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Preface | p. vi |
Acknowledgments | p. xi |
Introduction to the Learner | p. xii |
Using This Book | p. xiii |
Pretest and Mathematics Review | p. 1 |
Essential Skills Evaluation: Pretest | p. 3 |
Essential Skills Evaluation: Pretest Answer Sheet | p. 21 |
Mathematics Diagnostic Evaluation | p. 28 |
Fractions and Decimals | p. 31 |
Fractions | p. 31 |
Types of Fractions | p. 32 |
Equivalent Fractions | p. 33 |
Conversion | p. 34 |
Comparing Fractions | p. 35 |
Addition and Subtraction of Fractions | p. 38 |
Multiplication of Fractions | p. 41 |
Division of Fractions | p. 43 |
Decimals | p. 47 |
Decimal Fractions and Decimal Numbers | p. 47 |
Comparing Decimals | p. 50 |
Conversion between Fractions and Decimals | p. 51 |
Addition and Subtraction of Decimals | p. 54 |
Multiplying Decimals | p. 56 |
Dividing Decimals | p. 57 |
Rounding Decimals | p. 58 |
Ratios, Percents, Simple Equations, and Ratio-Proportion | p. 63 |
Ratios and Percents | p. 64 |
Ratios | p. 64 |
Percents | p. 64 |
Converting Among Ratios, Percents, Fractions, and Decimals | p. 64 |
Comparing Percents and Ratios | p. 66 |
Solving Simple Equations for X | p. 68 |
Ratio-Proportion: Cross-Multiplying to Solve for X | p. 72 |
Finding the Percentage of a Quantity | p. 76 |
Self-Evaluation | p. 80 |
Measurement Systems, Drug Orders, and Drug Labels | p. 83 |
Systems of Measurement | p. 85 |
Metric System | p. 85 |
Apothecary and Household Systems | p. 89 |
Other Common Drug Measurements: Units and Milliequivalents | p. 91 |
Conversions: Metric and Household Systems | p. 97 |
Identifying Need for Unit Conversion | p. 98 |
Converting from One Unit to Another Using the Conversion Factor Method | p. 99 |
Converting within the Metric System | p. 100 |
Approximate Equivalents | p. 105 |
Converting Between Systems of Measurement Using the Conversion Factor Method | p. 105 |
Conversions for Other Clinical Applications: Time and Temperature | p. 113 |
Converting Between Traditional and International Time | p. 113 |
Converting Between Celsius and Fahrenheit Temperature | p. 116 |
Equipment Used in Dosage Measurement | p. 123 |
Oral Administration | p. 123 |
Medicine Cup | p. 123 |
Calibrated Dropper | p. 124 |
Pediatric Oral Devices | p. 125 |
Parenteral Administration | p. 125 |
3 mL Syringe | p. 125 |
Prefilled Single-Dose Syringe | p. 126 |
Insulin Syringe | p. 127 |
1 mL Syringe | p. 128 |
Safety Syringe | p. 128 |
Intravenous Syringe | p. 129 |
Needleless Syringe | p. 130 |
Interpreting Drug Orders | p. 141 |
Medical Abbreviations | p. 142 |
The Drug Order | p. 143 |
Medication Order and Administration Forms | p. 146 |
Computerized Medication Administration Systems | p. 148 |
Understanding Drug Labels | p. 157 |
Brand and Generic Names | p. 158 |
Dosage Strength | p. 158 |
Form | p. 159 |
Supply Dosage | p. 160 |
Total Volume | p. 160 |
Administration Route | p. 161 |
Directions for Mixing or Reconstituting | p. 161 |
Label Alerts | p. 162 |
Name of the Manufacturer | p. 162 |
Expiration Date | p. 163 |
Lot or Control Numbers | p. 163 |
National Drug Code (NDC) | p. 163 |
Controlled Substance Schedule | p. 164 |
Barcode Symbols | p. 164 |
United States Pharmacopeia (USP) and National Formulary (NF) | p. 164 |
Unit- or Single-Dose Labels | p. 164 |
Combination Drugs | p. 165 |
Supply Dosage Expressed as a Ratio or Percent | p. 165 |
Checking Labels | p. 166 |
Preventing Medication Errors | p. 177 |
Prescription | p. 178 |
Verbal Orders | p. 180 |
Transcription | p. 180 |
Safe Medication Administration | p. 185 |
Right Patient | p. 185 |
Right Drug | p. 185 |
Right Amount | p. 188 |
Right Route | p. 190 |
Right Time | p. 191 |
Right Documentation | p. 191 |
The Nurse's Critical Role in Medication Error Prevention | p. 191 |
Self-Evaluation | p. 199 |
Drug Dosage Calculations | p. 205 |
Oral Dosage of Drugs | p. 207 |
Tablets and Capsules | p. 210 |
Three-Step Approach to Dosage Calculations | p. 213 |
Oral Liquids | p. 227 |
Parenteral Dosage of Drugs | p. 255 |
Injectable Solutions | p. 256 |
High-Alert Parenteral Medications | p. 276 |
Heparin | p. 277 |
Insulin | p. 281 |
Insulin Labels | p. 281 |
Insulin Action Times | p. 282 |
Premixed, Combination Insulin | p. 284 |
Interpreting the Insulin Order | p. 285 |
Insulin Administration | p. 285 |
Measuring Insulin in an Insulin Syringe | p. 286 |
Combination Insulin Dosage | p. 290 |
Insulin Coverage-The "Sliding Scale" | p. 294 |
Prefilled U-100 Insulin Pens | p. 295 |
U-500 Insulin | p. 298 |
Avoiding Insulin Dosage Errors | p. 302 |
Reconstitution of Solutions | p. 321 |
Solution Properties | p. 322 |
Reconstitution of Injectable Medications in Powder Form | p. 323 |
Types of Reconstituted Parenteral Solutions | p. 325 |
Single-Strength Solution | p. 326 |
Multiple-Strength Solution | p. 328 |
Reconstituted Parenteral Solutions with Various Routes | p. 332 |
Drugs with Injection Reconstitution Instructions for Either IM or IV | p. 332 |
Drugs with Different IM and IV Reconstitution Instructions | p. 334 |
Drugs with Instructions to "See Package Insert" for Dilution and Administration | p. 337 |
Reconstitution of Noninjectable Solutions | p. 351 |
Solution Concentration | p. 351 |
Calculating Solutions | p. 352 |
Topical Solutions and Irrigants | p. 352 |
Oral and Enteral Feedings | p. 354 |
Diluting Ready-to-Use Nutritional Liquids | p. 354 |
Pediatric and Adult Dosages Based on Body Weight | p. 367 |
Administering Medications to Children | p. 368 |
Converting Pounds to Kilograms | p. 368 |
Body Weight Method for Calculating Safe Pediatric Dosage | p. 369 |
Single-Dosage Drugs | p. 370 |
Single-Dosage-Range Drugs | p. 371 |
Routine or Round-the-Clock Drugs | p. 372 |
Daily-Dosage-Range Drugs | p. 373 |
Daily-Dosage-Range Drugs with Maximum Daily Allowance | p. 374 |
Underdosage | p. 375 |
Combination Drugs | p. 376 |
Adult Dosages Based on Body Weight | p. 378 |
Alternative Dosage Calculation Methods: Ratio-Proportion and Dimensional Analysis | p. 399 |
Converting Using the Ratio-Proportion Method | p. 400 |
Using Ratio-Proportion to Calculate Dosages | p. 402 |
Using Dimensional Analysis to Calculate Dosages | p. 406 |
Self-Evaluation | p. 423 |
Advanced Calculations | p. 437 |
Intravenous Solutions, Equipment, and Calculations | p. 439 |
IV Solutions | p. 440 |
Solutions Components | p. 440 |
Solution Strength | p. 440 |
Solution Additives | p. 443 |
Calculating Components of IV Solutions When Expressed as a Percent | p. 446 |
IV Sites | p. 447 |
Monitoring IVs | p. 448 |
Primary and Secondary IVs | p. 448 |
Blood Administration Tubing | p. 450 |
IV Flow Rate | p. 450 |
Electronically-Regulated IVs | p. 450 |
Calculating Flow Rates for Infusion Pumps in mL/h | p. 456 |
Manually-Regulated IVs | p. 458 |
Calculating Flow Rates for Manually-Regulated IVs in gtt/min | p. 461 |
Formula Method | p. 461 |
Shortcut Method | p. 464 |
Adjusting IV Flow Rate | p. 468 |
Intermittent IV Infusions | p. 474 |
IV Piggybacks | p. 474 |
Saline and Heparin IV Locks for IV Push Drugs | p. 475 |
ADD-Vantage System | p. 477 |
Calculating IV Infusion Time and Volume | p. 480 |
Body Surface Area and Advanced Pediatric Calculations | p. 489 |
Body Surface Area Method | p. 490 |
BSA Formula | p. 490 |
BSA Nomogram | p. 491 |
BSA Dosage Calculations | p. 494 |
Pediatric Volume Control Sets | p. 497 |
Intermittent IV Medication Infusion via Volume Control Set | p. 498 |
Minimal Dilutions for IV Medications | p. 501 |
Calculation of Daily Volume for Maintenance Fluids | p. 503 |
Advanced Adult Intravenous Calculations | p. 513 |
Calculating IV Dosages and Flow Rates Using Clinical Protocols | p. 514 |
IV Heparin Protocol | p. 515 |
IV Insulin Protocol | p. 523 |
Insulin Overdose | p. 527 |
Critical Care IV Calculations: Calculating Flow Rate of an IV Medication to Be Given over a Specified Time Period | p. 530 |
IV Medication Ordered per Minute | p. 530 |
IV Medication Ordered per Kilogram per Minute | p. 532 |
Titrating IV Drugs | p. 532 |
Verifying Safe IV Medication Dosage Recommended per Minute | p. 534 |
Limiting Infusion Volumes | p. 538 |
Self-Evaluation | p. 549 |
Essential Skills Evaluation: Posttest Answer Sheet | p. 557 |
Comprehensive Skills Evaluation | p. 565 |
Answers | p. 581 |
Essential Skills Evaluation | p. 581 |
Mathematics Diagnostic Evaluation | p. 587 |
Chapter 1 | p. 588 |
Chapter 2 | p. 591 |
Chapter 3 | p. 594 |
Chapter 4 | p. 595 |
Chapter 5 | p. 597 |
Chapter 6 | p. 597 |
Chapter 7 | p. 601 |
Chapter 8 | p. 602 |
Chapter 9 | p. 603 |
Chapter 10 | p. 605 |
Chapter 11 | p. 612 |
Chapter 12 | p. 625 |
Chapter 13 | p. 633 |
Chapter 14 | p. 639 |
Chapter 15 | p. 647 |
Chapter 16 | p. 655 |
Chapter 17 | p. 660 |
Comprehensive Skills Evaluation | p. 670 |
Study Guide | p. 677 |
Apothecary System | p. 687 |
Index | p. 689 |
Drug Label Index | p. 697 |
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