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# Dosage Calculations (Book Only)

**by**Pickar, Gloria D.; Pickar-Abernethy, Amy

9th

### 9781111319595

1111319596

Paperback

1/1/2012

Delmar Cengage Learning

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What version or edition is this?

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## Summary

Best-selling DOSAGE CALCULATIONS, 9th Edition features a three-step approach to basic and advanced Formula Method calculations, along with a reader-friendly writing style, thorough math review, handy "work text" format, and instructor tools on CD-ROM.

## Table of Contents

Preface | p. vi |

Acknowledgments | p. xi |

Introduction to the Learner | p. xii |

Using This Book | p. xiii |

Pretest and Mathematics Review | p. 1 |

Essential Skills Evaluation: Pretest | p. 3 |

Essential Skills Evaluation: Pretest Answer Sheet | p. 21 |

Mathematics Diagnostic Evaluation | p. 28 |

Fractions and Decimals | p. 31 |

Fractions | p. 31 |

Types of Fractions | p. 32 |

Equivalent Fractions | p. 33 |

Conversion | p. 34 |

Comparing Fractions | p. 35 |

Addition and Subtraction of Fractions | p. 38 |

Multiplication of Fractions | p. 41 |

Division of Fractions | p. 43 |

Decimals | p. 47 |

Decimal Fractions and Decimal Numbers | p. 47 |

Comparing Decimals | p. 50 |

Conversion between Fractions and Decimals | p. 51 |

Addition and Subtraction of Decimals | p. 54 |

Multiplying Decimals | p. 56 |

Dividing Decimals | p. 57 |

Rounding Decimals | p. 58 |

Ratios, Percents, Simple Equations, and Ratio-Proportion | p. 63 |

Ratios and Percents | p. 64 |

Ratios | p. 64 |

Percents | p. 64 |

Converting Among Ratios, Percents, Fractions, and Decimals | p. 64 |

Comparing Percents and Ratios | p. 66 |

Solving Simple Equations for X | p. 68 |

Ratio-Proportion: Cross-Multiplying to Solve for X | p. 72 |

Finding the Percentage of a Quantity | p. 76 |

Self-Evaluation | p. 80 |

Measurement Systems, Drug Orders, and Drug Labels | p. 83 |

Systems of Measurement | p. 85 |

Metric System | p. 85 |

Apothecary and Household Systems | p. 89 |

Other Common Drug Measurements: Units and Milliequivalents | p. 91 |

Conversions: Metric and Household Systems | p. 97 |

Identifying Need for Unit Conversion | p. 98 |

Converting from One Unit to Another Using the Conversion Factor Method | p. 99 |

Converting within the Metric System | p. 100 |

Approximate Equivalents | p. 105 |

Converting Between Systems of Measurement Using the Conversion Factor Method | p. 105 |

Conversions for Other Clinical Applications: Time and Temperature | p. 113 |

Converting Between Traditional and International Time | p. 113 |

Converting Between Celsius and Fahrenheit Temperature | p. 116 |

Equipment Used in Dosage Measurement | p. 123 |

Oral Administration | p. 123 |

Medicine Cup | p. 123 |

Calibrated Dropper | p. 124 |

Pediatric Oral Devices | p. 125 |

Parenteral Administration | p. 125 |

3 mL Syringe | p. 125 |

Prefilled Single-Dose Syringe | p. 126 |

Insulin Syringe | p. 127 |

1 mL Syringe | p. 128 |

Safety Syringe | p. 128 |

Intravenous Syringe | p. 129 |

Needleless Syringe | p. 130 |

Interpreting Drug Orders | p. 141 |

Medical Abbreviations | p. 142 |

The Drug Order | p. 143 |

Medication Order and Administration Forms | p. 146 |

Computerized Medication Administration Systems | p. 148 |

Understanding Drug Labels | p. 157 |

Brand and Generic Names | p. 158 |

Dosage Strength | p. 158 |

Form | p. 159 |

Supply Dosage | p. 160 |

Total Volume | p. 160 |

Administration Route | p. 161 |

Directions for Mixing or Reconstituting | p. 161 |

Label Alerts | p. 162 |

Name of the Manufacturer | p. 162 |

Expiration Date | p. 163 |

Lot or Control Numbers | p. 163 |

National Drug Code (NDC) | p. 163 |

Controlled Substance Schedule | p. 164 |

Barcode Symbols | p. 164 |

United States Pharmacopeia (USP) and National Formulary (NF) | p. 164 |

Unit- or Single-Dose Labels | p. 164 |

Combination Drugs | p. 165 |

Supply Dosage Expressed as a Ratio or Percent | p. 165 |

Checking Labels | p. 166 |

Preventing Medication Errors | p. 177 |

Prescription | p. 178 |

Verbal Orders | p. 180 |

Transcription | p. 180 |

Safe Medication Administration | p. 185 |

Right Patient | p. 185 |

Right Drug | p. 185 |

Right Amount | p. 188 |

Right Route | p. 190 |

Right Time | p. 191 |

Right Documentation | p. 191 |

The Nurse's Critical Role in Medication Error Prevention | p. 191 |

Self-Evaluation | p. 199 |

Drug Dosage Calculations | p. 205 |

Oral Dosage of Drugs | p. 207 |

Tablets and Capsules | p. 210 |

Three-Step Approach to Dosage Calculations | p. 213 |

Oral Liquids | p. 227 |

Parenteral Dosage of Drugs | p. 255 |

Injectable Solutions | p. 256 |

High-Alert Parenteral Medications | p. 276 |

Heparin | p. 277 |

Insulin | p. 281 |

Insulin Labels | p. 281 |

Insulin Action Times | p. 282 |

Premixed, Combination Insulin | p. 284 |

Interpreting the Insulin Order | p. 285 |

Insulin Administration | p. 285 |

Measuring Insulin in an Insulin Syringe | p. 286 |

Combination Insulin Dosage | p. 290 |

Insulin Coverage-The "Sliding Scale" | p. 294 |

Prefilled U-100 Insulin Pens | p. 295 |

U-500 Insulin | p. 298 |

Avoiding Insulin Dosage Errors | p. 302 |

Reconstitution of Solutions | p. 321 |

Solution Properties | p. 322 |

Reconstitution of Injectable Medications in Powder Form | p. 323 |

Types of Reconstituted Parenteral Solutions | p. 325 |

Single-Strength Solution | p. 326 |

Multiple-Strength Solution | p. 328 |

Reconstituted Parenteral Solutions with Various Routes | p. 332 |

Drugs with Injection Reconstitution Instructions for Either IM or IV | p. 332 |

Drugs with Different IM and IV Reconstitution Instructions | p. 334 |

Drugs with Instructions to "See Package Insert" for Dilution and Administration | p. 337 |

Reconstitution of Noninjectable Solutions | p. 351 |

Solution Concentration | p. 351 |

Calculating Solutions | p. 352 |

Topical Solutions and Irrigants | p. 352 |

Oral and Enteral Feedings | p. 354 |

Diluting Ready-to-Use Nutritional Liquids | p. 354 |

Pediatric and Adult Dosages Based on Body Weight | p. 367 |

Administering Medications to Children | p. 368 |

Converting Pounds to Kilograms | p. 368 |

Body Weight Method for Calculating Safe Pediatric Dosage | p. 369 |

Single-Dosage Drugs | p. 370 |

Single-Dosage-Range Drugs | p. 371 |

Routine or Round-the-Clock Drugs | p. 372 |

Daily-Dosage-Range Drugs | p. 373 |

Daily-Dosage-Range Drugs with Maximum Daily Allowance | p. 374 |

Underdosage | p. 375 |

Combination Drugs | p. 376 |

Adult Dosages Based on Body Weight | p. 378 |

Alternative Dosage Calculation Methods: Ratio-Proportion and Dimensional Analysis | p. 399 |

Converting Using the Ratio-Proportion Method | p. 400 |

Using Ratio-Proportion to Calculate Dosages | p. 402 |

Using Dimensional Analysis to Calculate Dosages | p. 406 |

Self-Evaluation | p. 423 |

Advanced Calculations | p. 437 |

Intravenous Solutions, Equipment, and Calculations | p. 439 |

IV Solutions | p. 440 |

Solutions Components | p. 440 |

Solution Strength | p. 440 |

Solution Additives | p. 443 |

Calculating Components of IV Solutions When Expressed as a Percent | p. 446 |

IV Sites | p. 447 |

Monitoring IVs | p. 448 |

Primary and Secondary IVs | p. 448 |

Blood Administration Tubing | p. 450 |

IV Flow Rate | p. 450 |

Electronically-Regulated IVs | p. 450 |

Calculating Flow Rates for Infusion Pumps in mL/h | p. 456 |

Manually-Regulated IVs | p. 458 |

Calculating Flow Rates for Manually-Regulated IVs in gtt/min | p. 461 |

Formula Method | p. 461 |

Shortcut Method | p. 464 |

Adjusting IV Flow Rate | p. 468 |

Intermittent IV Infusions | p. 474 |

IV Piggybacks | p. 474 |

Saline and Heparin IV Locks for IV Push Drugs | p. 475 |

ADD-Vantage System | p. 477 |

Calculating IV Infusion Time and Volume | p. 480 |

Body Surface Area and Advanced Pediatric Calculations | p. 489 |

Body Surface Area Method | p. 490 |

BSA Formula | p. 490 |

BSA Nomogram | p. 491 |

BSA Dosage Calculations | p. 494 |

Pediatric Volume Control Sets | p. 497 |

Intermittent IV Medication Infusion via Volume Control Set | p. 498 |

Minimal Dilutions for IV Medications | p. 501 |

Calculation of Daily Volume for Maintenance Fluids | p. 503 |

Advanced Adult Intravenous Calculations | p. 513 |

Calculating IV Dosages and Flow Rates Using Clinical Protocols | p. 514 |

IV Heparin Protocol | p. 515 |

IV Insulin Protocol | p. 523 |

Insulin Overdose | p. 527 |

Critical Care IV Calculations: Calculating Flow Rate of an IV Medication to Be Given over a Specified Time Period | p. 530 |

IV Medication Ordered per Minute | p. 530 |

IV Medication Ordered per Kilogram per Minute | p. 532 |

Titrating IV Drugs | p. 532 |

Verifying Safe IV Medication Dosage Recommended per Minute | p. 534 |

Limiting Infusion Volumes | p. 538 |

Self-Evaluation | p. 549 |

Essential Skills Evaluation: Posttest Answer Sheet | p. 557 |

Comprehensive Skills Evaluation | p. 565 |

Answers | p. 581 |

Essential Skills Evaluation | p. 581 |

Mathematics Diagnostic Evaluation | p. 587 |

Chapter 1 | p. 588 |

Chapter 2 | p. 591 |

Chapter 3 | p. 594 |

Chapter 4 | p. 595 |

Chapter 5 | p. 597 |

Chapter 6 | p. 597 |

Chapter 7 | p. 601 |

Chapter 8 | p. 602 |

Chapter 9 | p. 603 |

Chapter 10 | p. 605 |

Chapter 11 | p. 612 |

Chapter 12 | p. 625 |

Chapter 13 | p. 633 |

Chapter 14 | p. 639 |

Chapter 15 | p. 647 |

Chapter 16 | p. 655 |

Chapter 17 | p. 660 |

Comprehensive Skills Evaluation | p. 670 |

Study Guide | p. 677 |

Apothecary System | p. 687 |

Index | p. 689 |

Drug Label Index | p. 697 |

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