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Doing Science : Design, Analysis, and Communication of Scientific Research



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Oxford University Press
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  • Doing Science Design, Analysis, and Communication of Scientific Research
    Doing Science Design, Analysis, and Communication of Scientific Research
  • Doing Science Design, Analysis, and Communication of Scientific Research
    Doing Science Design, Analysis, and Communication of Scientific Research


Now in its second edition, this classic compendium offers practical advice for anyone interested in science and how it is done. Based on his extensive experience both as a researcher and a research mentor Ivan Valieias lively survey captures the essentials of working in science. Starting with history and basic principles and moving toward current practice, the chapters cover the range of activities involved in doing science, from formulating questions and designing experiments to collecting and analyzing data. Valiela pays special attention to the effective communication of science, in particular the preparation and presentation of scientific results in papers, posters, and talks

Author Biography

Ivan Valiela is Senior Resident Scientist of the Ecosystems Center at the Marine Biological Laboratory in Woods Hole, Massachusetts.

Table of Contents

Obtaining Scientific Informationp. 3
Introductionp. 3
Empirical Sciencep. 5
Deductive Sciencep. 19
Elements of Scientific Data and Tests of Questionsp. 33
Kinds of Datep. 33
Accuracyand Precisionp. 36
Frequency Distributionsp. 37
Descriptive Statisticsp. 40
Distributions and Transformations of Datap. 44
Tests of Hypothesesp. 47
Statistical Analysesp. 53
Analysis of Variancep. 54
Regressionp. 64
Correlationp. 69
Analysis of Frequenciesp. 73
Summary of Statistical Analysesp. 74
Transformations of Datap. 76
Principles of Research Designp. 85
Desirable Properties of Research Designp. 85
Design of Treatmentsp. 86
Design of Layoutp. 90
Response Designp. 101
Sensible Experimental Designp. 103
Communication of Scientific Information: Writingp. 107
The Matter of Publicationp. 107
The Matter of Which Language to Usep. 112
Writing Scientific Englishp. 118
Communicating Scientific Information: The Scientific Paperp. 139
Organization of a Scientific Paperp. 139
The Life History of a Scientific Paperp. 150
Scientific Papers: Important and Changingp. 159
Other Means of Scientific Communicationp. 163
The Scientific Talkp. 163
The Poster Presentationp. 171
The Proposalp. 174
Presenting Data in Tablesp. 187
Why Show Data in Tables?p. 187
The Elements of Tablesp. 190
Layout of Tablesp. 193
Tables That Need Not Be Tablesp. 195
Presenting Data in Figuresp. 199
Graphical Perceptionp. 204
Types of Figuresp. 205
Principles of Graphical Representationp. 225
Case Studies of Graphical Data Presentationp. 235
Bivariate Graphsp. 237
Three-Variable Graphsp. 251
Histogramsp. 253
Bar Graphsp. 258
Pie Diagramsp. 264
Doing Science in Societyp. 275
The Profession of Sciencep. 275
Unbiased and Independent Judgmentp. 275
Validity of Factsp. 278
Giving Credit to Others and Sharing Creditp. 284
How Widespread Is Questionable Behavior in Science?p. 284
Perceptions and Criticisms of Sciencep. 291
Current Perceptions about Sciencep. 291
Science and Some Modern Criticsp. 308
Sharpening Perceptions about Sciencep. 312
Indexp. 323
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