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# Dimensional Analysis for Meds

**by**Curren, Anna M.

### 9780918082084

0918082080

Paperback

1/1/1998

Thomson Delmar Learning

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## Summary

"Add a dimension to your knowledge. With Curren's Dimensional Analysis for Meds, Third Edition, you find out just how easy it can be to calculate dosages correctly. No prior knowledge of calculation is necessary, as a building-block organization is employed to cover basic facts and tips regarding drug measures, reading medication labels, and syringe calibrations. Once competency is established, more complex concepts are presented, such as intravenous and pediatric calculations, as well as numerous opportunities to practice your new skills. A conversational style accompanies this effective learning progression, revealing Dimensional Analysis for Meds as simply the most effective tool for learning dosage calculations."--BOOK JACKET.

## Table of Contents

Directions to the Student | p. vii |

Refresher Math | p. 1 |

Relative Value, Addition, and Subtraction of Decimals | p. 3 |

Relative Value of Decimals | p. 3 |

Addition and Subtraction of Decimals | p. 7 |

Summary | p. 8 |

Summary Self Test | p. 8 |

Multiplication and Division of Decimals | p. 11 |

Multiplication of Decimals | p. 11 |

Division of Decimals | p. 12 |

Elimination of Decimal Points | p. 13 |

Reduction of Fractions | p. 14 |

Reduction of Numbers Ending in Zero | p. 15 |

Expressing to the Nearest Tenth | p. 16 |

Expressing to the Nearest Hundredth | p. 17 |

Summary | p. 18 |

Summary Self Test | p. 18 |

Solving Common Fraction Equations | p. 20 |

Whole Number Equations | p. 20 |

Decimal Fraction Equations | p. 23 |

Multiple Number Equations | p. 26 |

Summary | p. 28 |

Summary Self Test | p. 28 |

Introduction to Drug Measures | p. 31 |

Metric, International (SI) System | p. 33 |

Basic Units of the Metric/SI System | p. 33 |

Metric/SI Prefixes | p. 34 |

Metric/SI Abbreviations | p. 34 |

Variations of Metric/SI Abbreviations | p. 35 |

Metric/SI Notation Rules | p. 35 |

Conversion Between Metric/SI Units | p. 37 |

Common Errors in Metric/SI Dosages | p. 39 |

Summary | p. 40 |

Summary Self Test | p. 40 |

Additional Drug Measures: Unit, Percentage, Milliequivalent, Ratio, Apothecary, Household | p. 42 |

International Units (U) | p. 42 |

Percentage (%) Measures | p. 43 |

Milliequivalent (mEq) Measures | p. 43 |

Ratio Measures | p. 44 |

Apothecary and Household Measures | p. 45 |

Apothecary/Household Notations | p. 46 |

Apothecary/Household To Metric/SI Equivalents Table | p. 46 |

The Apothecary/Metric Conversion Clock | p. 47 |

Summary | p. 48 |

Summary Self Test | p. 48 |

Reading Medication Labels and Syringe Calibrations | p. 51 |

Reading Oral Medication Labels | p. 53 |

Tablet and Capsule Labels | p. 54 |

Tablet/Capsule Dosage Calculation | p. 57 |

Oral Solution Labels | p. 61 |

Measurement of Oral Solutions | p. 62 |

Summary | p. 64 |

Summary Self Test | p. 65 |

Hypodermic Syringe Measurement | p. 71 |

Standard 3 cc Syringe | p. 71 |

Tuberculin Syringe | p. 75 |

Tubex and Carpuject Cartridges | p. 77 |

5, 6, 10, and 12 cc Syringes | p. 80 |

20 cc and Larger Syringes | p. 82 |

Summary | p. 84 |

Summary Self Test | p. 84 |

Reading Parenteral Medication Labels | p. 88 |

Reading Metric/SI Solution Labels | p. 89 |

Percent (%) and Ratio Solution Labels | p. 90 |

Solutions Measured in International Units (U) | p. 91 |

Solutions Measured as Milliequivalents (mEq) | p. 92 |

Summary | p. 93 |

Summary Self Test | p. 94 |

Reconstitution of Powdered Drugs | p. 105 |

Reconstitution of a Single Strength Solution | p. 105 |

Reconstitution of Multiple Strength Solutions | p. 107 |

Reconstitution from Package Insert Directions | p. 108 |

Summary | p. 110 |

Summary Self test | p. 110 |

Measuring Insulin Dosages | p. 115 |

Types of Insulin | p. 115 |

U-100 Insulin and Syringes | p. 117 |

Lo-Dose Syringes | p. 117 |

I cc Capacity Syringes | p. 119 |

Combining Insulin Dosages | p. 121 |

Summary | p. 123 |

Summary Self Test | p. 123 |

Medication Administration Systems | p. 127 |

Medication Administration Records | p. 129 |

Medication Record 1 | p. 131 |

Medication Record 2 | p. 133 |

Medication Record 3 | p. 135 |

Medication Record 4 | p. 137 |

Summary | p. 137 |

Medication Card Administration | p. 138 |

Reading Medication Cards | p. 138 |

Summary | p. 139 |

Summary Self Test | p. 139 |

Dosage Calculation Using Dimensional Analysis | p. 143 |

Dosage Calculation Using Dimensional Analysis | p. 145 |

The Basic DA Equation | p. 145 |

Equations Requiring Metric Conversions | p. 151 |

Summary | p. 154 |

Summary Self Test | p. 155 |

Dosage Calculation from Body Weight, and Body Surface Area | p. 171 |

Adult and Pediatric Dosages Based on Body Weight | p. 173 |

Converting lb to kg | p. 173 |

Converting kg to lb | p. 174 |

Calculating Dosages from Drug Label Information | p. 175 |

Calculating Dosages from Drug Literature | p. 178 |

Summary | p. 181 |

Summary Self Test | p. 181 |

Adult and Pediatric Dosages Based on Body Surface Area | p. 187 |

Calculating BSA from kg and cm | p. 187 |

Calculating BSA from lb and in | p. 189 |

Dosage Calculation Based on BSA | p. 190 |

Assessing Orders Based on BSA | p. 191 |

Calculation of BSA Using a Nomogram | p. 192 |

Use of the West Nomogram | p. 193 |

Summary | p. 195 |

Summary Self Test | p. 195 |

Intravenous Calculations | p. 199 |

Introduction to IV Therapy | p. 201 |

Primary Line | p. 201 |

Secondary Line | p. 203 |

Volume Controlled Burettes | p. 205 |

Indwelling Infusion Ports | p. 205 |

Electronic Infusion Devices (EID's) | p. 206 |

Electronic Rate Controllers | p. 206 |

Volumetric Pumps | p. 207 |

Syringe Pumps | p. 209 |

Patient Controlled Analgesia (PCA) Devices | p. 209 |

Introduction to IV Fluids | p. 210 |

Determining Percentages in IV Fluids | p. 211 |

Parenteral Nutrition | p. 212 |

IV Medication Guidelines/Protocols | p. 212 |

Summary | p. 214 |

Summary Self Test | p. 215 |

IV Flow Rate Calculation | p. 217 |

IV Tubing Calibration | p. 217 |

Small Volume gtt/min Calculation | p. 219 |

Large Volume gtt/min Calculation from mL/hr Ordered | p. 221 |

Division Factor Method of Calculation | p. 223 |

Regulating Flow Rate | p. 225 |

Correcting Off-Schedule Rates | p. 225 |

Summary | p. 227 |

Summary Self Test | p. 228 |

Calculating IV Infusion Times | p. 230 |

Calculating from Volume and Hourly Rate Ordered | p. 230 |

Calculating Large Volume Infusion Time from gtt/min, Volume and Set Calibration | p. 232 |

Calculating Small Volume Infusion Time from gtt/min, Volume and Set Calibration | p. 234 |

Determining Infusion Completion Time | p. 236 |

Labeling Solution Bags/Bottles with Infusion Time | p. 238 |

Summary | p. 241 |

Summary Self Test | p. 242 |

IV Medication and Titration Calculations | p. 246 |

Calculating mL/hr Rate from Dosage Ordered | p. 247 |

Calculating gtt/min Rate from Dosage Ordered | p. 249 |

Calculating mL/hr Rate from Dosage per kg Ordered | p. 251 |

Calculating Dosage Infusing from Flow Rate | p. 253 |

Titration of Infusions | p. 255 |

Summary | p. 259 |

Summary Self Test | p. 260 |

Heparin Infusion Calculations | p. 263 |

Calculating mL/hr Flow Rate from U/hr Ordered | p. 263 |

Calculating gtt/min Flow Rate from U/hr Ordered | p. 265 |

Calculating U/hr Infusing from mL/hr Infusing | p. 268 |

Calculating U/hr Infusing from Solution Strength, Set Calibation and gtt/min Rate | p. 270 |

Reading Heparin Labels and Preparing IV Solutions | p. 273 |

Summary | p. 274 |

Summary Self Test | p. 274 |

Pediatric Medication Calculations | p. 277 |

Pediatric Oral and Parenteral Medications | p. 279 |

Oral Medications | p. 279 |

IM and s.c. Medications | p. 281 |

Summary | p. 281 |

Summary Self Test | p. 282 |

Pediatric Intravenous Medications | p. 286 |

Methods of IV Medication Administration | p. 286 |

Medication Administration Via Burette | p. 287 |

Comparing IV Dosages Ordered with Protocols | p. 291 |

Summary | p. 294 |

Summary Self Test | p. 295 |

Index | p. 299 |

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