lines 


202  (4) 


206  (5) 


211  (2) 

Packet Transmission System 


213  (1) 

Pulse Time Modulation: Pulse Width Modulation and Pulse Position Modulation 


213  (2) 


215  (3) 


218  (12) 


221  (9) 

Bandpass Signaling Principles and Circuits 


230  (72) 

Complex Envelope Representation of Bandpass Waveforms 


230  (3) 

Definitions: Baseband, Bandpass, and Modulation 


231  (1) 

Complex Envelope Representation 


231  (2) 

Representation of Modulated Signals 


233  (1) 

Spectrum of Bandpass Signals 


234  (3) 


237  (3) 

Bandpass Filtering and Linear Distortion 


240  (4) 

Equivalent LowPass Filter 


240  (2) 


242  (2) 

Bandpass Sampling Theorem 


244  (1) 

Received Signal Plus Noise 


245  (1) 

Classification of Filters and Amplifiers 


246  (5) 


246  (4) 


250  (1) 


251  (5) 


256  (1) 

Mixers, Up Converters, and Down Converters 


257  (6) 


263  (2) 


265  (8) 


265  (1) 


266  (2) 

Frequency Modulation Detector 


268  (5) 

PhaseLocked Loops and Frequency Synthesizers 


273  (8) 


281  (1) 

Transmitters and Receivers 


281  (7) 


281  (2) 

Generalized Receiver: The Superheterodyne Receiver 


283  (4) 


287  (1) 


288  (1) 


288  (1) 


289  (1) 


289  (13) 


295  (7) 

AM, FM, and Digital Modulated Systems 


302  (93) 


303  (5) 

AM Broadcast Technical Standards 


308  (1) 

DoubleSideband Suppressed Carrier 


309  (1) 

Costas Loop and Squaring Loop 


310  (2) 

Asymmetric Sideband Signals 


312  (6) 


312  (4) 


316  (2) 

Phase Modulation and Frequency Modulation 


318  (15) 

Representation of PM and FM Signals 


318  (5) 

Spectra of AngleModulated Signals 


323  (5) 

Narrowband Angle Modulation 


328  (1) 

Wideband Frequency Modulation 


329  (4) 

Preemphasis and Deemphasis in AngleModulated Systems 


333  (1) 

FrequencyDivision Multiplexing and FM Stereo 


333  (4) 

FM Broadcast Technical Standards 


337  (1) 

Binary Modulated Bandpass Signaling 


337  (15) 


340  (3) 

BinaryPhaseShift Keying (BPSK) 


343  (1) 

Differential PhaseShift Keying (DPSK) 


344  (1) 

FrequencyShift Keying (FSK) 


345  (7) 

Multilevel Modulated Bandpass Signaling 


352  (8) 

Quadrature PhaseShift Keying (QPSK) and Mary PhaseShift Keying (MPSK) 


352  (3) 

Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (QAM) 


355  (1) 


356  (1) 

PSD for MPSK, QAM, QPSK, OQPSK and π/4 QPSK 


357  (2) 

Spectral Efficiency for MPSK, QAM, QPSK, OQPSK, and π/4 QPSK with Raised Cosine Filtering 


359  (1) 

MinimumShift Keying (MSK) and GMSK 


360  (5) 

Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) 


365  (5) 


370  (7) 


371  (6) 


377  (1) 


377  (2) 


379  (16) 


382  (13) 

Random Processes and Spectral Analysis 


395  (77) 


396  (9) 


396  (1) 

Stationarity and Ergodicity 


397  (4) 

Correlation Functions and WideSense Stationarity 


401  (2) 


403  (2) 


405  (13) 


405  (1) 

WienerKhintchine Theorem 


406  (3) 


409  (4) 

General Formula for the PSD of Digital Signals 


413  (3) 


416  (1) 


417  (1) 

Dc and Rms Values for Ergodic Random Processes 


418  (2) 


420  (5) 

InputOutput Relationships 


420  (5) 


425  (2) 


425  (1) 


425  (2) 

The Gaussian Random Process 


427  (4) 

Properties of Gaussian Processes 


428  (3) 


431  (14) 


431  (4) 

Properties of WSS Bandpass Processes 


435  (4) 

Proofs of Some Properties 


439  (6) 


445  (10) 


445  (2) 


447  (3) 


450  (2) 

Transversal Matched Filter 


452  (3) 


455  (2) 

Appendix: Proof of Schwarz's Inequality 


457  (2) 


459  (13) 


462  (10) 

Performance of Communication Systems Corrupted by Noise 


472  (75) 

Error Probabilities for Binary Signaling 


473  (6) 


473  (2) 

Results for Gaussian Noise 


475  (2) 

Results for White Gaussian Noise and MatchedFilter Reception 


477  (1) 

Results for Colored Gaussian Noise and MatchedFilter Reception 


478  (1) 

Performance of Baseband Binary Systems 


479  (5) 


479  (3) 


482  (1) 


482  (2) 

Coherent Detection of Bandpass Binary Signals 


484  (6) 


484  (2) 

BinaryPhaseShift Keying 


486  (1) 


487  (3) 

Noncoherent Detection of Bandpass Binary Signals 


490  (8) 


490  (4) 


494  (2) 

Differential PhaseShift Keying 


496  (2) 

Quadrature PhaseShift Keying and MinimumShift Keying 


498  (2) 

Comparison of Digital Signaling Systems 


500  (4) 

Bit Error Rate and Bandwidth 


500  (2) 

Symbol Error and Bit Error for Multilevel Signaling 


502  (1) 


503  (1) 

Output SignaltoNoise Ratio for PCM Systems 


504  (6) 

Output SignaltoNoise Ratios for Analog Systems 


510  (17) 

Comparison with Baseband Systems 


510  (1) 

AM Systems with Product Detection 


511  (2) 

AM Systems with Envelope Detection 


513  (1) 


514  (1) 


515  (1) 


515  (4) 


519  (3) 

FM Systems with Threshold Extension 


522  (2) 

FM Systems with Deemphasis 


524  (3) 

Comparison of Analog Signaling Systems 


527  (3) 


527  (3) 


530  (1) 


530  (17) 


539  (8) 

Wire and Wireless Communication Systems 


547  (92) 

The Explosive Growth of Telecommunications 


547  (1) 


548  (7) 


548  (1) 

Modern Telephone Systems and Remote Terminals 


549  (6) 

Digital Subscriber Lines (DSL) 


555  (6) 

G.DMT and G.Lite Digital Subscriber Lines 


556  (2) 


558  (1) 

Integrated Service Digital Network (ISDN) 


558  (3) 

Capacities of Public Switched Telephone Networks 


561  (1) 

Satellite Communication Systems 


561  (14) 

Digital and Analog Television Transmission 


565  (2) 

Data and Telephone Signal Multiple Access 


567  (6) 

Personal Communications via Satellite 


573  (2) 


575  (19) 


575  (2) 


577  (1) 

Characterization of Noise Sources 


578  (1) 

Noise Characterization of Linear Devices 


579  (6) 

Noise Characterization of Cascaded Linear Devices 


585  (2) 


587  (2) 

Eb/N0 Link Budget for Digital Systems 


589  (1) 

Path Loss for Urban Wireless Environments 


590  (4) 


594  (4) 

Cellular Telephone Systems 


598  (8) 

First Generation (1G)The AMPS Analog System 


599  (3) 

Second Generation (2G)The Digital Systems 


602  (3) 

The 1,900MHz Band PCS Systems 


605  (1) 

Third Generation (3G) Systems 


605  (1) 


606  (21) 

BlackandWhite Television 


606  (7) 


613  (1) 


613  (5) 

Standards for TV and CATV System 


618  (4) 


622  (5) 


627  (1) 


628  (11) 


632  (7) 
APPENDIX A MATHEMATICAL TECHNIQUES, IDENTITIES AND TABLES 

639  (11) 

A1 Trigonometry and Complex Numbers 


639  (1) 


639  (1) 


639  (1) 

A2 Differential Calculus 


640  (1) 


640  (1) 


640  (1) 


640  (1) 


641  (1) 


641  (1) 


641  (1) 


642  (1) 


642  (2) 


642  (1) 


643  (1) 


644  (1) 


644  (1) 


644  (1) 

A7 Hilbert Transform Pairs 


645  (1) 

A8 The Dirac Delta Function 


645  (2) 

Properties of Dirac Delta Function 


646  (1) 

A9 Tabulation of Sa(x) = (sin x)/x 


647  (1) 


648  (2) 
APPENDIX B PROBABILITY AND RANDOM VARIABLES 

650  (42) 


650  (1) 


651  (1) 

B3 Probability and Relative Frequency 


652  (3) 


652  (1) 


653  (1) 

Conditional Probabilities 


654  (1) 


655  (1) 

B5 Cumulative Distribution Functions and Probability Density Functions 


655  (7) 

Properties of CDFs and PDFs 


658  (1) 

Discrete and Continuous Distributions 


658  (4) 

B6 Ensemble Average and Moments 


662  (3) 


662  (1) 


663  (2) 

B7 Examples of Important Distributions 


665  (8) 


665  (3) 


668  (1) 


668  (1) 


668  (5) 


673  (1) 

B8 Functional Transformations of Random Variables 


673  (5) 

B9 Multivariate Statistics 


678  (14) 

Multivariate CDFs and PDFs 


678  (2) 


680  (1) 

Gaussian Bivariate Distribution 


681  (1) 

Multivariate Functional Transformation 


682  (2) 


684  (2) 


686  (6) 
APPENDIX C STANDARDS AND TERMINOLOGY FOR COMPUTER COMMUNICATIONS 

692  (20) 


692  (1) 


692  (1) 


692  (1) 

C2 DTE/DCE and Ethernet Interface Standards 


693  (7) 

Universal Serial Bus (USB) 


695  (1) 

RS232D, RS422A, RS449, and RS530 Interfaces 


695  (1) 

Centronics Parallel Interface 


696  (1) 

IEEE488 Parallel Interface 


697  (1) 

Ethernet (IEEE 802.3) Interface 


698  (2) 

C3 The ISO OSI Network Model 


700  (3) 

C4 Data Link Control Protocols 


703  (3) 


703  (1) 


703  (1) 


704  (1) 


704  (1) 

Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) 


705  (1) 


706  (6) 
APPENDIX D USING MATLAB 

712  (4) 

D1 Quick Start for Running MFiles 


713  (1) 

D2 Programming in MATLAB 


714  (2) 
References 

716  (13) 
Answers to Selected Problems 

729  (6) 
Index 

735  