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Now in its second edition, this classic compendium offers practical advice for anyone interested in science and how it is done. Based on his extensive experience both as a researcher and a research mentor Ivan Valieias lively survey captures the essentials of working in science. Starting with history and basic principles and moving toward current practice, the chapters cover the range of activities involved in doing science, from formulating questions and designing experiments to collecting and analyzing data. Valiela pays special attention to the effective communication of science, in particular the preparation and presentation of scientific results in papers, posters, and talks
Ivan Valiela is Senior Resident Scientist of the Ecosystems Center at the Marine Biological Laboratory in Woods Hole, Massachusetts.
Table of Contents
|Obtaining Scientific Information||p. 3|
|Empirical Science||p. 5|
|Deductive Science||p. 19|
|Elements of Scientific Data and Tests of Questions||p. 33|
|Kinds of Date||p. 33|
|Accuracyand Precision||p. 36|
|Frequency Distributions||p. 37|
|Descriptive Statistics||p. 40|
|Distributions and Transformations of Data||p. 44|
|Tests of Hypotheses||p. 47|
|Statistical Analyses||p. 53|
|Analysis of Variance||p. 54|
|Analysis of Frequencies||p. 73|
|Summary of Statistical Analyses||p. 74|
|Transformations of Data||p. 76|
|Principles of Research Design||p. 85|
|Desirable Properties of Research Design||p. 85|
|Design of Treatments||p. 86|
|Design of Layout||p. 90|
|Response Design||p. 101|
|Sensible Experimental Design||p. 103|
|Communication of Scientific Information: Writing||p. 107|
|The Matter of Publication||p. 107|
|The Matter of Which Language to Use||p. 112|
|Writing Scientific English||p. 118|
|Communicating Scientific Information: The Scientific Paper||p. 139|
|Organization of a Scientific Paper||p. 139|
|The Life History of a Scientific Paper||p. 150|
|Scientific Papers: Important and Changing||p. 159|
|Other Means of Scientific Communication||p. 163|
|The Scientific Talk||p. 163|
|The Poster Presentation||p. 171|
|The Proposal||p. 174|
|Presenting Data in Tables||p. 187|
|Why Show Data in Tables?||p. 187|
|The Elements of Tables||p. 190|
|Layout of Tables||p. 193|
|Tables That Need Not Be Tables||p. 195|
|Presenting Data in Figures||p. 199|
|Graphical Perception||p. 204|
|Types of Figures||p. 205|
|Principles of Graphical Representation||p. 225|
|Case Studies of Graphical Data Presentation||p. 235|
|Bivariate Graphs||p. 237|
|Three-Variable Graphs||p. 251|
|Bar Graphs||p. 258|
|Pie Diagrams||p. 264|
|Doing Science in Society||p. 275|
|The Profession of Science||p. 275|
|Unbiased and Independent Judgment||p. 275|
|Validity of Facts||p. 278|
|Giving Credit to Others and Sharing Credit||p. 284|
|How Widespread Is Questionable Behavior in Science?||p. 284|
|Perceptions and Criticisms of Science||p. 291|
|Current Perceptions about Science||p. 291|
|Science and Some Modern Critics||p. 308|
|Sharpening Perceptions about Science||p. 312|
|Table of Contents provided by Ingram. All Rights Reserved.|