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Digital and Analog Communication Systems

by
Edition:
7th
ISBN13:

9780130812230

ISBN10:
0130812234
Format:
Hardcover
Pub. Date:
1/1/2007
Publisher(s):
PRENTICE HALL
List Price: $164.00

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Summary

Exceptionally up-to-date, this book provides a broad introduction to basic analog and digital principles and their application to the design and analysis of real- world communication systems. It provides readers with a working knowledge of how to use both classical mathematical and personal computer methods to analyze, design, and simulate modern communication systems. MATLAB is integrated throughout.Study-aid examples and homework problems are included, many of which require solution via a personal computer. MATLAB illustrative examples and plots are included. Balanced coverage of both analog and digital communication systems with an emphasis on the design of digital communication systems. Case studies of modern communication systems are provided. Over 500 problems provided.For electrical engineers.

Table of Contents

Preface xvii
List of Symbols
xxi
Introduction
1(32)
Historical Perspective
2(3)
Digital and Analog Sources and Systems
5(1)
Deterministic and Random Waveforms
6(1)
Organization of the Book
6(1)
Use of a Personal Computer and MATLAB
7(1)
Block Diagram of a Communication System
8(2)
Frequency Allocations
10(2)
Propagation of Electromagnetic Waves
12(4)
Information Measure
16(2)
Channel Capacity and Ideal Communication Systems
18(1)
Coding
19(10)
Block Codes
20(2)
Convolutional Codes
22(3)
Code Interleaving
25(1)
Code Performance
25(3)
Trellis-Coded Modulation
28(1)
Preview
29(1)
Study-Aid Examples
29(4)
Problems
30(3)
SIGNALS AND SPECTRA
33(95)
Properties of Signals and Noise
33(10)
Physically Realizable Waveforms
34(1)
Time Average Operator
35(1)
Dc Value
36(1)
Power
37(2)
Rms Value and Normalized Power
39(1)
Energy and Power Waveforms
40(1)
Decibel
40(2)
Phasors
42(1)
Fourier Transform and Spectra
43(18)
Definition
43(3)
Properties of Fourier Transforms
46(2)
Parseval's Theorem and Energy Spectral Density
48(3)
Dirac Delta Function and Unit Step Function
51(3)
Rectangular and Triangular-Pulses
54(4)
Convolution
58(3)
Power Spectral Density and Autocorrelation Function
61(4)
Power Spectral Density
61(2)
Autocorrelation Function
63(2)
Orthogonal Series Representation of Signals and Noise
65(3)
Orthogonal Functions
65(2)
Orthogonal Series
67(1)
Fourier Series
68(11)
Complex Fourier Series
68(2)
Quadrature Fourier Series
70(1)
Polar Fourier Series
71(2)
Line Spectra for Periodic Waveforms
73(4)
Power Spectral Density for Periodic Waveforms
77(2)
Review of Linear Systems
79(7)
Linear Time-Invariant Systems
79(1)
Impulse Response
79(1)
Transfer Function
80(3)
Distoritionless Transmission
83(1)
Distortion of Audio, Video, and Data Signals
84(2)
Bandlimited Signals and Noise
86(8)
Bandlimited Waveforms
86(1)
Sampling Theorem
87(3)
Impulse Sampling and Digital Signal Processing (DSP)
90(3)
Dimensionality Theorem
93(1)
Discrete Fourier Transform
94(7)
Using the DFT to Compute the Continuous Fourier Transform
95(5)
Using the DFT to Compute the Fourier Series
100(1)
Bandwidth of Signals
101(9)
Summary
110(1)
Study-Aid Examples
110(18)
Problems
115(13)
Baseband Pulse and Digital Signaling
128(102)
Introduction
128(1)
Pulse Amplitude Modulation
129(8)
Natural Sampling (Gating)
129(4)
Instantaneous Sampling (Flat-Top PAM)
133(4)
Pulse Code Modulation
137(15)
Sampling, Quantizing, and Encoding
138(1)
Practical PCM Circuits
138(4)
Bandwidth of PCM Signals
142(1)
Effects of Noise
143(4)
Nonuniform Quantizing: μ-Law and A-Law Companding
147(4)
V.90 56-kb/s PCM Computer Modem
151(1)
Digital Signaling
152(8)
Vector Representation
153(2)
Bandwidth Estimation
155(1)
Binary Signaling
156(2)
Multilevel Signaling
158(2)
Line Codes and Spectra
160(20)
Binary Line Coding
160(3)
Power Spectra for Binary Line Codes
163(6)
Differential Coding
169(1)
Eye Patterns
170(1)
Regenerative Repeaters
171(2)
Bit Synchronization
173(3)
Power Spectra for Multilevel Polar NRZ Signals
176(3)
Spectral Efficiency
179(1)
Intersymbol Interference
180(8)
Nyquist's First Method (Zero ISI)
182(1)
Raised Cosine-Rolloff Nyquist Filtering
183(5)
Nyquist's Second and Third Methods for Control of ISI
188(1)
Differential Pulse Code Modulation
188(4)
Delta Modulation
192(7)
Granular Noise and Slope Overload Noise
194(3)
Adaptive Delta Modulation and Continuously Variable Slope Delta Modulation
197(2)
Speech Coding
199(1)
Time-Division Multiplexing
199(14)
Frame Synchronization
200(2)
Synchronous and Asynchronous Lines
202(4)
TDM Hierarchy
206(5)
The TI PCM System
211(2)
Packet Transmission System
213(1)
Pulse Time Modulation: Pulse Width Modulation and Pulse Position Modulation
213(2)
Summary
215(3)
Study-Aid Examples
218(12)
Problems
221(9)
Bandpass Signaling Principles and Circuits
230(72)
Complex Envelope Representation of Bandpass Waveforms
230(3)
Definitions: Baseband, Bandpass, and Modulation
231(1)
Complex Envelope Representation
231(2)
Representation of Modulated Signals
233(1)
Spectrum of Bandpass Signals
234(3)
Evaluation of Power
237(3)
Bandpass Filtering and Linear Distortion
240(4)
Equivalent Low-Pass Filter
240(2)
Linear Distortion
242(2)
Bandpass Sampling Theorem
244(1)
Received Signal Plus Noise
245(1)
Classification of Filters and Amplifiers
246(5)
Filters
246(4)
Amplifiers
250(1)
Nonlinear Distortion
251(5)
Limiters
256(1)
Mixers, Up Converters, and Down Converters
257(6)
Frequency Multipliers
263(2)
Detector Circuits
265(8)
Envelope Detector
265(1)
Product Detector
266(2)
Frequency Modulation Detector
268(5)
Phase-Locked Loops and Frequency Synthesizers
273(8)
Direct Digital Synthesis
281(1)
Transmitters and Receivers
281(7)
Generalized Transmitters
281(2)
Generalized Receiver: The Superheterodyne Receiver
283(4)
Zero-IF Receivers
287(1)
Interference
288(1)
Software Radios
288(1)
Summary
289(1)
Study-Aid Examples
289(13)
Problems
295(7)
AM, FM, and Digital Modulated Systems
302(93)
Amplitude Modulation
303(5)
AM Broadcast Technical Standards
308(1)
Double-Sideband Suppressed Carrier
309(1)
Costas Loop and Squaring Loop
310(2)
Asymmetric Sideband Signals
312(6)
Single Sideband
312(4)
Vestigial Sideband
316(2)
Phase Modulation and Frequency Modulation
318(15)
Representation of PM and FM Signals
318(5)
Spectra of Angle-Modulated Signals
323(5)
Narrowband Angle Modulation
328(1)
Wideband Frequency Modulation
329(4)
Preemphasis and Deemphasis in Angle-Modulated Systems
333(1)
Frequency-Division Multiplexing and FM Stereo
333(4)
FM Broadcast Technical Standards
337(1)
Binary Modulated Bandpass Signaling
337(15)
On-Off Keying (OOK)
340(3)
Binary-Phase-Shift Keying (BPSK)
343(1)
Differential Phase-Shift Keying (DPSK)
344(1)
Frequency-Shift Keying (FSK)
345(7)
Multilevel Modulated Bandpass Signaling
352(8)
Quadrature Phase-Shift Keying (QPSK) and M-ary Phase-Shift Keying (MPSK)
352(3)
Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (QAM)
355(1)
OQPSK and π/4 QPSK
356(1)
PSD for MPSK, QAM, QPSK, OQPSK and π/4 QPSK
357(2)
Spectral Efficiency for MPSK, QAM, QPSK, OQPSK, and π/4 QPSK with Raised Cosine Filtering
359(1)
Minimum-Shift Keying (MSK) and GMSK
360(5)
Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM)
365(5)
Spread Spectrum Systems
370(7)
Direct Sequence
371(6)
Frequency Hopping
377(1)
Summary
377(2)
Study-Aid Examples
379(16)
Problems
382(13)
Random Processes and Spectral Analysis
395(77)
Some Basic Definitions
396(9)
Random Processes
396(1)
Stationarity and Ergodicity
397(4)
Correlation Functions and Wide-Sense Stationarity
401(2)
Complex Random Processes
403(2)
Power Spectral Density
405(13)
Definition
405(1)
Wiener-Khintchine Theorem
406(3)
Properties of the PSD
409(4)
General Formula for the PSD of Digital Signals
413(3)
White Noise Processes
416(1)
Measurement of PSD
417(1)
Dc and Rms Values for Ergodic Random Processes
418(2)
Linear Systems
420(5)
Input-Output Relationships
420(5)
Bandwidth Measures
425(2)
Equivalent Bandwidth
425(1)
Rms Bandwidth
425(2)
The Gaussian Random Process
427(4)
Properties of Gaussian Processes
428(3)
Bandpass Processes
431(14)
Bandpass Representations
431(4)
Properties of WSS Bandpass Processes
435(4)
Proofs of Some Properties
439(6)
Matched Filters
445(10)
General Results
445(2)
Results for White Noise
447(3)
Correlation Processing
450(2)
Transversal Matched Filter
452(3)
Summary
455(2)
Appendix: Proof of Schwarz's Inequality
457(2)
Study-Aid Examples
459(13)
Problems
462(10)
Performance of Communication Systems Corrupted by Noise
472(75)
Error Probabilities for Binary Signaling
473(6)
General Results
473(2)
Results for Gaussian Noise
475(2)
Results for White Gaussian Noise and Matched-Filter Reception
477(1)
Results for Colored Gaussian Noise and Matched-Filter Reception
478(1)
Performance of Baseband Binary Systems
479(5)
Unipolar Signaling
479(3)
Polar Signaling
482(1)
Bipolar Signaling
482(2)
Coherent Detection of Bandpass Binary Signals
484(6)
On-Off Keying
484(2)
Binary-Phase-Shift Keying
486(1)
Frequency-Shift Keying
487(3)
Noncoherent Detection of Bandpass Binary Signals
490(8)
On-Off Keying
490(4)
Frequency-Shift Keying
494(2)
Differential Phase-Shift Keying
496(2)
Quadrature Phase-Shift Keying and Minimum-Shift Keying
498(2)
Comparison of Digital Signaling Systems
500(4)
Bit Error Rate and Bandwidth
500(2)
Symbol Error and Bit Error for Multilevel Signaling
502(1)
Synchronization
503(1)
Output Signal-to-Noise Ratio for PCM Systems
504(6)
Output Signal-to-Noise Ratios for Analog Systems
510(17)
Comparison with Baseband Systems
510(1)
AM Systems with Product Detection
511(2)
AM Systems with Envelope Detection
513(1)
DSB-SC Systems
514(1)
SSB Systems
515(1)
PM Systems
515(4)
FM Systems
519(3)
FM Systems with Threshold Extension
522(2)
FM Systems with Deemphasis
524(3)
Comparison of Analog Signaling Systems
527(3)
Ideal System Performance
527(3)
Summary
530(1)
Study-Aid Examples
530(17)
Problems
539(8)
Wire and Wireless Communication Systems
547(92)
The Explosive Growth of Telecommunications
547(1)
Telephone Systems
548(7)
Historical Basis
548(1)
Modern Telephone Systems and Remote Terminals
549(6)
Digital Subscriber Lines (DSL)
555(6)
G.DMT and G.Lite Digital Subscriber Lines
556(2)
Video On Demand (VOD)
558(1)
Integrated Service Digital Network (ISDN)
558(3)
Capacities of Public Switched Telephone Networks
561(1)
Satellite Communication Systems
561(14)
Digital and Analog Television Transmission
565(2)
Data and Telephone Signal Multiple Access
567(6)
Personal Communications via Satellite
573(2)
Link Budget Analysis
575(19)
Signal Power Received
575(2)
Thermal Noise Sources
577(1)
Characterization of Noise Sources
578(1)
Noise Characterization of Linear Devices
579(6)
Noise Characterization of Cascaded Linear Devices
585(2)
Link Budget Evaluation
587(2)
Eb/N0 Link Budget for Digital Systems
589(1)
Path Loss for Urban Wireless Environments
590(4)
Fiber Optic Systems
594(4)
Cellular Telephone Systems
598(8)
First Generation (1G)---The AMPS Analog System
599(3)
Second Generation (2G)---The Digital Systems
602(3)
The 1,900-MHz Band PCS Systems
605(1)
Third Generation (3G) Systems
605(1)
Television
606(21)
Black-and-White Television
606(7)
MTS Stereo Sound
613(1)
Color Television
613(5)
Standards for TV and CATV System
618(4)
Digital TV (DTV)
622(5)
Summary
627(1)
Study-Aid Examples
628(11)
Problems
632(7)
APPENDIX A MATHEMATICAL TECHNIQUES, IDENTITIES AND TABLES 639(11)
A-1 Trigonometry and Complex Numbers
639(1)
Definitions
639(1)
Trigonometric Identities
639(1)
A-2 Differential Calculus
640(1)
Definition
640(1)
Differentiation Rules
640(1)
Derivative Table
640(1)
A-3 Indeterminate Forms
641(1)
A-4 Integral Calculus
641(1)
Definition
641(1)
Integration Techniques
642(1)
A-5 Integral Tables
642(2)
Indefinite Integrals
642(1)
Definite Integrals
643(1)
A-6 Series Expansions
644(1)
Finite Series
644(1)
Infinite Series
644(1)
A-7 Hilbert Transform Pairs
645(1)
A-8 The Dirac Delta Function
645(2)
Properties of Dirac Delta Function
646(1)
A-9 Tabulation of Sa(x) = (sin x)/x
647(1)
A-10 Tabulation of Q(z)
648(2)
APPENDIX B PROBABILITY AND RANDOM VARIABLES 650(42)
B-1 Introduction
650(1)
B-2 Sets
651(1)
B-3 Probability and Relative Frequency
652(3)
Simple Probability
652(1)
Joint Probability
653(1)
Conditional Probabilities
654(1)
B-4 Random Variables
655(1)
B-5 Cumulative Distribution Functions and Probability Density Functions
655(7)
Properties of CDFs and PDFs
658(1)
Discrete and Continuous Distributions
658(4)
B-6 Ensemble Average and Moments
662(3)
Ensemble Average
662(1)
Moments
663(2)
B-7 Examples of Important Distributions
665(8)
Binomial Distribution
665(3)
Poisson Distribution
668(1)
Uniform Distribution
668(1)
Gaussian Distribution
668(5)
Sinusoidal Distribution
673(1)
B-8 Functional Transformations of Random Variables
673(5)
B-9 Multivariate Statistics
678(14)
Multivariate CDFs and PDFs
678(2)
Bivariate Statistics
680(1)
Gaussian Bivariate Distribution
681(1)
Multivariate Functional Transformation
682(2)
Central Limit Theorem
684(2)
Problems
686(6)
APPENDIX C STANDARDS AND TERMINOLOGY FOR COMPUTER COMMUNICATIONS 692(20)
C-1 Codes
692(1)
Baudot
692(1)
ASCII
692(1)
C-2 DTE/DCE and Ethernet Interface Standards
693(7)
Universal Serial Bus (USB)
695(1)
RS-232D, RS-422A, RS-449, and RS-530 Interfaces
695(1)
Centronics Parallel Interface
696(1)
IEEE-488 Parallel Interface
697(1)
Ethernet (IEEE 802.3) Interface
698(2)
C-3 The ISO OSI Network Model
700(3)
C-4 Data Link Control Protocols
703(3)
TCP/IP
703(1)
SDLC
703(1)
HDLC
704(1)
CCITT X.25 Protocol
704(1)
Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM)
705(1)
C-5 Modem Standards
706(6)
APPENDIX D USING MATLAB 712(4)
D-1 Quick Start for Running M-Files
713(1)
D-2 Programming in MATLAB
714(2)
References 716(13)
Answers to Selected Problems 729(6)
Index 735

Excerpts

PREFACE Continuing the tradition of the first to fifth editions of this book, this new edition provides the latest up-to-date treatment of digital communication systems. It includes a number of new study-aid examples and homework problems, many of which require solutions via a personal computer. It is written as a textbook for junior or senior engineering students and is also appropriate for an introductory graduate course or as a modern technical reference for practicing electrical engineers. To learn about communication systems, it is essential to first understandhow communication systems work.Based on the principles of communications (power, frequency spectra, and Fourier analysis) that are covered in the first five chapters of this book, this understanding is motivated by the use of extensive examples, study-aid problems, and the inclusion of adopted standards. Especially interesting is the material on wire and wireless communication systems. Also of importance is the effect of noise on these systems, since, without noise (described by probability and random processes), one could communicate to the limits of the universe with negligible transmitted power. In summary, this book covers the essentials needed for the understanding of wire and wireless communication systems and includes adopted standards. These essentials are How communication systems work: Chapters 1 through 5. The effect of noise: Chapters 6 and 7. Wire and Wireless Communication Systems: Chapter 8. This, book is ideal for either a one-semester or a two-semester course. For a one-semester course, the basics of how communication systems work may be taught by using the first five chapters (with selected readings from Chapter 8). For a two-semester course, the whole book is used. This book coverspractical aspectsof communication systems developed from a soundtheoretical basis. THE THEORETICAL BASIS Digital and analog signals Magnitude and phase spectra Fourier analysis Orthogonal function theory Power spectral density Linear systems Nonlinear systems Intersymbol interference Complex envelopes Modulation theory Probability and random processes Matched filters Calculation of SNR Calculation of BER Optimum systems Block and convolutional codes THE PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS PAM, PCM, DPCM, DM, PWM, and PPM baseband signaling OOK, BPSK, QPSK, MPSK, MSK, OFDM, and QAM bandpass digital signaling AM, DSB-SC, SSB, VSB, PM, and FM bandpass analog signaling Time-division multiplexing and the standards used Digital line codes and spectra Circuits used in communication systems Bit, frame, and carrier synchronizers Software radios Frequency-division multiplexing and the standards used Telecommunication systems Telephone systems Digital subscriber lines Satellite communication systems Effective input-noise temperature and noise figure Link budget analysis SNR at the output of analog communication systems BER for digital communication systems Fiber-optic systems Spread-spectrum systems AMPS, GSM, iDEN, TDMA, and CDMA cellular telephone and PCS systems Digital and analog television systems Technical standards for AM, FM, TV, DTV, and CATV Protocols for computer communications Technical standards for computer communications MATLAB M files Mathematical tables Study-aid examples Over 550 homework problems with selected answers Over 60 computer-solution homework problems Extensive references Emphasis on the design of communication systems Many of the equations and homework problems are mark


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