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Designed for America's History, Seventh Edition, this primary-source reader offers a chorus of voices from the past to enrich the study of U.S. history. Document selections written by both celebrated historical figures and ordinary people demonstrate the diverse history of America while putting a human face on historical experience. A broad range of documents, from speeches and petitions to personal letters and diary entries, paints a vivid picture of the social and political lives of Americans, encouraging student engagement with the textbook material. Brief introductions place each document in historical context, and questions for analysis help link the individual primary sources to larger historical themes.
Melvin Yazawa is Professor of History at the University of New Mexico, where he has taught since 1984. He has been the recipient of a Presidential Lectureship, the Snead-Wertheim Lectureship, a Faculty Recognition Award, and the Graduate Students' Teaching Award. A specialist on the American Revolution and the early Republic, he has written Representative Government and the Revolution: The Maryland Constitutional Crisis of 1789 (1975); From Colonies to Commonwealth: Familial Ideology and the Beginnings of the American Republic (1985); The Diary and Life of Samuel Sewall (1998); and numerous journal articles and book chapters. He is currently working on a book on the politics of union and disunion in America, 1776-1815.
Kevin J. Fernlund is Professor of History and Education at the University of Missouri-St. Louis, the Executive Director of the Western History Association, and a Fulbright Scholar. He is the author of the biographies Lyndon B. Johnson and Modern America (2009) and William Henry Holmes and the Rediscovery of the American West (2000), as well as editor of The Cold War American West, 1945 to 1989 (1998). His research and teaching interests include the American West and Big History. Fernlund has edited the fifth, sixth, and seventh editions of Bedford/St. Martin's Selected Historical Documents to Accompany America's History, Volume 2: Since 1865.
The Struggle for National Reconstruction 15-1 Andrew Johnson, Plan of Reconstruction (1865) 15-2 Carl Schurz, Report on Conditions in the South (1865) 15-3 The Mississippi Black Codes (1865) 15-4 An Interview with Andrew Johnson (1866) 15-5 The Civil Rights Act of 1866 The Meaning of Freedom 15-6 Frederick Douglass, What the Black Man Wants (1865) 15-7 Thaddeus Stevens, Black Suffrage and Land Redistribution (1867) 15-8 The Fourteenth Amendment and Woman Suffrage (1873, 1875) The Undoing of Reconstruction 15-9 Thomas Nast, The Rise and Fall of Northern Support for Reconstruction (1868, 1874) 15-10 President Grant Refuses to Aid Republicans in Mississippi (1875) 15-11 The Slaughterhouse Cases (1873) 15-12 Susan Myrick Interviews Ex-Slave Catherine Beale (1929)
Chapter 16. Conquering a Continent, 1861-1877
The Republican Vision 16-1 Alexander Toponce, The Golden Spike (1869) Incorporating the West 16-2 Howard Ruede, Letter from a Kansas Homesteader (1878) 16-3 John Wesley Powell, Report on the Lands of the Arid Region (1878) 16-4 The White Caps, Nuestra Platforma: Hispanics Protest Anglo Encroachment in New Mexico (1890) 16-5 Mormon Renunciation of Polygamy, Woodruff Manifesto (1890) A Harvest of Blood: Native Peoples Dispossessed 16-6 The Dawes Severalty Act (1887) 16-7 Custer's Last Stand, Helena Daily Herald (July 4, 1876) 16-8 Helen Hunt Jackson, A Century of Dishonor (1881) 16-9 Buffalo Bird Woman, Beginning a Garden (1917)
Part V. Bold Experiments in an Era of Industrialization, 1877-1929
Chapter 17. The Busy Hive: Industrial America at Work, 1877-1917
Business Gets Bigger 17-1 John D. Rockefeller, Testimony before the U.S. Industrial Commission (December 30, 1899) 17-2 Henry George, Progress and Poverty (1879) 17-3 Andrew Carnegie, The Gospel of Wealth (1889) 17-4 Justin Smith Morrill, On the Origin of the Land-Grant College Act (ca. 1874) 17-5 On Child Labor (1877) 17-6 Lillie B. Chase Wyman, Studies of Factory Life: Among the Women (1888) 17-7 Frederick Winslow Taylor, Principles of Scientific Management (1911) Immigrants, East and West 17-8 The Immigrant Experience: Letters Home (1901-1903) 17-9 Giuseppe Giacosa, A Visitor in Chicago (1892) 17-10 On Chinese Immigration (1876, 1882) Labor Gets Organized 17-11 Terrence V. Powderly, The Army of Unemployed (1887) 17-12 Eugene V. Debs, How I Became a Socialist (1902) 17-13 Testimony Before the U.S. Strike Commission on the Pullman Strike (1894)
Chapter 18. The Victorians Meet the Modern, 1880-1917
Women, Men, and the Solitude of Self 18-1 Catharine E. Beecher, The Christian Family (1869) 18-2 Elizabeth Cady Stanton, The Solitude of Self (1892) 18-3 John Muir, A Perilous Night on Shasta's Summit (1888) 18-4 Theodore Roosevelt, The Strenuous Life (1899) 18-5 Thorstein Veblen, Conspicuous Consumption (1899) Domesticity Goes Public 18-6 Susan B. Anthony, A Woman's Right to Suffrage (1873) 18-7 Carry A. Nation, Smashing at Kiowa (1899) Science and Faith 18-8 Henry Ward Beecher, Evolution and Religion (1885) 18-9 William Graham Sumner, The Forgotten Man (1883) 18-10 Theodore Dreiser, Sister Carrie (1900)
Chapter 19. “Civilization's Inferno”: The Rise and Reform of Industrial Cities, 1880-1917
The New Metropolis 19-1 Julian Ralph, Colorado and Its Capital (1893) 19-2 Louis H. Sullivan, The Tall Office Building Artistically Considered (1896) 19-3 Josiah Strong, The Dangers of Cities (1886) 19-4 Jacob Riis, How the Other Half Lives (1890) Governing the Great City 19-5 William L. Riordan, Plunkitt of Tammany Hall (1905) 19-6 Lincoln Steffens, Tweed Days in St. Louis (1902) Cities as Crucibles of Reform 19-7 Walter Rauschenbusch, The Church and the Social Movement (1907) 19-8 Jane Addams, Twenty Years at Hull-House (1910) 19-9 Margaret Sanger, The Case for Birth Control (1917) 19-10 Progressivism and Compulsory Sterilization (1907) 19-11 Theodore Roosevelt, The Struggle for Social Justice (1912)
Chapter 20. Whose Government? Politics, Populists, and Progressives, 1880-1917
Reform Visions, 1880-1892 20-1 James Bryce, The American Commonwealth (1888) 20-2 Republican and Democratic State Platforms on the Bennett English-Language School Law (Wisconsin, 1890) and the Liquor Question (Iowa, 1889) 20-3 Henry Demarest Lloyd, Wealth Against Commonwealth (1894) The Political Earthquakes of the 1890s 20-4 Democratic and Republican National Platforms on the Currency, the Tariff, and Federal Elections (1892) 20-5 People's (Populist) Party National Platform (1892) 20-6 The 1890 Mississippi Constitution 20-7 Ida B. Wells, Lynching at the Curve (1892) 20-8 Booker T. Washington, Atlanta Exposition Address (1895) 20-9 William Jennings Bryan, Cross of Gold Speech (1896) Reform Reshaped, 1901-1917 20-10 Woodrow Wilson, The New Freedom (1912) 20-11 Robert M. La Follette, Autobiography (1913) 20-12 Florence Kelley, Women in Industry and the Eight-Hour Day (1916) The Progressive Legacy 20-13 Walter Lippmann, Drift and Mastery (1917)
Chapter 21. An Emerging World Power, 1877-1918
From Expansion to Imperialism 21-1 Frederick Jackson Turner, The Significance of the Frontier in American History (1893) 21-2 Alfred Thayer Mahan, The Influence of Sea Power upon History (1890) 21-3 Albert J. Beveridge, The March of the Flag (1898) 21-4 Mark Twain, To the Person Sitting in Darkness (1901) 21-5 William James, The Philippines Tangle (1899) A Power Among Powers 21-6 William McKinley, On Prayer and the Philippines (1899) 21-7 John Hay, Open-Door Notes (1899, 1900) 21-8 Theodore Roosevelt, The Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine (1904, 1905) 21-9 Arthur Zimmermann, The Zimmerman Telegram (1917) The United States in World War I 21-10 Woodrow Wilson, War Message to Congress (April 2, 1917) 21-11 Robert M. La Follette, Antiwar Speech (April 4, 1917) 21-12 Wartime Propaganda Poster (c. 1917) 21-13 Hervey Allen, German Dugouts (1918) 21-14 Bernard M. Baruch, The War Industries Board (1917-1918) 21-15 George Creel, The Home Front: The Four Minute Men (1920) 21-16 Carrie Chapman Catt, Woman Suffrage (1923) The Treaty of Versailles 21-17 Woodrow Wilson, Fourteen Points (1918) 21-18 Treaty of Versailles, Select Articles (1919) 21-19 Henry Cabot Lodge, Speech Before the Senate (1919)
Chapter 22. Wrestling with Modernity, 1917-1929
Conflicted Legacies of World War I 22-1 W. E. B. DuBois, Returning Soldiers (1919) 22-2 William Jennings Bryan and Clarence Darrow, Transcript of the Scopes Trial (1925) 22-3 Edwin P. Hubble, Discovery of the Modern Universe (1924, 1929) Politics in the 1920s 22-4 Herbert Hoover, American Individualism (1922) 22-5 The Ku Klux Klan (1924) 22-6 Cabinet Meeting-If Al Were President (1928) Intellectual Modernism 22-7 Marcus Garvey, Editorial in Negro World (1924) 22-8 F. Scott Fitzgerald, The Rich Boy (1926) From Boom to Bust 22-9 Bruce Barton, The Man Nobody Knows (1925) 22-10 Advertisement for Listerine (1923) 22-11 Robert S. Lynd and Helen Merrell Lynd, Remaking Leisure in Middletown (1929)
Part VI: The Modern State and the Age of Liberalism, 1929-1972
Chapter 23. The Great Depression and the New Deal, 1929-1939 The Early Years of the Depression, 1929-1932 23-1 Herbert Hoover's Plan (1931) 23-2 John T. McCutcheon, A Wise Economist Asks a Question (1931) 23-3 Hard Times and Hoovervilles (1930, 1932, 1941) 23-4 Meridel Le Sueur, Women on the Breadlines (1932) The New Deal Arrives, 1933-1935 23-5 Franklin D. Roosevelt, First Inaugural Address (1933) 23-6 Rexford G. Tugwell, Design of Government (1933) 23-7 John Maynard Keynes, An Open Letter to President Roosevelt (1933) 23-8 Eleanor Roosevelt, The State's Responsibility for Fair Working Conditions (1933) 23-9 Huey P. Long, The Long Plan (1933) The Second New Deal and the Redefining of Liberalism, 1935-1938 23-10 Republican and Democratic National Platforms (1936) 23-11 Norman Thomas, What Was the New Deal? (1936) The New Deal's Impact on Society 23-12 Mary Heaton Vorse, The Sit-Down Strike at General Motors (1937) 23-13 Richard Wright, Communism in the 1930s (1944) 23-14 The Federal Antilynching Bills (1938) 23-15 Lorena Hickok, Field Report on Arizona to Harry L. Hopkins (1934) 23-16 Paul B. Sears, Deserts on the March (1937)
Chapter 24. The World at War, 1937-1945
The Road to War 24-1 Gerald P. Nye, The Profits of War and Preparedness (1934) 24-2 C. D. Batchelor, The Reluctance to Go to War (1936) 24-3 Franklin D. Roosevelt, Fireside Chat on the Great Arsenal of Democracy (1940) 24-4 Franklin D. Roosevelt, Four Freedoms Speech (1941) Organizing for Victory 24-5 Norma Yerger Queen, Women Working at the Home Front (1944) 24-6 Mother, When Will You Stay Home Again? (1944) 24-7 Wartime Posters: The Japanese and Venereal Disease as Enemies (c. 1944) Life on the Home Front 24-8 Remembering the War Years on the Home Front (1984) 24-9 Executive Order 9066 to Prescribe Military Areas (1942) Fighting and Winning the War 24-10 Ernie Pyle, Street Fighting (1944) 24-11 William McConahey and Dorothy Wahlstrom, Remembering the Holocaust (1945) 24-12 Albert Einstein, Letter to President Roosevelt (1939) 24-13 Henry L. Stimson, Draft of Press Release Announcing the Use of the Atomic Bomb (1945)
Chapter 25. Cold War America, 1945-1963
Containment in a Divided World 25-1 Nikolai Novikov, Telegram: A Soviet View of U.S. Foreign Policy (1946) 25-2 George F. Kennan, Containment Policy (1947) 25-3 NSC-68 (1950) Cold War Liberalism 25-4 Lyndon B. Johnson, The American West: America's Answer to Russia (1950) 25-5 Joseph R. McCarthy, Communists in the U.S. Government (1950) Containment in the Postcolonial World 25-6 Nikita Krushchev, Peaceful Coexistence (1956) 25-7 John Foster Dulles, Cold War Foreign Policy (1958) 25-8 Dwight D. Eisenhower, Farewell Address (1961)
Chapter 26. The Triumph of the Middle Class, 1945-1963
Economy: From Recovery to Dominance 26-1 Henry R. Luce, The Dangerous Age of Abundance (1959) 26-2 Herbert Block, “Let's See, Now-Where Can We Raise More Taxes?” A Suburban Nation 26-3 Green Acres (1950) 26-4 George M. Humphrey, The Interstate Highway System (1955) 26-5 Neil Morgan, The Footloose Migration (1961) 26-6 Herbert Gans, Boston's West Enders (1962) 26-7 What Does Chicago's Renewal Program Mean? (1963) 26-8 Carey McWilliams, North From Mexico (1949) Gender, Sex, and Family in the Era of Containment 26-9 Benjamin Spock, How Do You Make Him Leave Certain Things Alone? (1946) 26-10 Help Wanted-Women (1957)
Chapter 27. Walking into Freedom Land: The Civil Rights Movement, 1941-1973
The Emerging Civil Rights Struggle: 1941-1957 27-1 Harry S. Truman, Order to Desegregate the U.S. Armed Forces (1948) 27-2 Civil Rights and the National Party Platforms (1948) 27-3 Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka (1954) Forging a Protest Movement: 1955-1966 27-4 Rosa Parks, Describing My Arrest (1955) 27-5 The Southern Manifesto (1956) 27-6 Lyndon B. Johnson, The Next and More Profound Stage of the Battle for Civil Rights (1965) Beyond Civil Rights: 1966-1973 27-7 Malcolm X and Yusef Iman, Black Nationalism (1964) 27-8 Inés Hernández, Para Teresa 27-9 DRUMS Committee of the Menominee, The Consequences of Termination for the Menominee of Wisconsin (1971)
Chapter 28. Uncivil Wars: Liberal Crisis and Conservative Rebirth, 1964-1972
The Great Society: Liberalism at High Tide 28-1 Theodore H. White, The Television Debates (1960) 28-2 John F. Kennedy, Inaugural Address (1961) 28-3 Michael Harrington, The Other America (1962) 28-4 Lyndon B. Johnson, Address at the University of Michigan (1964) 28-5 National Organization for Women, Statement of Purpose (1966) The War in Vietnam, 1963-1968 28-6 The Gulf of Tonkin Resolution (1964) 28-7 Lyndon B. Johnson, Peace Without Conquest (1965) 28-8 Philip Caputo, The Splendid Little War (1965) 28-9 Students for a Democratic Society, The Port Huron Statement (1962) 28-10 Edward Abbey, Desert Solitaire: A Season in the Wilderness (1968) Days of Rage, 1968-1972 28-11 John Fogerty (Creedence Clearwater Revival), Fortunate Son (1969) 28-12 An Advertisement for Birth Control (1967) 28-13 Gloria Steinem, Statement in Support of the Equal Rights Amendment (1970) Richard Nixon and the Politics of the Silent Majority 28-14 Richard Nixon, Vietnamization and the Nixon Doctrine (1969) 28-15 Richard Nixon, The Invasion of Cambodia (1970) 28-16 Dan Rather's Conversation with President Nixon (1972) 28-17 Watergate: Taped White House Conversations (1972)
Part VII: Global Capitalism and the End of the American Century, 1973-2011
Chapter 29. The Search for Order in an Era of Limits, 1973-1980 An Era of Limits 29-1 Rachel Carson, And No Birds Sing (1962) 29-2 NASA Image, Earthrise (1966) 29-3 Gallup Polls, National Problems, 1950-1999 Reform and Reaction in the 1970s 29-4 Daniel Patrick Moynihan, Memorandum on Benign Neglect (1970) 29-5 Phyllis Schlafly, The Power of the Positive Woman (1977) The American Family on Trial 29-6 William Serrin, Homestead (1970s) 29-7 Bruce Springsteen, Born in the U.S.A. (1984)
Chapter 30. Conservative America Ascendant, 1973-1991
The Rise of the New Right 30-1 Barry Goldwater, Acceptance Speech at the Republican National Convention (1964) 30-2 Jimmy Carter, The National Crisis of Confidence (1979) 30-3 Ronald Reagan, Acceptance Speech, Republican National Convention (1980) The Dawning of the Conservative Age 30-4 Ronald Reagan, Remarks at the Annual Convention of the National Association of Evangelicals (1983) 30-5 Creationism, the Public Schools, and the First Amendment, Edwards v. Aguillard (1987) 30-6 George Gilder, Wealth and Poverty (1981) 30-7 Jonathan Kozol, Rachel and Her Children (1988) The End of the Cold War 30-8 Ronald Reagan, Mr. Gorbachev, Tear Down This Wall (1987) 30-9 Francis Fukuyama, The End of History (1989) 30-10 Samuel P. Huntington, The Clash of Civilizations? (1993) 30-11 George H. W. Bush, Iraqi Aggression in Kuwait (1990) 30-12 David Maraniss, University Students Reflect on the Gulf War (1991)
Chapter 31. National Dilemmas in a Global Economy, 1989-2011
America in the Global Economy 31-1 Anthony Giddens, Globalization (1999) 31-2 Bill Gates, Friction-Free Capitalism (1995) Politics and Partisanship in a New Era 31-3 William Jefferson Clinton, Speech at Mason Temple (1993) 31-4 Proposition 187 (1994) 31-5 Contract with America (1994) Into a New Century 31-6 Stephen Goldsmith, What Compassionate Conservatism Is--and Is Not (2000) 31-7 U.S. National Security Strategy (2002) 31-8 Osama bin Laden, The Two Towers of Lebanon (2004) 31-9 Barrack Obama, This Crisis Is Largely of Our Own Making (2009)